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Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Christopher Fogarty & Mary O’Sullivan Fogarty



Copyright © 2014 by Chris Fogarty All rights reserved. 1st U.S. Edition, Chicago, 2014 1st and 2nd Ireland Printings, Dublin, 2015 2nd U.S. Edition, Chicago, 2017 3rd Ireland Printing, Cork, 2018 4th Ireland Edition; Dublin, 2019 1st Australia Edition, 2019 3rd U.S. Edition, Chicago, 2020 4th U.S. Edition (Hardcover), Chicago, 2021 5th U.S. Edition (eBook), 2021 ISBN 978-0-9896106-4-3 Published by: Fogarty Publishing 900 N. Lake Shore Dr.; #1507 Chicago, IL 60611 EMail: [emailprotected] Tel. 312/664-7651 Cell: 312/437-3189 My (YouTube removed it; but it was superseded by this book’s comprehensiveness). This eBook constitutes the 5th U.S. Edition.

Research continues on this concealed genocide. As additional, pertinent data are found they will be added to this eBook.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

A SUGGESTION: HOW TO READ THIS BOOK. This book is unique. It refutes all Irish “famine”/”Gorta Mor” books by revealing: •

The starvation of Ireland was perpetrated by more than half (67 regiments) of Britain’s army totaling 126 regiments and three sub-regimental brigades. It names each regiment and the dates each entered and exited each Irish district. It names Britain’s 58 non-participating regiments and three brigades. See C Exhibits.

Reports of torrents of Irish-produced food being shipped to Britain. See B Exhibits.

Evidence that the landlords were English. See E Exhibits.

Its commander-in-chief’s name, his background, and Queen Victoria’s award to him of an Order of the Bath as he neared Mission Completion.

The locations of each of Ireland’s abundant non-potato food processors. See D Exhibits.

The locations of hundreds of resultant mass graves. See A Exhibits..

If new to this subject you will benefit by reading from beginning to end. If you are informed but still refer to the Irish “famine,” especially as “potato famine” or, worse yet, as “An Gorta Mór ” or “Great Hunger,’ you will benefit by reading from beginning to end. If you know of the at-gunpoint Food Removal and have assimilated its significance to the extent of excising “famine” from your vocabulary regarding Ireland but have been persuaded that it might have been “the rich Irish starving the poor Irish” go straight to the E Exhibits. If you know that it was a genocide perpetrated as British government policy but cannot understand WHY Britain did it, see Exhibit E3, Chapter 1, and Chapters 9 through 12. These Chapters lay out Britain’s centuries-long policies that “normalized” the Holocaust. Exhibit E3 identifies the many landlords who possessed the legislative power to make genocidal laws to their own benefit. We never will


understand the evil that prompted them to enact their laws and order their enforcement.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS To Robert W. Karrow Jr., Curator of Special Collections and Maps, and his conscientious staff including Joy Austria, Dan Fink, and Andy Steadham at the Newberry Library, Chicago. During September and October, 2009, they promptly provided my wife Mary and me with the library’s set of Ordnance Survey Maps of Ireland from which we gleaned crucial data. The same prompt assistance was again available to me in January, 2013 from Curator JoEllen Dickie, Megan Samelson and Bailey Romaine, as well as from Joy Austria and Dan Fink, again. These maps are a treasure; the brilliant work of British army surveyors, map-makers and engravers, who, as British policy of dubious intent, began surveying in 1830 (in Derry) and worked southward until completing the survey of the entire island in Kerry in 1842. The map engravers’ work was completed as late as July, 1845. These maps, in addition to their military and taxation uses, show the precise locations of all of Ireland’s grain-mills and -kilns, flour mills, breweries, distilleries, woolen mills and livestock pounds. These comprise indisputable evidence of the extent of non-potato agriculture, thus demolishing the “potato famine” lie that is promoted to this day. The grain-kilns and –mills shown on the map in north Co. Galway were still operating, I observed, in 1946 and later.1 To the helpful staff of Britain’s Public Record Office (now National Archives), in Kew, Surrey, England. My research there began in 1966 and continued sporadically. Its Disposition of the Army records are the data that yielded the “smoking gun” map of 1845-1850 that shows which British regiment stripped the edibles from which Irish district. To the helpful librarians in the Castlerea and Roscommon town libraries for their kind assistance and information. To Thomas Egan (now R.I.P.), of Ballyglass, Ballymoe, Co. Galway who, with a copy of my Mass Graves of Ireland pamphlet in his hand as he halted me in Castlerea one day in 1999, informed me of the


approximate location of a mass grave as told him by his father some 70 years earlier. He thus led me to grasp the enormous scandal of the still-whispered-about Holocaust mass graves of 1845-1850 that dot Ireland. He also acquired the needed Co. Council permit to install on the Ballymoe-Glennamaddy roadside the granite memorial to the murdered village of Lisnabinnia. The memorial is in Ballyglass, Ballymoe, Co. Galway. The field behind it was the site of most of Lisnabinnia village. To Tom Fahy, Instructor at Coláiste Seosaimh, Glennamaddy, Co. Galway. It was he who suggested that I visit the Ordnance Survey Offices in Phoenix Park, Dublin where I acquired a pre-Holocaust map that shows Lisnabinnia village (see Exhibit A3). There being no other houses shown nearby, it had to be the source of the bodies in the mass grave. Not knowing then the precise location of its mass grave we installed the roadside memorial to Lisnabinnia mentioned above (see Exhibit A4). To Margaret Flanagan Tormey (R.I.P.) who pointed out the precise location of the Lisnabinnia mass grave. It is in what was her father Jim Flanagan’s distant-most field. About 1910 during his first spring as owner of that erstwhile landlord’s land, he chose his aptest field for tillage, a “bog garden” (friable soil), to sow his root crops and, later, oats. His plow promptly hit many human remains, so he stopped and chose a different, less-easily-worked field for tillage and never again plowed that field. To this day it has never been tilled. Margaret and her sister Kathleen remember saving hay in that field in summertimes in the 1940s and 1950s. Today, on the Kilcooley/Ballyglass mering fence beside that mass grave an engraved stone commemorates Lisnabinnia’s dead (see Exhibit A3 map, and Exhibit A4 photographs). This mass grave is not a single trench that was dug forward as piles of bodies filled it. Being that of a single village it was of single bodies to single families in each grave. The graves are clustered near one another just paces north of the marker.

To Kathleen Flanagan Kerlin who provided the affidavit (Exhibit A5) regarding that mass grave’s location. 8

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” To Historian Malachy Towey, Mike Costello, old school pal Johnny Croghan (R.I.P.), Marist Brother Enda, John Colgan, Marion McPhail, Maisie Mallon, John O’Malley, Judge Brian Duff, Jim Smith, Myles Goddard, Hal Burke, Judge John Nolan, Jeff Edie, Tony Lucey, Donor Shay McShane, honest writer Harolyn Enis, boon construction buddy and fellow engineering student in 1950s Chicago Vince Walsh (now, alas, R.I.P.), and so many others who, for the past few years, have been asking when this book will be completed; my appreciation and apologies. To Cecil Woodham-Smith, William Cobbett, Gustave de Beaumont, Fintan Lalor, John Mitchel, Thomas Davis, Jonathan Swift, Henry Carey, Human Rights Advocate John Pilger and opponents of genocide everywhere. To talented Jim Feeney and John Burger for my original map page graphics and, more than a decade later, its near-final assembly, to helpful computer experts Pat Flynn and his son Michael, to Garret Jennings, and to computer graphics expert Dan Whelan for part of crucial page sizing, pagination, map adaptation and the beginning of the cover; to Padraig “Patrick” O’Hara who, indispensably, created software for both this book’s index and its grid maps of Donegal & Sligo. Also to Bill Funchion for his careful proof-reading, and to Kevin Riley for his calm expertise when it was vitally needed. To Austin Cregan of Holy Cross, Bruff, Co. Limerick for permission to use his work including compilation of 1800-1803 Limerick Chronicle newspaper reports of the policy of enforced tithing and some of its consequences. To Seán McKenna for providing evidence, in November, 2011, the first I’d seen, of some Non-Catholic victims of that Holocaust. Where I was raised near the Roscommon/Galway border, “Protestant,” “English,” and “landlord” were essentially synonyms regarding Ireland within living memory. Confirmation that most of Ireland’s land was “owned” by Englishmen was established when the British government bought them out, repatriated them to England, and


redistributed the land to its rightful owners. This conflation of landlord/English/Protestant was the norm wherever I’d traveled in the 26-Counties; a conflation proven essentially accurate by, inter alia, Samuel Lewis’ 3-Vol., A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland regarding that time. Consequently McKenna’s information is important though it relates to only two workhouses in counties where the sheer number of Non-Catholics precluded the possibility of all being genocidists. Christine Kinealy had referred to the starvation deaths of Ulster Protestants but she had destroyed her own credibility by ridiculing, in print, the very idea that food was shipped out of Ireland while its people starved.2 Castlerea’s amateur historian repeatedly told me that its workhouse’s thousands had once included a Protestant, but never provided evidence of it. But McKenna steered me to the Ballymena (Co. Antrim) and Magherafelt (Co. Derry) workhouse records of which partial lists show, respectively, a Non-Catholic majority and a significant minority of Non-Catholics. These two workhouses contrast starkly with records of 26-County workhouses whose inmates were all, or essentially all, Catholic. To Paddy Heaney, Pat Muldowney, Jack Lane (who also authored this book’s Chapter 6), Philip O’Connor and other authors of the book Coolacrease who set a modern standard for integrity against the Big Lie machinery of British-controlled sections of Ireland’s government. Coolacrease exposed Ireland’s State-Owned TV station, Radio Telefis Ēireann (RTE), and its Hidden History, a grossly false “documentary” film version of incidents in 1921 on the western foot of Slieve Bloom, Co. Offaly during the nation’s War of Independence, in such a way as to delegitimize the nation itself as well as its founding. The film also slandered those who had so valiantly achieved Ireland’s partial freedom as well as Land Commission officials of the day.

Rebuffed in all attempts to insert some core truths into the film while it was being produced, individuals fully informed on the incident decided to attempt to correct the record that RTE had so grievously falsified. They wrote Coolacrease which recounts the actual events in 10

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” and around Coolacrease in 1921. It also presents the transcript of RTE’s history-falsifying film and refutes every one of its main points. It proves that the “documentary” makers’claim to have used official documents was fraudulent; proof being the actual documents and the data thereon. It demolished all of Hidden History’s significant falsehoods by use of official 1921 records of the IRA, British army, Land Commission, “Irish Grants Committee,” etc., to a total of fiftynine such official records. May Ireland always have individuals like the authors of Coolacrease. Their integrity inspired me to complete my similar refutation of those still covering up the Food Removal. The Food Removal created the 1845-1850 Holocaust-by-starvation. The Food Removal demolishes the Big Lie of “potato famine” we were all taught. The Food Removal also demolishes the newer, fallback lie of “the rich Irish starving the poor Irish.” The lie that Ireland’s rich (its landlords) were Irish is forever refuted by their repatriation en masse to England by the British government, mostly between 1900 and 1910. To my mother, Anne Finnegan Fogarty (R.I.P.) who, during our first few months in Ireland in 1946 in her Castletogher birthplace, would speak in lowered, tender tones when referring to “Connolly’s gardeneens,” an area across the Kilsallagh river in the bog where evictees once tried to survive. One such survivor was Patrick “Moscow” Finnegan who, as a new-born in his cradle during the 1879-1881 land war, was set outside onto the manure heap by soldiers who were evicting his parents and siblings. By 1946 “Moscow” was an erect, grey-haired man who would rattle past my grandparents’ farmhouse in his steel-tired cart and dappled gray. He was then owner/occupier of the land from which the local (Catholic!) landlord had once evicted him and his family. In 1946 the local farmers in their carts going to their turf banks used to respect the evictees’ memories by, after fording the river and entering the bog, making a 90 degree right turn toward their turf banks only after passing the nine-inch or so high remains of one of the evictees’ turf-sod dwellings of Connollys’ Gardeneens. As the height of those soft walls had


presented no significant obstacle to carts, I suspected that the remains of that dwelling included its occupants’ remains. Thus, about ten years ago Mary, my cousin Jimmie Finnegan, and I visited that site. I’d brought a shovel to find any such remains for which to arrange a Christian burial. Perhaps it is due to tractors having replaced carts or to the passage of time, but no dwelling outline was visible and the 90 degree turn had been abandoned. To my father, Christopher Sr, (R.I.P.) who, at twenty-one years of age when his father Kieran (1839-1923) died, had learned from him of the eviction of his ancestors “before 1900” and of having “shoveled gold in Australia” as a British soldier. That information enabled me to find evidence of that eviction, in 1836, by British Lord Ashbrook from their tenancy in Ballykealy, Durrow, Co. Laois. The family was allowed to build a scealp (shelter) at Ashbrook’s gallows uphill of Durrow village. In that shelter, on July 16, 1839, Kieran, my grandfather, was born. After a few years of peril on Gallows Hill the family managed to move into a house down the hill into Durrow and around the corner on Chapel Street. They survived the Holocaust, and at eighteen Kieran walked to Abbeyleix where he “took the Queen’s shilling” (joined her army) on which pay his remaining family survived. Later, his sister Sera “Sally,” collapsed and died en route to Durrow’s post office where Kieran’s wages would arrive. While in Australia, Kieran escorted gold nuggets and dust from the Bendigo and Ballarat mines into the gold room in Melbourne3 where he may well have neatened up the pile with a shovel. Kieran and his 40th regiment of foot, and a few other regiments, removed a total of 21,142,857 oz. of Australian gold4 ($23.257 billion at $1100/oz.). To my wife Mary who worked side by side with me in London and Newberry Library for three months, and then continued at home collating what we had gathered. Words cannot express my love and respect for, and gratitude to, her.

To the murdered millions. Due to the absence of other truth-tellers, this work is an attempt to be their voice. They are vindicated by this, the first published identification of all of the military forces who 12

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” murdered them by removing their abundant food crops at-gunpoint. (My “Mass Graves…” pamphlet followed by my did not include details of the food removing militias, of the coast guard, Revenue Police, Castle Police, etc.) The murdered millions, having found no justice while they lived, and the subjects of vicious slander in death, it is especially to them that this work is sympathetically dedicated.


FOREWORD “The Anglo-American publishing establishment will still kill any book that tells the truth about the starvation of Ireland;” John Pilger, at Doolough, Co. Mayo, 1997.

The primary purpose of this book is to be a voice for the millions murdered in the “Perfect Holocaust,” one of the gravest crimes of all time. Its secondary purpose is to reveal how and by whom, for all these years, it was kept “perfect” (in the sense of the “perfect” crime). Thus, it demolishes essentially all “Irish Famine” books written since Michael Davitt’s in 1904. The key facts presented in this book are from primary sources and can be studied in its footnotes, exhibits, and endnotes. While it is vital that governments cease their policies of genocide, they are unlikely to stop while we, in effect, encourage genocides by acquiescing to the cover-up of earlier ones (and current ones). In matters of life and death, the truth is supremely important to the public, thus this book excludes the “death-struggle-p*rn” found in all “Irish Famine” books - the seemingly sympathetic eyewitnesses to suffering and death such as the Rev. Hake Tuke who didn’t seem to notice the Food Removal. It is an immense tragedy that the one writer of our time (Cecil Woodham-Smith) who did report instances of violent Food Removal (see Bibliography) and did name some of the perpetrating regiments, was constrained to bury those incriminating facts under many falsehoods; e.g. “No grain crops in Sligo or Mayo!” “Holocaust” usage in this book is based upon historical precedence. In addition to what is shown under “Holocaust” in this book’s glossary, please note the following excerpts showing Holocaust usage in the Cork Examiner newspaper. Headlines are underlined. 04May1846: Landlord and Tenant Holocaust (other text not given) 07Aug1846: The Whigs Landlordism is this moment all rampant, and all powerful for evil, and sacrifices its victims in holocausts. Individual rights is omnipotent, social


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” wrong universal in Galway. We are told that the celebrated Mr. Gerard is again exercising… 22Jan1847:

The Speech. “…holocausts laid at your (unk). Shall men be dimmed to death for no crime, and then receive posthumous immortality for their patience? “ Deaths in Bantry. Each day, each hour produces its own victim, Holocausts offered at the shrine of political economy. 25Jan1847: The Close of the Workhouse the holocaust, as the writer powerfully exposed it, offered at the shrine of political economy. 17Sept1847 The Holy Cross Demonstration……sanctified, and the world and the world’s laws went on as if there were no tenant martyrology written in red – as if no peasant holocaust had ever smoked upon Tipperary altars? We have said this much because the Evening Mail and its Correspondent are loudly… 01Oct1847: Banquet to John Reynolds, Esq., M.P. in the Rotundo...We behold one million of our people – yes, one million of them have been offered up a holocaust to the accursed union (hear, hear) and possibly the lives of two million more may be offered in the present year that… 03Jan1848: Town Council – Saturday Yes, million and a half of Irish people perished, were smitten and offered up a holocaust, whose blood ascends to throne of God for redress… 19Nov1855: The Ministry …add to the Holocaust. All who assimilate the data presented in this book and who value truth more than the “respectability” that accrues to parroters of, or acquiescers to, established lies, will excise forever the cover-up phrases “potato famine,” “Great Hunger”/”Gorta Mór ,” “An Draochshaol” and “famine” itself from their vocabulary regarding


1845-50 Ireland. By their words ye shall know them. Henceforth, regarding Ireland, such labels will reveal the utterer as either uninformed, willfully ignorant, or complicit in the cover-up. And the use of the Irish translations of these cover-up words merely reveals the user as an even more cunning falsifier of history. By learning how and by whom Ireland’s Holocaust was perpetrated the reader will know how obscenely false the “famine” story has been, and thus can become an active supporter of the truth. This book supersedes my Mass Graves of Ireland: 1845-1850. It especially corrects to sixty-seven the number of British army regiments removing Ireland’s edibles. See the C Exhibits, especially C2. At the Doolough-to-Louisburgh (Co. Mayo) “Famine” walk in 1997 that Mary and I attended (partly to distribute my MASS GRAVES OF IRELAND; 1845-1850 pamphlet), a woman introduced herself as Prof. Christine Kinealy and asked if we would assist the U.S. promoters of her new “Famine” book. We immediately responded affirmatively and I followed up with; “But your book does identify all of the British regiments that removed the food; doesn’t it.” When Kinealy answered “No,” I asked; “But why would you bother adding to the piles of cover-up books?” She was opening her mouth to answer when a voice boomed out; “John: when will you write the book we are all waiting for?” “John” replied; “It’s too soon; the Anglo-American publishing establishment will still kill any book that tells the truth about the starvation of Ireland.” Along the walk to Louisburgh I learned that “John” is Australian-born John Pilger, the internationally respected human rights advocate. I was already familiar with his work and had some of his books in my library. Yet, his opinion that it was still too soon for a truth-telling book about 1845-50 Ireland seemed extreme, unlikely. At that time I was unaware as to how well-funded and –organized are the promoters of the “Famine”/“Gorta Mór” lie. To date, every seminar or officiallypromoted discussion of the starvation of Ireland omits its direct cause – the Food Removal. If this book fulfills its purpose it will de-


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” disinform so many that the cover-up artists will no longer have a market and will be shamed into silence, people will know that their relatives were murdered and did not die of “terminal stupidity by growing only one failure-prone crop;” that they did not “fall into a lethal trap of their own making;” and reverent, truth-telling memorials will be erected over all of Ireland’s Holocaust mass graves still so pointedly ignored and misrepresented.


INTRODUCTION This book has been percolating since early 1946 when my uncle Martin Finnegan and his neighbors used to avoid running their horsesand asses-and-carts over the low remains of the peat walls of shelters made by evictees. They were located in the bog across the river from Castletogher, Williamstown, County Galway. My mother would refer to that little area of desperate refuge as “Connolly’s gardeneens.” In 1946 rural Connacht the agricultural tools of a century earlier were still in use, all but the reaping hook, which had been supplanted for grain crops by the scythe. Ridges were still in use by us and all of our neighbors when I left Ireland at the end of the 1953 harvest and threshing. Everyone saved grain crops by scythe, “taking out” and tying sheaves, which at the end of each day were built into stooks to dry; each stook comprised of eight sheaves butt ends on the ground and capped by two sheaves butt ends up and tied together. A week or two later the dried stooks were forked onto carts and brought into the haggard where the sheaves were built into stacks awaiting the thresher. My Uncle Martin would take us to Mass on his horse-drawn side-car, the same horse with which he ploughed and mowed meadows “in co” with neighboring horse-owner Mike Noone. My uncle’s next door neighbors, “Pack” and John Geraghty with a holding too small to render a horse economically viable, spent the winter “turning” their tillage land by loy (sort of spade). They also threshed their grain by flail and winnowed the resultant grain by opening both back and front doors of their kitchen on a windy day and casting the grain into the air. The grain fell onto a bed-sheet on the floor while the wind blew the chaff toward the downwind door. My Aunt Bridget’s husband “Prince” Burke mowed his meadows by scythe, leaving the ground like a billiard table. He and his entire family used to walk by our house with their ass and cart to and from their conacre crops on Coneran’s land in Turlough. I’ll never forget my wild joy when the Geraghtys gave me an ass foal dropped by their Bess. A couple of years later I put him under the cart on our own farm that our parents bought across the River Suck in County Roscommon. Soon after Christmas, 1946 Mom and four of us


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” had moved to a rented house in Kilcooley, Ballymoe, two miles away. We were marooned during the Big Snow of February 25, 1947. Dad and my two eldest brothers joined us in May from Chicago and he and Mom bought a farm outside Castlerea in Carrowmore, near the farms of her sister Nora and brother Jim. A month or two later, at a boxing venue in Hanley Hall, Castlerea my eldest brother Kieran, at 16, fought well but lost to 19-year-old Connacht light-heavyweight champion Tim Regan from a Ballyhaunis family of fine boxers. In July, 1947 we cycled to and from that farm to save its hay for that winter’s fodder. We moved in in August/September, Dad returned to his job in Chicago, and the following spring I began working in the bog “in co” with our nearest neighbor, the wonderfully kind and good Martin “Mattie” Cahill (whose two sons, Martin and Michael, fifty years later, in my absences generously assisted my father in his declining years). That same spring while my mother and I shoveled the first mould onto our potato ridges she unearthed a gold halfsovereign (dated 1868) and minutes later I unearthed a button from a British soldier’s uniform. It was evidently the site of a melee during the 1880s land war. Nearly all of our neighbors had moved onto their farms thirty-some years earlier when the Congested Districts Board and Land Commission divided up the old landlords’ estates. As late as 1952, some forty years after the landlords’ departures, land holdings were still being allotted to newcomers in nearby South Park and Rathra. All incomers were from the boggier, more mountainy, patches of land to the west where many indigenous Irish survived. Few indigenous Irish had survived in the good land from Castlerea to Strokestown and Roscommon town except as landlords’ herds, grooms, gardeners, etc. The main sources for this book are the following: for crop and food processing data, the Ordnance Survey Maps of Ireland. For military data, Britain’s National Archives. For the food removal, the military data, The (London) Times, and The Limerick Shipping Intelligence. For proof that the landlords were English, Samuel Lewis’ A Topical Dictionary of Ireland, and The Great Landowners of Great Britain


and Ireland. Though crucial and readily available, these sources have not been used by “famine” writers. Also referenced were regimental history books and others named in the Bibliography. Due to adopting the spelling used in source material while maintaining standard spelling in my own material one will find, for example, “labor” and “labour” throughout, depending on the original author.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”





























Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

CHAPTER 1: PRE-HOLOCAUST IRELAND History is a nightmare from which I am trying to awaken.5 James Joyce was right: though Ireland had an advanced culture very early, for most of the past millennium Ireland’s history is truly nightmarish. Joyce lived through part of that nightmare; observing how the British government, partly through Ireland’s Catholic Church hierarchy and Anglo-Irish toadies, managed, by slander and hypocrisy, to destroy Charles Stewart Parnell and Ireland’s hopes for justice. I often regret having studied Irish history and learning about on-going events in the Six Counties and the covered up atrocities on its streets, courtrooms and prisons, and learning what my own ancestors survived. England turned Ireland into a slaughterhouse of starvelings, especially during the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The only rationale for learning of such evil is our obligation to know the truth, no matter how horrifying, and most of the past eight and a half centuries of it have been horrifying. What England extracted from its colonies varied from country to country. In addition to usurping the land for distribution to its Crownconnected undertakers, it also looted the colony’s other resources. For example, from Australia from 1851 through 1862, after the easiest gold was gone, 21 million additional ounces of gold were taken into the British Government’s Gold room in Melbourne.6 Fertile Ireland’s main resource was the human energy that produced a torrent of agricultural products. The Irish were made tenants on their own land, and forced to pay rents that consumed most of their year’s labor. With force supplied by the British army, Irish output was commandeered by English landlords (many if not most absentees) on the basis that the English, not the Irish, owned the land on which it was produced. The Holocaust of 1845-1850, the start of which was officially confirmed by British Viceroy Heytesbury in Dublin on November 3, 1845, did not occur in isolation. You will soon see that it was no “one-


off” event. This chapter will show that the Holocaust was just another stage in a lengthy genocide that varied only in its intensity. It included the looting of national resources, part of permanent British policy in its colonies.7 Ireland’s fertile soil, benign growing conditions, and productive cultivators, made its rich agricultural and pastoral output the target of that looting. You will see that the Holocaust was England’s third peak of homicide in Ireland; having been preceded by those planned and implemented first by Elizabeth I and later by Oliver Cromwell all within a generally genocidal policy. The English in Ireland, referred to as “the Ascendancy,” stripped the Irish of their property and legal personhood, with all that that entails. It legally barred them from essentially all livelihoods except those which primarily benefited England and the Ascendancy. For a very long time under English rule the murder of any Irish man, woman or child did not involve the law, as the law applied to persons and the Irish had been stripped of legal personhood.8 For the Irish the law existed only to legally murder, to punish, to rob, or otherwise deprive them; never to protect. To Queen Anne is attributed: “The purpose of the penal laws is to render the Irish fit only to hew wood and draw water.” One may wonder how the English in Ireland managed to overcome the island’s overwhelming majority who were Irish. The answer, of course, is the British army which was always available with the latest weaponry, and the English latifundists (hereinafter “landlords”) in Ireland promptly formed their own private armies. These private armies, over time, became county militias; but each remained headed by an infamous landlord (see Exhibit C3). The same landlord or his brother or son was likely to be the local judge, and/or Anglican reverend, and/or Member of the House of Lords or Commons, and their above-the-law status was made clear by such titles as “Lord,” “Marquis.” etc. In time, many landlords maintained a prison on their estates; also a gallows, and decided whom to send to either. The landlords who were also judges supplied Irish slaves (“felons”) to work the plantations and estates of their fellow landlords in British Caribbean and North American colonies. Irish slavery ended in the new United States upon the 1781 defeat of the British; but this caused only their diversion to England’s newer colonies in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Australia, a supply of Irish “felons” (slaves) which started in 1787 and continued until 18689. For those who survived their enslavement it typically ended in 7, 14, or 21 years, excluding, obviously, the “lifers.” Below are merely thumb-nail sketches of the different eras, but they were provided by persons considered to be the greatest minds of their times. The crimes and injustices that England imposed upon the Irish certainly had as many cover-up artists then as today. While their shame and names fade in time, the world remembers the truth-tellers, those giants of integrity who provided honest witness. Some, like James Fintan Lalor and John Mitchel, risked all. Tens of thousands of others, like Thomas Russell, “The Man From God Knows Where,” paid the ultimate price. Awaiting you are the following: the 1834 report on conditions in Ireland by Gustave de Beaumont (of “Democracy in America” fame), the 1803 piece from the immortal Robert Emmet, while other observations are by James Joyce, John Stuart Mill, John Locke, Dean Jonathan Swift, Henry George, Poets Shelley and Byron, Dr. Samuel Johnson, and others. To fully grasp the enormity of the Holocaust it is vital to learn how it forms part of permanent British policy in Ireland. Note that this chapter is only about pre-Holocaust Ireland for which era evidentiary charts and other modern sources are rare to non-existent. This leaves the narrative form as the main record available for that time; thus I resort to impeccable, even classical, sources. Prehistoric Ireland was settled after the last Ice Age ended some 10,000 years ago. Some of the earliest artifacts (Bann Flakes, etc.) suggest some connection with now-Switzerland. “Gael” seems to be derived from earlier locations, Gallicia in Spain, “Gales” (Wales), Galatia near the Black Sea, etc. Settlers must have come from lands in the ice-free south as newly icecap-free Ireland became life-sustaining for humans.

Circa 140 A.D. Ireland, with five towns, is shown on Ptolemy’s map of the known world. This map (Google “Ptolemy map of Ireland”) 25

shows towns and estuaries, though standard history books claim that Ireland’s main towns were founded by Vikings. Pre-Christian Ireland. Ireland abounds with Pre-Christian era dolmens, cromlechs, mounds, standing stones, ring-forts and other structures and artifacts. During this era, the Irish invaded and occupied Scotland which was populated then by mostly Germanic tribes. Irish settlers dominated such that Scotland became Irishspeaking as confirmed by its place-names. Southern Scotland was incorporated into the Irish kingdom of Dal Riada. Romans referred to the Irish as marauders (scoti), giving Scotland its current name. The beginning of the end of Ireland’s Pre-Christian era occurred when Irish marauders raided Roman England’s coast near the western end of Hadrian’s Wall and returned home with captives that included a youth that later became St. Patrick. (Patrick’s birthplace has recently been claimed to be Normandy.) 480 to 800 Ireland flourishes with the new Christian religion. Centers of learning are established across Ireland. Irish monks spread Christianity and general learning to Iona and the Scottish coast, and to Lindisfarne off the east coast of Northern England. After the collapse of the Roman empire Irish monks spread learning across darkened Europe, founding monasteries in what are now known as Mecklenberg, Germany, St. Gall, Switzerland, Salzburg, Austria, Bobbio, Italy, etc. Once, while attending a Mozartian Mass in the Cathedral of Salzburg, I picked up a brochure from beside me in the pew to learn from it that in the year 774 Irish Saint Fergal, “Virgil the Geometer” had built the original church on that site to the same “footprint” dimensions as the current magnificent edifice.

794-1014 The Viking era in Ireland begins with raids on monasteries and communities along its west coast in 794, the same year they loot Iona, the island monastery founded by St. Columcille off Scotland’s isle of Mull. Later, they sail up the Shannon and loot the riverside monastery founded by St. Kieran at Clonmacnoise (where recent excavations reveal that a bridge once spanned the Shannon) south of Athlone. Having begun as looters, the Vikings eventually settle in port


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” towns that became the cities of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick. The Irish unite and began to attack those settlements, and in 1014, at the Battle of Clontarf, where the leader of Irish forces, Brian Boru, fell, the Vikings are defeated and their battle survivors depart permanently, leaving assimilated remnants behind. 1169 and 1171 The Anglo-Norman invasion of 1169 (in Wexford)10 is led by Lord Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known as Strongbow (an invasion invited by Dermot MacMurrough). In 1185, English King John and his forces land in Waterford. He is motivated partly by fear that Strongbow will establish a Norman government in Ireland. The Anglo-Normans soon manage to rule over most of Ireland, but in time they hold only the Pale (Dublin and the surrounding area) while in the rest of the country they eventually adopt the language and customs of the Irish with whom they also intermarry. That is what prompts the later Statute of Kilkenny. Those invaders of Ireland seize what they claimed Pope Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear, the only English-born pope) had granted to Henry II in the Papal bull Laudabiliter11 in 1155. A perusal of Laudabiliter reveals the rationale for that papal grant of Ireland to the English king: there was a quid pro quo. It imposed on Henry II the obligation of forwarding to Rome the proceeds of Ireland’s Peter’s Pence collection, an annual collection taken up throughout Christendom, but which the Irish church had been diverting to Armagh, the seat of Ireland’s Church. To this day the Irish who donate to the annual Peter’s Pence collection at Sunday Mass are fulfilling a contract (if the bull wasn’t a forgery) of an English king to the Vatican 850 years ago as England’s purchase price of Ireland. So I'll wear no convict's uniform Nor meekly serve my time That Britain might brand Ireland's fight Eight hundred years of crime.


The Long Kesh blanketmen’s song, (Francis Brolly, Dungiven 1976) regarding Irish POWs resisting criminalization by the Brits.

O’Halloran has shown that Henry the Second (1154-1189) granted, by special charter, the benefits of English law to the Norman settlers, to the citizens of the principal seaports, and to a few individuals who obtained charters of denization as a matter of favour. Five septs, the O’Neills of Ulster, the O’Connors of Connaught, the O’Briens of Thom*ond, the O’Lachlans or Melachlans of Meath, and the Mac-Murroughs, called also Kavanaghs, of Leinster, were received within the pale of English law; but all the rest were deemed aliens and enemies, and could neither sue nor be sued, as late as the reign of Elizabeth.” (Odd, that the O’Connells of Derrynane, Co. Kerry weren’t included with the above five families seeing that they, the O’Connells, were allowed to educate their son, Daniel who became a lawyer and “The Liberator,” but they were an exception.12 Mr. O’Connell, who had long been elected member for Clare, took his seat in the (English) house of commons on the first day of the 1830 session. He was the first Catholic representative who had that privilege in either the English or Irish parliaments after an interval of one hundred and forty-five years).13

Edward the First solemnly confirmed one of these charters of denization which Henry had granted to the “Ostmen,” or “Esterlings,” that is, the Danes of Waterford, who were inhabitants of that city long before his coming to Ireland. Upon this latter circ*mstance, as related by Sir John Davies, in his “Historical Tracts,” page 80, O’Connell remarks: Nor was this a barren privilege. These Danes, by that charter, obtained protection for their lives and properties, which none of the Irish save the above-named five families obtained. The Irish could not sue as plaintiffs in any court of law. They were not treated as conquered enemies, mutually bound to accept the laws of the conqueror as well as entitled to the protection of those laws. They were treated as perpetual enemies, whom 28

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” it was lawful to rob or kill, at the pleasure or caprice of any English subject. In 1301 (29 Edward I) before the justices in oyer, at Drogheda, Thomas Le Botteler, brought an action of déténue against Robert de Almain, for certain goods. The defendant pleadeth: “That he is not bound to answer plaintiff, for this – that the PLAINTIFF IS AN IRISHMAN and not of free blood, [non de libero sanguine). And the aforesaid Thomas is an Englishman, and this he prays may be inquired of by the country. Therefore let the jury come, and so forth: - ‘And the jurors on their oath, say that the aforesaid Thomas is an Englishman. Therefore it is adjudged that he do receive his damages.” Upon this case, among others, O’Connell observes: - ‘Thus these records demonstrate, that the Irishman had no protection for his property; because; if the plaintiff had been declared an Irishman, the action would be barred; though the injury was not denied upon the record to have been committed. The validity of the plea in point of law was also admitted; so that, no matter what injury might be committed upon real or personal property of an Irishman, the courts of law afforded him no species of remedy.” (These two paragraphs from O’Halloran’s HISTORY OF IRELAND, Second Division, page 55.) 1311 Under all “their Catholic Majesties” from Henry II to Henry VIII (nearly 400 years), the Irish people, with the exception of five septs, were outlaws. They were murdered at will by their English Catholic neighbors in Ireland, and there was no law to punish the murderers.14 Yet, during all this unparalleled reign of terror, history fails to show a single instance in which the power of the Catholic Church was ever exerted or suggested, by any pope, for the protection of her faithful Irish children. In the year 1311, for example, and as a mere illustration of the low esteem in which Irish lives were held by these Catholic princes: “Wm. Fitz-Roger, being arraigned for the felonious slaying of Roger de


Cantelon, comes and says, he could not commit felony by means of such killing, because the aforesaid Roger (Roger de Cantelon), was an Irishman, and not of free blood. And he further says that the said Roger was of the surname O’Hederiscal, and not of the surname of Cantelon; and of this he puts himself on the country, and so forth. And the jury upon their oath say, that the aforesaid Roger was an Irishman of the surname of O’Hederiscal, and for an Irishman was reputed all of his life; AND THEREFORE the said William, as far as regards the said felony is acquitted.”15 But as the aforesaid Roger was found to be an Irishman belonging to the King, the unlucky murderer was “recommitted to gaol, until he shall find pledges to pay five marks (roughly $300) to our Lord the King, for the value of the aforesaid Irishman.”16 1355 In the Common-Pleas Rolls of 1355, (28 Edward III), preserved in Bermingham’s Tower, the following case is recorded:- Simon Neal complains of William Newlagh, that he, with force and arms, on the Monday after the feast of Saint Margaret, at Clondalkin, in the county of Dublin, broke the said Simon’s close and his herbage with oxen, calves, and sheep, consumed and trampled, contrary to the peace, etc.; whence he says that he is damaged to the amount of twenty shillings; and thereof, etc. And the aforesaid William comes now and says that the aforesaid Simon is an Irishman, and not of the five bloods; and asks judgment if he be held to answer him. And the aforesaid Simon (the plaintiff) says that he is one of the five bloods; to wit of the O’Neiles of Ulster, who, by the concession of the progenitors of our lord the kind, ought to enjoy and use the liberties of England, and be deemed as freemen; and this he offers to verify, etc. And the aforesaid William (the defendant) rejoineth – that the plaintiff is not of the O’Neiles of Ulster, [nec de quinque sanguinibus,] nor of the five bloods. And thereupon they are at issue, etc.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Which issue being found by the jury for the plaintiff, he had judgment to recover his damages against the defendant.17 1367 The Statute of Kilkenny is enacted during the reign of Edward III to further suppress the Irish and to both stop and reverse the integration into Irish life, language and traditions of the English in Ireland. It comprises 35 Articles and can be googled. Its purpose can be grasped from its first (and very lengthy) sentence, as follows: Whereas at the conquest of the land of Ireland, and for a long time after, the English of the said land used the English language, mode of riding and apparel, and were governed and ruled, both they and their (Irish) subjects called Betaghes (food-providers), according to the English law, in which time God and holy Church, and their franchises according to their condition were maintained and themselves lived in due subjection; but now many English of the said land, forsaking the English language, manners, mode of riding, laws and usages, live and govern themselves according to the manners, fashion, and language of the Irish enemies; and also have made divers marriages and alliances between themselves and the Irish enemies aforesaid; whereby the said land, and the liege people thereof, the English language, the allegiance due to our lord the king, and the English laws there, are put in subjection and decayed, and the Irish enemies exalted and raised up, contrary to reason; our lord the king considering the mischiefs aforesaid, in the consequence of the grievous complaints of the commons of his said land, called to his parliament held at Kilkenny, the Thursday next after the day of Cinders Ash Wednesday in the fortieth year of his reign, before his well-beloved son, Lionel Duke of Clarence, his lieutenant in his parts of Ireland, to the honour of God and His glorious Mother, and of holy Church (this is pre-Henry VIII and the church that originated in his testicl*s), and for the good government of the said land, and quiet of the people, and for the better observation of the laws, and punishment of evils doers there, are ordained and established by our said lord the king, and his said lieutenant, and our lord the king's counsel there, which the assent of the archbishops, bishops, abbots and priors (as to


what appertains to them to assent to), the earls, barons, and others the commons of the said land, at the said parliament there being and assembled, the Ordnances and articles under written, to be held and kept perpetually upon the pains contained therein. 1465 In 1465 an act was passed (indirectly but effectively) giving rewards for the killing of Irishmen, just as with us rewards are given for the killing of coyotes;18 and the marriage, fostering, gossip, and trade of English Catholics with Irish Catholics, were made penal offenses by Catholic parliaments and Catholic kings.19 Under these laws, murders innumerable – causeless, cruel, sportive murders – were committed with impunity. Through their bishops, archbishops, primates and legates the popes must have been fully advised concerning these atrocities; the English rulers and people were Catholics, and as much subject to the popes as the Irish now (1888) are; yet there was no excommunication and no threat of excommunication by any of these popes against the English for their hellish practices. But assuming that all of the above popes’ legitimate advisers in Ireland were such scoundrels and conspirators with the kings, yet the plea of ignorance could not be made for the popes.20 O’Neill, King of Ulster, and other Irish princes, fully represented these grievances to Pope John XXII, who paid no attention to them for more than twelve years, when, at last, he sent a letter to King Edward III, mildly advising that monarch to adopt a different policy and to reform the evils as speedily as possible. On what ground? Solely on the ground of expediency; namely “lest it might be too late hereafter to apply a remedy when the spirit of revolt has grown stronger.”21 If he had been dealing with the Irish he would have sent a bull commanding them to desist within a fixed time on pain of excommunication, but the English, although Catholics, were not so afraid of bulls as were the Irish. Hence their milder treatment. Hence the Vatican, now (in 1888) so anxious to shield the enemies and plunderers of the Irish people from peaceful ostracism (boycotting), never lifted the scepter of the Church authority to shield the Irish from wanton murder, outrage and robbery, when those crimes, through centuries, were being perpetrated by the English


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Catholic children of the Church.22 The whole history of the Vatican shows that ever since it assumed to be the political as well as the religious head of the world (about the year 860)23 its universal policy has been to crush the weak; to frighten the timid and to conciliate the strong and defiant. Acting on this policy, and finding the Irish people afraid of papal wrath, each succeeding pope has traded for political and other advantages with England on the strength of his power to coerce and subdue the Irish people.24 1494 In November, 1494 Sir Edward Poynings, in his position as Viceroy to Ireland under King Henry VII, holds a parliament in Drogheda. He declares that starting on December 1st the parliament of Ireland will be under the rule of England’s parliament, that it cannot convene until the chief governor and privy council has informed the king of England of all of the Acts intended to be enacted in it, an explanation as to why they are required, and that these acts are null until approved and permission granted by the king and privy council of England. This Act also revives and confirms the anti-Irish Statute of Kilkenny, all of it but the part banning the Irish language which was in use everywhere, including the English settlements. This Act, known as Poynings Law, becomes a rallying cry for Ireland’s freedom especially during the 17th and 18th centuries until the Constitution of 1782 give the Irish parliament legislative independence. This (exclusively Protestant) independence ended with the January 1, 1801 abolition of that parliament. Ireland then fell again under direct British rule until the election-based founding of Dáil Ēireann on January 21, 1919. George V promptly declared it “an illegal assembly” and suppressed and replaced it with his own Royal Dáil on December 6, 1921. Since then, all of Ireland’s 26-County regimes have been successors of George V’s imposed Royal Dáil.

1558-1871 This Penal Law25 era, from 1558 until the 1869 disestablishment (to take effect on January 1, 1871) of the Church of Ireland (actually the English [later British] State Church, to which Catholics were forced to tithe) is the depth of Ireland’s nightmare. Sixty-nine penal laws are enacted, starting with 1 Eliz. c.1 in 1558, through those of William & Mary, William III, Anne, George I and, in


1759, George II. Not until 1871 is the last of them abolished, by Victoria (1819-1901; Queen 1837-1901) in the aftermath of the Holocaust she had perpetrated. In brief, the Penal Laws prohibited Roman Catholics from being educated, from attending any school, from all professions, from holding public office, from trade or commerce, from living in a corporate town or within five miles thereof, from owning a horse worth more than £5, from purchasing land, from leasing land, from accepting a mortgage on land as security for a loan, from receiving education, from voting, from keeping arms for self-protection, from any life annuity, from buying land from a Protestant, from inheriting land from a Protestant, from receiving a gift of land from a Protestant, from inheriting anything from a Protestant, from renting land worth more than thirty shillings per annum, from reaping from his land any profit exceeding one third of the rent, from being guardian to a child, from leaving his infant children under Catholic guardianship in the event of his death, from educating his child himself, from sending his child to a Catholic teacher, from employing a Catholic teacher to come to his child, from sending his child abroad for education though enough Irish families violate this law to establish, and sent their children to, Irish colleges, as follows: Salamanca and Madrid starting in 1580, Douai in 1603, Louvain in 1607, in Rome, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, Lille, Brussels, and Antwerp all about 1625 and Prague in 1631. One Irish college was as far east as Wielun in Poland. Some of these college buildings still exist (I’ve been in a few), but most consolidated or began to fail beginning about 1800 with less lethal enforcement of the Penal Laws in Ireland (and the completed impoverishment of Ireland’s Irish people, rendering them unable to provide such foreign tuition for their children). One must note that during the period of construction and maintenance of these continental colleges and while supporting the professors and the travel and boarding expenses of the many students, that British rule had not yet reduced the Irish to destitution. Contrary to the foregoing date of 1800 I suggest that by 1700 few Irish families had been left with the wherewithal to send students to these colleges.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” “It was a system of wise (meaning cunning) and elaborate contrivance, as well fitted for the oppression, impoverishment, and degradation of a people, and the debasem*nt in them of human nature itself, as ever proceeded from the perverted ingenuity of man.” – Edmund Burke, regarding the Penal Laws. It necessarily must happen, when one country is connected with another, that the interests of the lesser will be borne down by those of the greater. – Lord Castlereagh. It is an irksome and painful task to pursue the details of the penal Code; but the penal code is the history of Ireland. – John Mitchel. Law in Ireland was the friend neither of the people nor of justice, but the impartial persecutor of both. – Aubrey de Vere. Go into the length and breadth of the world, ransack the literature of all countries, find if you can, a single book in which the conduct of England toward Ireland is anywhere treated except with profound and bitter condemnation.- British Prime Minister Gladstone (Morley’s Life)26 What does the liberty of a people consist in? It consists in the right and power to make laws for its own government. Were an individual to make laws for another country, that person is a despot and the people are slaves. When one country makes laws for another country, the country which makes the laws is the sovereign country, and the country for which those laws are made is in a state of slavery. Blackstone Historian Lecky wrote later of the Penal Laws as the depths of infamy, that “…it would be difficult, in the whole compass of history, to find another instance in which such various and powerful agencies concurred to degrade the character and blast the prosperity of a nation.”


Ireland was, in truth, subdued by Elizabeth (the semi-official history of the conquest was called Hibernia Pacata). This princess, in less than ten years, spent three millions and a half of money, an immense sum for the 16th century; and lost an incalculable number of her bravest soldiers in effecting this conquest. But the result of the submission of Ireland was the cessation of the war; not the adoption of the Anglican worship. Perhaps it might have been foreseen that the Irish, while submitting to civil and political laws, would retain their religious creed and worship, for it is the natural disposition of man, when he undergoes physical violence, to take refuge in his soul, and proclaim himself free there, while his body is loaded with chains. The first efforts of despotism had been in vain; the Irish retained only the recollection of the tyranny; they remembered that, to conquer them and change their worship, Elizabeth had waged a cruel war, followed by frightful famine and destructive plague. More than one half of the population perished by the sword, famine, or pestilence. The author27 cites Hollinshed, a contemporary writer; “The country, which was before rich, fertile, populous, abounding in pasturages, harvest-lands, and cattle, is now deserted and barren; no fruit or corn grows in its fields, no cattle are found in its pasturages; there are no birds in the air, no fish in the streams; in a word, the vengeance of Heaven is so heavy on the land, that it may be traversed from one end to the other almost without meeting man, woman, or child” – Hol. 460. Queen Elizabeth I expressed her desire for a “weak and disordered” Ireland. The English-landlord-only “Irish” government in Dublin and the British government never ceased to work toward that goal (excepting the “Irish” government in 1782 and until suppression of the American-inspired Volunteers a few years later). 1562 Britain, with the capture of 300 Negroes, begins its three centuries of African slave trading. It had long since enslaved the Irish. The English trade began with Sir John Hawkins’ (See Exhibit E8; the Hawkins family crest.) voyages in 1562, and later, in which ‘the Jesus, our chiefe shippe’ played a leading part. Desultory trade was kept up by the English until the middle of the seventeenth century,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” when English chartered slave-trading companies began to appear. In 1662 the ‘Royal Adventurers,’ including the king, the queen dowager, and the Duke of York, invested in the trade, and finally, the Royal African Company, which became the world’s chief slave-trader, was formed in 1672 and carried on a growing trade for a quarter of a century. Jamaica had finally been captured and held by Oliver Cromwell who, in 1655 (with a few shiploads of Irish slaves; CF) initiated there the West Indian base for the trade in men.28 1574 Famine becomes a military strategy. In May, 1574, Edward Berkeley, an English official in Belfast, describes the starvation resulting from the war “upon these wicked and faythles pepoll” in Ulster. The rebels had no kind of grayne nor hath sowne so much as too plowes will till…There releffe is all together mylke which is easely tken from them, all though we wollde not the next winter will. So of necessitye a number of them muste be famished.” If Berkeley had second thoughts, they were eclipsed by racial and religious justifications for extermination. “How godly a dede it is to overthrowe so wicked a race the world may judge. For my parte I thinke ther canot be a greter Sacrifyce to god.” Two months later, Elizabeth praised Essex for his “valiant and peaceful doings and travails in the province of Ulster.”29 1578 England’s conquest of Ireland sets a precedent for North America. As early as 1496, Henry VII had commissioned John Cabot to “conquer” heathen lands there for English “domination,” but it is the veteran “Ireland hand,” Humphrey Gilbert, who pioneers that expansion.30 1599 There are 16,000 English soldiers of foot and 1,300 of horse in Ireland …to bee renforced out of England with the leavie of 2,000 at everie three moneths end. 31 1601 I have often said, and written, it is Famine which must consume them; our swords and other endeavours work not that speedy effect which is expected for their overthrow. –England’s Viceroy in Ireland, Sir Arthur Chichester, suggesting a policy toward Ireland.32


January 28, 1603. “The Lord President of Muntser (sic) orders the marshal of the province to exterminate by martial law all manner of bards, harpers, etc. followed by Queen Elizabeth’s orders to Lord Barrymore to ‘Hang the harpers, wherever found, and destroy their instruments’.” -Irish Minstrels and Musicians, by Frank O’Neill 1913. 1625 With military support, English planters are usurping the West Indies. By the mid-1600s, the Irish are the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat. At that time, 70% of the population of Montserrat were Irish slaves. England continues to ship tens of thousands of Irish slaves for

more than a century.33 1632 By this time it is clear that the invaders are intent not only on murdering the Irish, but on obliterating their culture, language and history – to leave nothing. A few, determined to leave behind a record of the Irish that might survive the genocide, begin to compile Ireland’s chronicle, now known as The Annals of the Four Masters. They had luckily survived the genocides of Elizabeth I (ended in 1603), of James I (1603-1625), and Charles I (1625-1649), and wrote in Irish. One writes (translation): On the 22nd January, 1632, this work was undertaken in the convent of Donegal, and was completed in the same convent on 10th of August, 1636. I am thine most affectionately, Brother Michael O’Clery The other three are Michael’s two brothers, Conary, and Cucogry (or Peregrine), and Ferfeasa O’Mulconry They compile Ireland’s history from its earliest recorded days, 1300 B.C. to 1616, from sources now mostly lost, though author/historian Eugene Conwell in his Ollamh Fodhla (1873) cites Dr. O’Donovan lauding the precision of these annals by citing a solar eclipse in 664 A.D. May 1 at about ten o’clock34that proved to be accurately dated.

Cucogry (‘Peregrine’) O’Clery was the head of the Tyrconnel sept of the O’Clerys. In addition to various other contributions to Irish literature, he wrote in Irish a life of the celebrated Hugh Roe O’Donnell, who died in Spain in 1602. Having removed to Ballycroy, in the south of the barony of Erris, in the county of Mayo, he died 38

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” there in 1664, leaving by his will his books, which were his chief treasures, to his two sons, Dermot and John.35 In writing “Having removed to Ballycroy…” author Conwell conveys no sense of that genocide. The worst fears of “The Four Masters” were being realized. To this day Erris, especially Ballycroy, is known as a settlement of Cromwell’s Irish refugees from Ulster. That “removal,” including that of Cucogry/Peregrine, must have occurred in 1653 and up to May 1, 1654 after which any Irish person found east of the river Shannon was subject to summary death or enslavement. Cucogry/Peregrine was lucky to have survived the trek and the subsequent struggle for life in that infertile area. May he continue to live, not only through his Annals, but through today’s four or five Ballycroy families named “Cleary.” Attempting to survive British rule many, including my own O’Fogartys, dropped their names’ prefixes, Mc/Mac, “son of,” and O, “descendant of.” (It is a measure of the varying confidence levels of the Irish in Ireland that the census of 1891 marked the end of the diminution of Os and Mc/Macs as a percentage of the population. Irish censuses since 1891 show an increase in the percentage of Os and Mc/Macs.) On November 9, 2013, I reached, by telephone, a Martin Joseph Cleary, near Ballycroy, Westport, Co. Mayo. He has a few other cousins in that area and had heard that they are descendants of one of the Four Masters. He replied, “No” when I asked him if he ever discussed this with, for example, an historian, his local priest or schoolteacher, to which he added; “There is no proof.” However his pedigree was confirmed when I mentioned Cucogry and Peregrine as the given names of Annalist O’Clery who had fled to Ballycroy. He replied that a Ballycroy Cleary cousin named Peregrine emigrated to England many years ago. “Peregrine”36 must be nearly unique in all of Ireland; thus the DNA of “Peregrine” of the Four Masters lives on. At least one of the original Peregrine O’Clery’s two sons, Dermot and/or John, evidently survived and procreated. Wife Mary and I, celebrating the genetic survival of one of the Four Masters, visited Martin Joseph in Ballycroy in 2015. He gave us a


brief history of the Ballycroy Clearys of the past two centuries written by a Cleary cousin in Dublin subsequent to my discovery. It is a matter-of-fact account of the horrors of Irish life under British rule. June 16, 1647. From O.C. (Oliver Cromwell to Ebenezer Pratt: In return for financial support will advocate admission of Jews to England: This however impossible while Charles living. Charles cannot be executed without trial, adequate grounds for which do not at present exist. Therefor advise that Charles be assassinated, but will have nothing to do with arrangements for procuring an assassin, though willing to help in his escape. A reply follows: July 12, 1647. To O.C. from Ebenezer Pratt: Will grant financial aid as soon as Charles removed and Jews admitted. Assassination too dangerous. Charles shall be given an opportunity to escape. His recapture will make trial and execution possible. The support will be liberal, but useless to discuss terms until trial commences.37 It is important to note here that though Cromwell’s genocide of Ireland was financed by Jewish bankers, it was part of an ongoing genocide begun by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. 1649-54, the period of Cromwellian massacres and expulsion of Ireland’s Catholics to Connacht. As to the killing of Irish children, Cromwell or one of his generals is credited with; “Nits become lice.” After inflicting a series of massacres with no survivors, in 1653 Cromwell issues his “To Hell or Connaught” edict mandating immediate death on Irish found east of the Shannon after May 1, 1654. Instead of death many are sent as slaves to Boston, Charleston and Savanna, and “the Barbadoes” (any English Caribbean island). Approximately half of Ireland’s Catholic population were, again, wiped out. Cromwell paid his financial backers and soldiers with expropriated Irish land. His soldiers, settled on that land and needing producers, lessened their homicides and converted the Irish into unpaid suppliers of all of their wants.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” As part of his entirely hagiographic Life of Cromwell published in 1848 American-based Protestant-Supremacist author J.T. Headley attempted to “contextualize” Cromwell’s genocidal massacres and ethnic cleansing in Ireland. To do so he portrays a Cromwell who was no more genocidal to the Irish than other English rulers. Thus, on page 301 & 302 of Life of Cromwell Headley wrote (the bracketed words are mine; all else, including italicizations and punctuations, are Headley’s): “To show that Cromwell was not peculiar in his treatment of Ireland, we would refer the reader to the administrations of the two Charleses, who preceded him and came after him – to the Bill of Rights, called ‘Graces,’ on the promise of granting which, Charles I received money to the amount of half a million of dollars and then broke his royal word – and last of all to the terrible administration of Strafford, which ended in rebellion. This, of course, produced confiscation; and, in ten days, bills of indictment, for high treason, were found against all the Catholic nobility and gentry in the counties of Meath, Wicklow, and Dublin, and three hundred gentlemen in the county of Kildare. These are but a small portion of the tender mercies of Charles I, the blessed martyr. Charles II, when he succeeded to the throne, instead of reversing the settlement made by the (Cromwellian) commonwealth, established it. These things are mentioned, to show that the cruel course pursued by parliament (Cromwellian), towards the Irish, was not an exception, but the carrying out of a general rule. This makes a vast difference – if the confiscations and persecutions under the Puritans (Cromwell) stood by themselves, distinct and separate monuments of oppression, as their enemies imply, a strong case might be made out against their character. But when we remember that they carried out a system which had precedents enough to make it constitutional, we pass the crime from sects over to the nation. The administration of Strafford, able though it is granted to have been, was one of the most unjust under which the Irish ever suffered. The truth is, Ireland has ever been regarded as so much common plunder by England. From the twelfth century till now, she has, with scarcely one protracted interval, suffered under the yoke of her haughty mistress (England); and it is not just (fair), to select out


one period (Cromwellian) in order to stab republicanism. We have read history of modern civilization pretty thoroughly, and yet, we know of no examples of violated faith, broken treaties, corruption, bribery, violence, and oppression, compared to those which the English and Irish connexion presents.” “If the Commonwealth (Cromwell’s republican rule) had lasted, Ireland would have been a Protestant kingdom, and her subsequent misfortunes avoided.” (Note: 1. Because Headley used italics a few times above, I used quotation marks to indicate the rest of the words are his. 2. Regarding Headley’s above revelation of Ireland’s plight under Charleses I and II: the reign of Charles I was from 1625 until his execution in 1649 by the Cromwellian administration which lasted until the reign of Charles II from 1660 until 1685 when he was replaced by James II (1685-1688) who was replaced in 1689 by his daughter Mary and her husband William who were made King and Queen.) 1651 While Cromwell is genociding Ireland, Britain also fights two wars with Holland to take over the Dutch slave trade. The final terms of peace surrendered New Netherlands (Delaware, New Jersey, and New York) to England, and opened the way for England to become the world’s main slave trader.38 1662 “The Company of Royal Adventurers” is chartered in England by Charles II. The royal family, including the Queen Dowager and the Duke of York, contract to supply the West Indies with 3,000 slaves annually. This company is later sold for £34,000 and replaced by “The Royal African Company” also chartered by King Charles II.39 March, 1669 The Catholics of Kinsale, who are also scattered over the surrounding territory, are estimated at about two hundred; many of them live miserably in the country, in mud cabins, badly thatched with straw, sleeping on the ground on short mats, and subsisting chiefly on fish and co*ckles, which are much smaller than the oyster and are found in these seas, adhering to the rocks, and have seldom


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” an opportunity of eating bread. Since the insurrection of this kingdom they have been considered almost as the people of a conquered country, and are treated as slaves, being obliged to cultivate the ground, and to account to the owner even for their scanty profits. They pay to Southwell, the proprietor of this desert, a guinea and a half a year for the rent of a cabin and a few square yards of land; and for the farms which they rent, they give three-fourths of their produce reserving to themselves only one-fourth. A Catholic priest attends them, who is subordinate to the apostolical internuncio of Flanders, and who lives there clandestinely, celebrating mass in a house where they assemble secretly, to avoid molestations to which they would unquestionably be subject, if they were discovered, and each person contributes six shilling toward his maintenance.40 My Lord John Roberts, a Presbyterian by religion, had recently been appointed to the vice-regency by the king, in the place of James Duke of Ormond, who, having completed the third year of his administration, had returned to court. From the new vice-roy, who is very hostile to their religion, the Catholics have experienced additional severity and rigour. The profits which the vice-roy draws from the government, one estimated at upwards of forty thousand pounds sterling annually; so that it is considered the most valuable appointment in the gifts of the kings of Europe. The revenue which Ireland contributes to the royal treasury is estimated at three hundred thousand pounds sterling a year, arising from what are called tributes to the crown, which every county in the kingdom pays to the exchequer from the revenues of the property of the rebels; from the annual loans, the right of which the same exchequer reserves to itself; from enfeoffments made of property confiscated in consequence of the pretended rebellion; and, lastly, from duties connected with commerce: which are extracted from the inhabitants, and with more especial vigour from the natives of the kingdom, towards whom the antipathy of the English is so great, that they not only do not allow them to speak in their native tongue, but oblige them to use the English idiom, forbidding them, under the


severest penalties, the use of the liturgy in any language other than English, even in the prayers of their communion.41 1690 Though the following citation does not address Ireland specifically, its pertinence derives from having been written by a famous Englishman at the time, whose words refute those who today might say that “nobody then knew any better; one cannot reasonably apply today’s standards retroactively to then:” That the aggressor, who puts himself into the state of war with another, and unjustly invades another man's right, can, by such an unjust war, never come to have a right over the conquered, will be easily agreed by all men, who will think that robbers and pirates have a right of empire over whomsoever they have force enough to master, or that men are bound by promises which unlawful force extorts from them. Should a robber break into my house, and, with a dagger at my throat, make me seal deeds to convey my estate to him, would this give him any title? Just such a title by his sword has an unjust conqueror who forces me into submission. The injury and the crime is equal, whether committed by the wearer of a crown or some petty villain. The title of the offender and the number of his followers make no difference in the offence, unless it be to aggravate it. The only difference is, great robbers punish little ones to keep them in their obedience; but the great ones are rewarded with laurels and triumphs, because they are too big for the weak hands of justice in this world, and have the power in their own possession which should punish offenders.42 1685-1688 Charles II’s brother James II’s reign lasts only three years. He is a victim of unscrupulous pamphleteering and propaganda which emanates mainly from Holland. A military expedition undertaken by Prince William of Orange eventually dethrones him. Although James’ army is numerically superior, he is discouraged from attacking after John Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough suddenly deserts him. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Churchill subsequently receives an annual stipend of £6,000 from the Dutch Jew Solomon de Medina in payment for his


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” treasonous conduct. These vast sums of “blood money” enable Churchill to proceed with the construction of Blenheim Palace, which is completed at his death in 1722. William of Orange’s military campaign, like that of the other William the Conqueror in 1066, is financed by Jewish bankers. In return for their support William III (1689-1702) surrenders the royal prerogative of issuing England’s money free of debt and interest, to a consortium known as The Governor and Company of the Bank of England.43 July 12, 1690 The Battle of the Boyne, fought on this day is generally regarded in Ireland as a disaster for the Irish cause – a disaster which made possible the infliction of two centuries of unspeakable degradation upon the Irish people. Yet that battle was the result of an alliance formed by Pope Innocent XI with William, Prince of Orange, against Louis, King of France. King James of England joined with King Louis to obtain help to save his own throne, and the Pope joined in the league with William to curb the power of France. When the news of the defeat of the Irish at the Boyne reached Rome the Vatican was illuminated by order of the new Pope, Alexander VIII, and special masses offered up in thanksgiving.44 1697 Any tory who killed two other proclaimed tories is entitled to his pardon. (9 Will. III. c. 9.)45 Ireland’s defenders were “tories.” About 1700 Bristol becomes an important center of the slave trade, followed by London and Liverpool. Liverpool soon overtakes both Bristol and London. In 1709 it sends out one slaver of thirty tons; encouraged by Parliamentary subsidies which amounts to nearly half a million dollars between 1729 and 1750 the trade increases to fiftythree ships in 1751, eighty-six in 1765, and at the beginning of the nineteenth century, one hundred and eighty-five, which carries fortynine thousand, two hundred and thirteen slaves in one year. In 1764 a quarter of the shipping of Liverpool is in the African trade and Liverpool merchants conducts one half of England’s Africa trade. From 1680 to 1688 we know that the English African Company alone sends two hundred forty-nine ships to Africa, shipping from there sixty-thousand, seven hundred eighty-three Negro slaves, and after


losing fourteen thousand, three hundred and eighty-seven on the middle passage, delivers forty-six thousand three hundred and ninetysix in America46. May, June, July, 1729 A LIST OF LORDS, Gentlemen, and Others, Who having Eftates, Employments, and Pensions in Ireland, fpend the fame abroad; together with an Eftimate of the Yearly Value of the fame, as taken in the Months of May, June and July, 1729. The book is addressed; To His Excellency, The Lord Lieutenant General of Ireland, and to the LORDS Spiritual and Temporal and COMMONS in Parliament Affembled, these OBSERVATIONS are with Refpect and submiffion Humbly Dedicated by the Author. Prior to understanding that Ireland’s land must be cultivator-owned, the main complaint was that the landlords are spending abroad the output of Irish labor instead of in Ireland. Thus this naming of the absentee landlords and the sums they spend abroad. Original spelling, etc. is maintained. Interesting, that the list includes none of the many English landlords of Ireland who were simultaneously members of Britain’s Houses of parliament. This is explained; In its letter of transmittal to a member of the thenparliament of Ireland the author cites all the benefits of a tax on these incomes but ends with; …With an Exception and Exemption however, of the Eftates of all those Perfons, who are Members of either Houfe of Parliament of Great-Britain, and who by their neceffary Attendance there, do equal service to their own Country, and to the Common Cause of all Proteftants. “Signed” Philo Patriae.) ” The Lords and Gentlemen of Eftate are divided into Three Claffes. FIRST CLASS comprehends thofe, who live generally abroad, and are feldom, or never feen in Ireland. SECOND CLASS comprehends thofe, who live generally abroad, and vifit Ireland now and then, for a Month or two. THIRD CLASS takes in thofe, who live generally in Ireland, but were occafionally abfent, at the Time the faid Lift was taken, either for Health, Pleasure, or Bufiness; but their Number is commonly the fame, for if fome come home, others go abroad, and fupply their places.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” FIRST CLASS comprehends thofe who live conftantly abroad. Yearly value of their Eftates fpent abroad, L. s. d. (L = pounds, s=shillings, and d=pence) LORDS Aran, L1100; Blundel, L2300; Boyne, L1700; Burlington, L17000; Caftlehaven, L800; Caftlecomer, L3000; Clanrickard, L3000; Darnly, L3000; Delvin, L400; Digby, L2500, Donegal’s Eftate, L4000; Gowran, in Eftate and Intereft of Money, L7000; Grandifon L6000; Lord Archibald Hamilton, L1000; Inchiquin, L3000; Kingfale, L800; Limington, L2300; Londonderry, in Eftate, and Intereft of Money, L1200; Malton, L6000; Orrery, L4000; Peafely, L1400; Palmerfton, L3000; Percival, L3000, Shannon, L2500; Thom*ond, L6000; Strafford, L600; Weymouth, L2000. LADIES Lady Drogheda, L1100; Dowager Lady Doneraill, L1500; Lady Jane Holt, L400; Lord Effingham Howard’s Daughters, L1000; Dowager Lady Kildare, L1200; Lady Jones Widow, L600; Lady Betty Molyneux, L1100; Lady Pine, L400; Late Lord Ranelagh’s Daughters, viz. Lady Conningsby, Lady Katherine Jones, and Lady Kildare, L3000; GENTLEMEN (all also labeled “Efquires” in book; C.F.) Francis Annefley of Lincoln’s-Inn-Fields, L1000; Randal Adams, L600; ____ Barret of Clownifh, L1200; Alderman Beecher of Briftol, L1200; Doctor Berkeley Dean of Derry, L900; George Rodney Bridges, L800; Sir Brook Bridges, L1500; Thomas Brodrick, L2500; John Chichester, Brother of Lord Donegal, L1000; John Clayton of the County of Cork, L400; Sir William Courtney of Devonshire, L8000; William Domvill of the County of Dublin, L1400; Jofeph Damer in Eftate and Interest Money, L1800; Sir Redmond Everard, Bart., L1000; Col. Foulks, L1000; H. Arthur Herbert of Oakly-Park,


L3000; Mark Hill of Loughbrickland, L600; Mr. Hobfon, Eftate in County of Down, L600; Hugh, Howard, L800; Mr. Hull, in Eftate and Intereft of Money, L600; Rev. John Jackson of Lancashire, L400; Sir Richard Kennedy’s Eftate, L1200; Col. Loyde of England, L1000; London Society and Company, in the County of Derry, yearly Income and Fines included, L8000; James McCartney, L2500; Randal MacDonnell, County of Clare, L2500; William Mitchel of London, L400; The Honourable and Reverend Mr. Henry Moore, L400; Pleydell Morton, L1200; ___ Murray of Broughton in Scotland, L1000; John Neal of Coventry, L900; Robert Needham of Jamaica, L2300; Sir William Penn’s Eftate, L1400; John Pigott of Somerfetfhire, L400 ___ Plunkett of Dunfhauglin, L700; John Raulinfon of London, Eftate in the County of Derry, L800; General Sabine, L500; Thomas Scawen of London, L2000; The Honourable Robert Shirly L2000; Oliver St. John, L1400; ___ Smith, L6000; Ralph Smith, Sen, L800, Sir John Stanley, L1200; Edward Southwell, Secretary of State, L3500; John Temple, L3000; ___ Trenchard, County of Limerick, L1500; ___ Warringford, L400; Sir Thomas Webfter, L800; Sir Cecil Wray, L2300; Several Cities and Corporations in England, have Eftates in Ireland to the Yearly Value of L1500 GENTLEWOMEN Widow Bagnal, L1800; Mifs Edwards, in Eftate and Intereft in Money, L7000; Mr. Pine’s Daughters, L1200; Widow Portland Senior, L1000; Widow Titchburn, L400; Mrs. Vernon, L800. The above list provides the basic data; thus obviating here author Thomas Prior’s list of English second and third class offshore spenders of Irish-produced wealth.47 1729 I grant that this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords who, as they have already devoured the parents, seem to have the best title to the children. - Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) in his immortal satire; “A Modest Proposal.” Swift, a Doctor of Anglican Theology, and Dean of Dublin’s St. Patrick


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Cathedral (“Church of Ireland,” once Catholic), is a pillar of the Ascendancy, thus could utter truths for which any Irish person would be executed. (The printer of Swift’s “Modest Proposal” was arrested and prosecuted.). When you do read his Proposal, note well his other main thrusts against landlords; their absenteeism and thus evasion of tithes to the Anglican Church, as follows (my emphases); “…the absence of so many good protestants, who have chosen rather to leave their country (Ireland!) than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate” which tithe to the Anglican Church was collected at British gunpoint from Ireland’s Catholics. Swift then makes solid suggestions which he satirically presents as nonsensical; such as Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients: of taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound. (25%). Again; …of teaching our landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants., and For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, the flesh being of too tender a consistence, to admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country (obviously England), which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it. He begins his conclusion with the suggestion that Irish Catholic life under English rule is so unbearable and without any prospect of improvement that they would reasonably prefer to have been killed when they were babies, as follows: I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold as to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food, at a year old in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes as they have since gone through by the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with neither house nor clothes to cover them from the inclemencies of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of entailing the like or greater miseries upon their breed for ever.


The great man died on 19th of October, 1745, aged 78 having written his own epitaph, in Latin, which William Butler Yeats translated as follows: Swift has sailed into his rest Savage indignation there cannot lacerate his breast Imitate him if you can, world-besotted traveler He served human liberty. Serve humanity he certainly did, but the English establishment ignored his exhortations and continued its forceful removal of Ireland’s output until the landlords were bought out in the 1890s through 1920 (most between 1900 and 1910). He was a friend of, and is said to have collaborated with, Thomas Prior in the latter’s “List of Absentees…” 1735 Tithes to support the (Anglican) “Church of Ireland” continue to be extracted from all Irish Catholics; but this year the law is changed to exempt owners of pasture lands (beef and sheep raising) which was the landlord’s preferred form of agriculture. Thus, the cost of maintaining the British State Church in Ireland, the landlords’ church, is collected largely from the Irish Catholic victims of those landlords. The collections are executed by British soldiers and militias, and, later, the police, in support of the tithe proctors. The following extract from Lecky will sufficiently explain the position of the Catholics of those days with regard to tithes:- “The Irish tithe system was, indeed, one of the most absurd that can be conceived. Tithes in their original theory are not absolute property, but property assigned in trust for the discharge of certain public duties. In Ireland, when they were not appropriated by laymen, they were paid by an impoverished Catholic peasantry to a clergy who were opposed to their religion, and usually not even resident amongst them, and they were paid in such a manner that the heaviest burden lay on the very class who were least able to bear it. It was a common thing for a parish to consist of some 4,000 or 5,000 acres of rich pasture land held by a prosperous (English Protestant) grazier who had been


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” rapidly amassing a large fortune through the increased price of cattle, and of 300 or 400 acres of inferior land occupied by a crowd of miserable cottiers (Irish Catholics). In accordance with the House of Commons in 1735, the former was exempted from the burden which was thrown on the latter.”48 1745 There is no Country in Europe, which produces, and exports fo great a Quantity of Beef, Butter, Tallow, Hydes, and Wool, as Ireland does; and yet our Common People are very poorly Cloath’d, go barelegged half the year, and very rarely tafte of that Flefhmeat, with which we fo much abound; We pinch our felves in every Article in Life, and export more than we can well fpare, with no other Effect or Advantage, than to enable our Gentlemen and Ladies to live more luxurioufly Abroad. And they are not content to treat us thus, but add Infult to ill Ufa*ge; they reproach us with our Poverty, at the fame Time, that they take away our Money; and can tell us, we have no Diversions or Entertainments in Ireland for them, when they themfelves difable us from having better, by withdrawing from us.49 Thomas Prior wrote the above about Irish food removal while its producers hungered, a century prior to the 1845 beginning of the Holocaust. It gives some indication of the duration and effect of English landlordism in Ireland. It shows that the Holocaust was no “bolt from the blue” but was a continuation of policy by intensification of terror and homicide. The landlords who “owned” Ireland (without having purchased it) didn’t import millions of English workers to cultivate and harvest these Irish crops. Though produced by the Irish, the landlords claimed ownership of the saved crops, fattened livestock, and poultry and dairy products on the basis that it was grown on “their” land. The landlords’ claim to the land and its output was enforced by their own militias, along with the British army and, beginning in the 1830s, the constabulary. The above 1745 statement shows that long prior to the late 1840s construction of the railroads and even the earlier canals, a torrent of Irish product was escorted to the ports by British forces while its Irish producers were


kept destitute. Prior to the canals the convoys of cartloads of yellow grain to the port in Dublin from Ireland’s midlands converged as they approached Dublin, so that the road through Innfield, Co. Meath was known as “an Bóthar Buí” (the Yellow Road).”50 July 28, 1775 Address to the People of Ireland (the final paragraph of a lengthy piece). Accept our most grateful acknowledgments for the friendly disposition you have always shewn toward us. We know that you are not without your grievances. We sympathize with you in your distress, and are pleased to find that the design of subjugating us, has persuaded administration to dispense to Ireland, some vagrant rays of ministerial sunshine. Even the tender mercies of government have long been cruel towards you. In the rich pastures of Ireland, many hungry parricides have fed, and grown strong to labour in its destruction. We hope the patient abiding of the meek may not always be forgotten; and God grant that the iniquitous schemes of extirpating liberty from the British empire may be soon defeated. But we should be wanting to ourselves-we should be perfidious to posterity-we should be unworthy that ancestry from which we derive our descent, should we submit, with folded arms, to military butchery and depredation, to gratify the lordly ambition, or sate the avarice of a British Ministry. In defence of our persons and properties, under actual violation, we have taken up arms. When that violence be removed, and the hostilities cease on the part of the aggressors, they shall cease on our part also. For the atchievement (sic) of this happy event, we confide in the good offices of our fellow-subjects beyond the Atlantic. Of their friendly disposition, we do not yet despond; aware, as they must be, that they have nothing more to expect from the same common enemy, than the humble favour of being last devoured. By order of the Congress; John Hanco*ck, President. Philadelphia51.

1776 These sentences define my feelings with regard to our ceaseless Irish troubles with great exactness. Sir John Moore, the stainless soldier, who fell at Corunna, was a Scotsman, who saw a great deal of service in Ireland – a service which filled his sensitive soul with 52

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” shame and the bitterest of indignation. Here is Sir John’s statement: ‘About twelve years ago (about 1776), before affairs assumed their present acute form, I had occasion to travel over a considerable portion of Ireland, and when I left the Green Isle the one overmastering sentiment in my heart was; If I were an Irishman I would be a rebel – a rebel at all hazards and at any cost.’ Since then, the tragical course of events in Ireland and Scotland, and the parliamentary death-bed repentance of Mr. Gladstone, have quickened the conscience of the British people, and I am now inspired with the hope that War – the ultima ratio of people as well as kings – may no longer be necessary.’52 1776-1777 Though identifying with the landlords, the condition of the Irish people is again recorded, this time in Arthur Young’s Tour of Ireland. Page 250: Castlebar, Lord Lucan. Most of the tillage of the county (Mayo) is performed by little fellows, cotters (landless), and tenants to the large farmers. Westport; Lord Altamont. Page 259: Hollymount; Mr. Lindsay’s. Farms here are up to 3 or 4,000 acres, all stock ones, with portions re-let to cotters who are the principle arable men here. Monivea; Mr. French. The Aran Islands contain 7,000 acres, belonging to John Digby. Page 288: Working days of Catholics may be reckoned 250 in a year, which are paid for with as much land as amounts to £6 (in annual rent), and the good and bad master is distinguished by this land being reckoned at an high or low rent. And; In Co. Clare there are 2,476 Protestants and 39,620 Catholics. Limerick: Exports from this port are beef, pork, butter, hides, and rape seeds. Imports are rum, sugar, timber, tobacco, wines, coal, bark, salt, etc. Page 299: Immense quantities of raw wool are sent (for export) to Cork from all parts. Five hundred cars (horsecarts) have been seen on line and it is supposed to be sent in large quantity to France. Page 334: The wool to Cork comes from Galway and Roscommon. Page 355: …for exporting woolen goods for the troops in the pay of Ireland.” (Irish products exported to pay England’s troops in Ireland.) Page 344: Ships up to 150 tons can come up to Kenmare. Lord Shelburne has 150,000 Irish acres (243,000 Statute acres) in Co.


Kerry. In 1784 Lord Shelburne became Lord Lansdowne, with family seat at Bowood House in Wiltshire, England. 345: From Bantry the butter is brought to Cork by horseback. Not a plough in the whole parish of Tuosist, Co. Kerry; the loy is the means of tillage. Ten men dig an acre per day if not lea. 374: In Kerry/West Limerick tithes are all annually raised by the proctors, and charged very high. 377: Labour is generally paid by usage of land. 384: A cabin, an acre of land, at 40 shillings, and the grass of two cows is the recompense of the year’s labor. Those who lack milk for their potatoes eat mustard with them, raising the seed for the purpose. 394: This year’s purchase price of land is 20 (twenty times its annual rental income); was 25 some years ago. The fall is owing partly to the expectation of an absentee land-tax. 395: Steven Moore, Esq. his mill started with 3,000 bushels of wheat; rose to 20,000 bushels in 1776. He sends his flour to Dublin on the bounty which pays for --. 399: Employ; don’t hang them (the Irish) per Sir William Osborne, 3 miles from Clonmel. 400: “…they used to have one acre of potatoes and the grass of one cow for their year’s labour, and no more, and were much greater slaves than at present.” 423: In Forenought, Co. Kildare: The county cess is fourpence per acre. The tithe, six shillings per acre for wheat or barley, four shillings for oats or hay. 1776-1881 Torture of American republican volunteers angers our Founding Fathers. On British prison hulks in New York’s East River 11,500 American POWs die in British custody. They could have saved their lives by joining the British army. Their sacred remains were collected along the shoreline and are held in a vault under the Ships Martyrs Monument on the highest point in Ft. Greene cemetery, Brooklyn, overlooking where the hulks were once anchored.53 Britain’s Lord Stormont is Britain’s ambassador in Paris while Benjamin Franklin is there. Franklin demands, by letter with affidavits, that Stormont put a stop to such POW abuse. A lengthy letter dated 12 March, 1777 from Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane in Paris headed; “To the Committee of Secret Correspondence” ends; “We transmit you some affidavits relating to the treatment of our prisoners, with a copy to


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Lord Stormont, communicating them, and his insolent answer. (My emphasis, CF). We request you to present our duty to the Congress, and assure them of our most faithful service. With great respect we have the honor to be, &c. B. Franklin, Silas Deane”54 Is it not entirely appropriate that Stormont Castle, the seat, with London, of continuing British rule in Occupied Ireland, internationally infamous for torture of Irish republicans in its prisons, is named for an infamous condoner of torture – of American republicans? One day a French friend rushed to Franklin to repeat the latest story about America’s collapse, which he had heard from the British Ambassador. Six battalions in Washington’s army had lain down their arms. Was it true? “Oh, no,” replied Franklin gravely, “it is not the truth, it is only a Stormont. Within a day the story had swept Paris, stormonter became a new French word for lying, Lord Stormont was so upset, one day he wrote no less than nine letters to London about Franklin’s activities.55 ” 1778 Ireland’s Catholics were utterly friendless. The politics of their hierarchy is revealed by the following letter from Dr. Troy, Catholic Bishop of the diocese of Ossory (Kilkenny, part of Laois, northernmost Tipperary, and into Offaly). For the Rev. Pastors and other R. Catholic Clergymen of the Diocese of Ossory;- R.Rev. Sirs: You are to read the following lines at each of your respective Masses on Sunday next, 22nd instant. John Troy; Kilkenny, 20th February, 1778.

Dear Christians, You have been frequently reminded of the obedience you owe to the powers whom the Almighty has appointed to rule over us. Your Pastors and other teachers have not ceased to inculcate and enforce that indispensable duty after the example of our Divine Redeemer who commands us to give unto Caesar what belongeth to 55

Caesar, and unto God what belongeth to God. You have experienced the lenity of government in the execution of Penal Laws, which continue to distinguish you from other subjects, notwithstanding your irreproachable demeanor in times of temptation and trial. Impressed as I know you are with these affecting considerations of duty and gratitude, I cannot doubt of your persevering endeavors to merit an increase of indulgence from his Majesty and every other branch of the legislature. A cheerful compliance with this important obligation is particularly requisite in these days of discord and calamity, when our American fellow subjects, seduced by the specious notions of liberty and other illusive expectations of sovereignty, disclaim any dependence on Great Britain, and endeavor by force of arms to distress their mother country, which has cherished and protected them. Our ingratitude to God, our want of commiseration and tenderness for our distressed neighbors, our immoralities of every kind, our contempt and mockery of religion, and of everything that has an appearance of piety, deserve greater punishments than are inflicted on us by the present unnatural and destructive war. Let us, therefore, without loss of time prostrate ourselves before the throne of mercy, and ask pardon, and beseech forgiveness. Let us make supplications, prayers, intercessions, thanksgivings for all men, for Kings and all who are in high stations, that we may lead quiet and peaceable life in all piety and charity. And whereas it has pleased his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant and Council to order a general fast on Friday, 27th inst., I desire you will observe the same with that religious decency and exactness expressive of compunction, and a lively feeling of our present situation. Offer up your most fervent prayers on that occasion for the spiritual and temporal happiness of your Most gracious Lord and Sovereign King George the third, his Royal Consort and family; approach with confidence the Supreme Ruler of empires and states, ‘by whom Kings reign and legislatures determine what is just.’ humbly imploring him to direct his Majesty’s Councils, and render them the happy instrument of a speedy, honourable, and lasting reconciliation between Great Britain and her once flourishing colonies of America, without further effusion of blood. Your love for your native country will induce you to 56

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” recommend this poor Kingdom in your prayers, also his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant and Chief Governor thereof, who like his Royal Master has nothing more at heart than the happiness of all his Majesty’s subjects without distinction. I wish you all every blessing, and am Your very humble servant in Christ, John Troy”56 Later in 1778 Alarmed by events in America the British government repeals some of its penal laws, softening others. It decriminalizes the education of Catholics and the habitation of Catholics in the City of Limerick.57 1779 The Catholic Church excommunicates the Whiteboys (for resisting British tyranny in Ireland). On October 11, Bishop Troy issued the following letter to the Pastors and Clergy of his diocese: Rev. Sirs: The under-written sentence of excommunication is to be published with the usual ceremonies of Bell, Book, and Candle light, at each of your respective Masses on Sunday next, 17th inst. And you are to read it in Irish where the ignorance of the English language amongst the generality of your parishioners may render it necessary. You are likewise to explain the nature and dreadful consequences of an excommunication, and by every possible method endeavor to prevent your people from being exposed to so great an evil. I am, Rev. Sirs, Your very obedient and humble servant in Christ; John Troy; Kilkenny.”58 The very lengthy Sentence of Excommunication followed. It included a call for total shunning, a short life, destruction or destitution of any descendants, and condemnation to Hell for eternity. In the Church’s possible defense one must note that such bishops were then subject to summary execution, a sentence held in abeyance at the pleasure of the


local British officers. This condemnation of the Whiteboys might have been Bishop Troy’s sole means of survival. 1781 The United States finally frees itself of British rule. Lord Cornwallis’s sword is surrendered to George Washington in Yorktown, Virginia on October 29. Cornwallis deployed to Ireland. 1782 That the militias in Ireland are operated by the landlords can be seen by the English names and English titles listed below:59

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF Earl of Charlemont GENERALS Duke of Leinster Sir James Tynte Earl of Tyrone Earl of Clanricarde Earl of Aldborough Earl of Muskerry Lord de Vesci Sir William Parsons Sir B. Denny Hon. J. Butler Right Hon. George Ogle Right Hon. Henry King TOTAL MILITIA FORCES (MEETING PLACE) AND ARTILLERY PIECES) Ulster (Dungannon):

34,152 and artillery of: 6-pounders, 16; 3pounders, 10; Howitzers, 6.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Connaught (Ballinasloe): 14,336 “ “ “: 6-pounders, 10; 3pounders, 10; Howitzers, none. Munster: (City of Cork): 18,056 “ “ “; 6-pounders, 14; 3pounders, 14; Howitzers, 4. Leinster (Dublin City): 22,283 “ “ “, 9-pounders, 2; 6pounders, 16; 3-pounders, 14; How.s, 6. Totals: 88,827 + 22 aditnl Dublin corps est’d at 12,000 men = 100,000 total, & est’d 130 artillery pieces. William Cobbett refers to this larger-than-earlier force as ”volunteers” instead of the usual “militias.” (Benj. Franklin had visited in 1771.) “Volunteers” because it was inspired by the U.S. Revolution, by Presbyterians prosecuted as “Protestant” relative to England’s State Church, and by the sharp reduction of England’s regular forces in Ireland due to their deployment to America. On April 16, 1782 the Dungannon Convention and the Irish Parliament had declare the right to legislate independent of England. Though this “Irish” parliament was exclusively Protestant and no Catholic was permitted to vote, the leaders of Ireland’s volunteer movement were influenced by America’s Founding Fathers and were breaking with the old bigotry. Thus Catholics are allowed to join the above volunteers which permits their use of arms for the first time in centuries. Upon England’s 1781 defeat and departure of its army from the new United States, it gradually reinforced its loyalists in Ireland and set about marginalizing and disarming the volunteers. 1787- 1868 The 1781 defeat of British law in the US ends enslavement here of the Irish (but, tragically, not of Africans). Royalty-connected plantation owners could no longer access the abundant supply of Irish “felons” from British courtrooms in Ireland; thus their fellow English planters in Bermuda and the Caribbean became the beneficiaries of those courtrooms; as did Australia starting in 1787 (and ending in 1868). Thus, regarding Australia:


The very day we landed upon the Fatal Shore, The planters stood around us, full twenty score or more; They ranked us up like horses and sold us out of hand, They chained us up to pull the plough, upon Van Diemen’s Land.60 Convict Ballad, ca. 1825-30 Most of the dead were Irish convicts. Many had been sent out for political offenses and they were especially ill-treated because the captains feared mutiny. Thus on Britannia, which sailed from Cork late in 1796 with 144 male and 44 female Irish on board, the master Thomas Dennott went on a sad*stic rampage. He had a supposed ringleader, William Trimball, flogged until he gave a list of 31 names of convicts who had allegedly taken an oath to mutiny. He then had the ship searched for weapons, the guards found home-made saws, half-a-dozen improvised knives, some lengths of hoop iron and a pair of scissors. This was enough. One convict, James Brannon, received the appalling total of 800 lashes on two successive days, the second session with pieces of fresh horse-skin braided to the cat-o’-nine-tails. “Damn your eyes, this will open your carcase,” Dennott bellowed at him, and it did, although he took several days to die. In all, Dennott meted out 7,900 lashes to the suspects and killed six of them. The surgeon, a half-mad incompetent named Augustus Beyer, refused to dress their wounds and, being terrified of Captain Dennott, would not supervise the floggings, he cowered in his cabin, listening to the whistling lash and the screams of the Irish. A poor female convict named Jenny Blake tried to commit suicide, for which Dennott cropped her hair, slashed her repeatedly across the face and neck with a cane and had her double-ironed. The government held an inquiry into the conduct of Dennott and Breyer but took no action against either. It found that Dennott had “bordered on too great a degree of severity” and Beyer had been “negligent.”61 After Hercules sailed from Cork late in 1801, the convicts mutinied. Fourteen were shot out of hand and thirty more died from disease and exhaustion, a death rate of one in four. Conditions on Atlas were even worse; sixty-five died on the voyage, largely because they had to make


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” way for 2,166 gallons of rum, which her master, Captain Brooks, planned to sell in Sydney.62 And these died even before the forced labor regimen that awaited them in Australia. January, 1792 The largely Presbyterian-led Society of United Irishmen, influenced by the spirit of the American revolution, address the following to the population of Belfast: “Gentlemen, - As men, and as Irishmen, we have long lamented the degrading state of slavery and oppression in which the great majority of our countrymen, the Roman Catholics, are held- …We anxiously wish to see the day when Catholics and Protestants … shall be cordially united and shall learn to look upon each other as brethren.”63 However, General Cornwallis, assigned to Ireland soon after his defeat by Washington’s army with the help of many Irish volunteers, crushes the United Irishmen and their notions of brotherhood with the Irish. 1795 Accordingly in that year (1795) the Pitt ministry ‘recommended the Irish (exclusively Protestant) Parliament to appropriate a grant of £8,000 per annum, to support a college for the Irish priesthood’ and that sum was thereupon appropriated for the construction and maintenance of the Catholic Theological College of Maynooth.64 As part of that new policy Britain’s parliament abolishes the law by which Resident Magistrates in Ireland pay bounties for the severed heads of Catholic priests. Britain’s purpose in establishing Maynooth seminary was to render Ireland’s Catholic hierarchy more loyal to Rome than to Ireland. Everyone involved in any way with Maynooth Seminary must swear an oath of allegiance to England’s royal family.65 Having already made a secret connection to the Pope, this change of laws gives Britain effective control of the Irish people through their spiritual leaders. While some priests such as Fr. John Murphy of 1798 fame and Fr. Micheál O’Flanagan (1876-1942)


sacrificed their careers (and risked their lives) by pursuing justice for their congregations, most priests followed their bishops’ directions by covertly supporting British rule thenceforth. Among the few shining exceptions to this shameful betrayal were Bishops John McHale of Tuam (for whom McHale Park, Castlebar, is named) and Thomas Croke of Cashel (for whom Croke Park is named). 1797 “In 1797 the debt of Ireland is only three million pounds. Twenty-one million pounds are borrowed by England to carry the Union, and were then added on to Ireland’s debt. The latter had to purchase the rod that scourged her, and her body was sold to pay the wages of her executioners. The money was appropriated as follows: Increased military outlay………………………………………………..£16,000,000 Cash bribes to owners of pocket-boroughs………………………...……. .1,500,000 ‘To suffering loyalists’…………………………………………………….1,500,000 Blood-money to spies and informers……………………………………… 1,000,000 Increased expenses of judicial tribunals……………………………...………500,000 Compensation to public officers………………………………………..…….500,000 ------------£21,000,000”66

More 1797 The intensifying desire for freedom is increasingly suppressed by official terrorism. In June the noted Loyalist John Clifford, on duty with his regiment near Newry, Co. Down, describes the devastation wrought by members of the Ancient Britons, a Welsh Fencible regiment, in their search for arms in a small village nearby: I was directed by the smoke and flames of burning houses and by the dead bodies of boys and old men slain by the Britons, though no opposition whatever had been given by them and, as I shall answer to Almighty God, I believe not a single gun was fired but by the Britons or Yeomanry. I declare there was nothing to fire at, old men, women and children excepted. From ten to twenty were killed outright, many wounded and eight houses burned. The courts, too, were pressed into service. William Orr, a young and prosperous Presbyterian farmer of Ballymoney, Co. Antrim, was indicted for administering the United Irish oath to two soldiers, and was sentenced to death. Orr spoke: If to have loved my country, to have known of its wrongs, to have felt the injuries of the persecuted Catholic and to have united with them and all other religious persuasions in the most orderly and least


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” sanguinary means of procuring redress – if these be felonies, I am a felon, but not otherwise. 1798 On Vinegar Hill, o’er the pleasant Slaney, Our heroes vainly stood back to back, And the Yeos at Tullow took Father Murphy, and burnt his body upon a rack. God grant you glory, brave Father Murphy, And open Heaven to all your men The cause that called you may call tomorrow, In another fight for the Green again67 And; It was early, early in the spring The birds did whistle and sweetly sing Changing their notes from tree to tree, And the song they sang was Old Ireland Free. It was early, early in the night, The yeoman cavalry gave me a fright, The yeoman cavalry were my downfall, And taken was I by Lord Cornwall.68 This year brings desperate struggles for freedom in Ireland; especially in Dublin, Kildare, and Meath, followed by Wexford, Wicklow, Carlow, Down and Antrim, and some weeks later in Mayo, Sligo and Longford. The successful U.S. revolution against British rule must have encouraged an Ireland already inspired by the writings of the U.S. Founding Fathers. While words and ideas from the U.S. Declaration of Independence were later echoed in Ireland’s Proclamation of 1916, the 1798 Rising proved a disaster. On October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, after the war-ending battle there, British General Lord Charles Cornwallis’s sword had been surrendered to U.S. General George Washington. Many in Washington’s army were Irish, so Cornwallis took his revenge when the Crown appointed him Ireland’s Lord Lieutenant and Commanderin-Chief. In 1798 Cornwallis’s forces under Generals Lake and


Johnson murder essentially all captured rebels and many local noncombatants in Wexford, Carlow and Kildare. Pitch-capping and other forms of torture and mutilation are rife (such that even Cornwallis distanced himself from them). Cornwallis denies the great Theobald Wolfe Tone a soldier’s death by shooting and instead ordered him to a traitor’s death by hanging, so Tone cheated the hangman by committing suicide (if he wasn’t murdered). Words Wolfe Tone was not allowed to speak at his trial were found later among Cornwallis’ papers, as follows: I have laboured to create a people in Ireland, by raising three millions of my countrymen to the rank of citizens. I have laboured to abolish the infernal spirit of religious persecution, by uniting the Catholics and Dissenters (Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists). To the former I owe more than ever can be repaid. The services I was so fortunate as to render them, they rewarded munificently; but they did more. When the public cry was raised against me – when the friends of my youth swarmed off and left me alone – the Catholics did not desert me; they had the virtue even to sacrifice their own interests to a rigid principle of honour; they refused though strongly urged, to disgrace a man who, whatever his conduct towards the government might have been, had faithfully and conscientiously discharged his duty towards them; and in so doing, though it was in my own case, I will say they showed an instance of public virtue of which I know not whether there exists another example.”69 In Antrim and Down on June 7th through 13th General Nugent puts down the mostly Presbyterian rebels. (Later, as Britain’s State Church eased its prohibitions against Presbyterians and they are induced to side with Anglicans against Catholics, this northern part of the 1798 rebellion, despite its many hundreds of deaths, is largely erased from history.) In August and September, in Mayo, Sligo and Longford, Cornwallis and Lake treated with dignity the French under Gen. Humbert after the French/Irish forces surrendered in Ballinamuck,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Co. Longford, but put to death all captured Irish rebels including suspected ones, some on gallowses erected in Killala, Ballina, Castlebar, and Claremorris. Finally and significantly, the rebellion failed because Catholic Ireland (its hierarchy), by and large, sided with the government. The hierarchy in particular offered strong support to the (British) government: no word of criticism is voiced of the policy of ‘the bayonet, the gibbet and the lash’; the rebels are immediately excommunicated; and those priests who sided with the rebels – a derisory 70 out of 1,800 in the country – are denounced as troublemakers, drunks, and philanderers. In the inelegant phrase of Bishop Caulfield of Ferns, (Co. Wicklow) such priests are ‘the very faeces of the church’…Perhaps 25,000 rebels (including a very high proportion of non-combatants) and some 1,600 soldiers had been slain. 70 As that Rising receded into time, its history was rewritten to meet new political/religious requirements. History books generally omit mention of the major battles in Cos. Down and Antrim. These rebels were mostly Presbyterian, a fact that doesn’t suit their descendants. Likewise; the Catholic hierarchy’s monolithic support for the (British, Protestant) government and its adamant opposition to the largely Catholic rebel forces in the other counties, has been transformed into “the Catholic church’s heroic Fr. Murphy of Boolavogue.” Records state that, after the 1798 Irish Rebellion, thousands of Irish slaves were sold to both America (the Caribbean islands) and Australia. There were horrible abuses of both African and Irish captives. One British ship even dumped 1,302 slaves into the Atlantic Ocean so that the crew would have plenty of food to eat.71

1800 During the viceregency of Lord Cornwallis (of American Revolution infamy) the subsuming of Ireland into England was spearheaded by Lord Castlereagh and abetted by British Prime Minister Pitt “the Bottomless.” It was achieved entirely by bribing the (exclusively Protestant) Irish parliament and went into effect on January 1, 1801. The small farm on which I was raised was part of the tens of thousands of acres “owned” by landlord Henry Sandford who


was also a Member of Ireland’s (Protestant-only) parliament. For signing his agreement to union with Britain, he demanded and received the title “Lord Mount Sandford” in addition to a cash payoff. This direct rule from London lasted until January 21, 1919 when Ireland became sovereign with its own Dáil Ēireann until nearly three years later it was overridden by King George V’s royal Dáil Ēireann which continues to this day. Do not unite with us, sir; it would be the union of a shark with his prey; we should unite with you only to destroy you. – Dr. Samuel Johnson. If it must be called a union, it is the union of a shark with his prey; the spoiler swallows up his victim, and they become one and inseparable. Thus has Great Britain swallowed up the Parliament, the Constitution, the independence, of Ireland. - Lord Byron who, upon Castlereagh’s suicide, also wrote: So Castlereagh has cut his throat! The worst Of this is – that his own was not the first! So he has cut his throat at last! He! Who? The man who cut his country’s long ago!72 Another “eulogy:” I met murder on the way He had a masque like Castlereagh Very smooth he looked, yet grim Seven bloodhounds followed him -Poet Percy Bysshe Shelley Castlereagh, the curse of his own country and the enemy of every other who, like another Judas, despairing of forgiveness for his multiplied transgressions became his own executioner in the midst of his pride and power.

The name of Castlereagh was the only one connected with the Irish politics of his day which Mr. Emmet (probably Robert’s brother 66

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Thomas Addis) could never refer to without showing the utmost loathing and disgust. Both statements by the V. Rev. John Canon O’Hanlon.73 More 1800 The following account reveals the British landlords’ pervasive control of Ireland at the time, including control of the press and even the parish priest. Tithe Proctors extracted from the entirely Catholic population the tithes (ten percent of what the landlords had allowed farmers to keep of their own production). Under British law Ireland’s people were forced to pay for the upkeep of their oppressors’ Anglican Church (“Church of Ireland”). You will notice in the following newspaper reports the total absence of doubt about the rightness of such forced tithing to an alien church. Tithe Proctors were contractors who had arranged with the local Anglican Parson to collect the tithes for a portion of the take. Because such tithing was the law of the land the Tithe Proctors were reinforced by the British police, militia and army. You will also notice that the Bolands were also “Yeomen” (armed supporters of the local landlord and members of his militia; see Exhibit C3). This counterattack on the Bolands was exploited by William Carleton, the anti-Irish propagandist, in his widely promoted The Tithe Proctor (see this book in Bibliography).The following is a series of contemporary (1800) local news reports compiled and republished in 1954. NIGHT OF THE BOLANDS 7 MARCH 1800 By Austin Cregan, Holy Cross, Bruff, Co. Limerick; published in The Fedamore News in 1954. The occurrence referred to locally as the “Night of the Bolands” and the “Burning of the Bolands” took place at Manister at what has since been called “Burn Cross.” The Boland homestead was situated at the rear of the two semi-detached cottages now (1954) occupied by


Timothy Hedderman and Patrick Cregan. The Bolands were tithe proctors and they were attacked because John Boland had seized a cow or (cows) belonging to Patrick Ahern, a miserably poor man with a large family. It was only one of many attacks on tithe proctors during those years. So as a rule the attackers were satisfied with administering a beating and extracting a promise that the proctors would give up their unsavoury work. This case was different. The Bolands were notorious for the severity with which they pressed the collection of tithes. They had seized the property of many poor men and were in consequence thoroughly hated. It was not, however, until they seized Patrick Ahern’s cow that they aroused the anger and hatred of a man who determined to have revenge and was able to induce others to support him. Besides being tithe proctors John Boland and his brother James were yeomen. This was probably another reason why they were so detested, but whether or not it had anything to do with their deaths nobody can now say. As far as it is known they were attacked because of their actions as tithe proctors and for no other reason. The attackers knew that the Bolands were well armed, and they came prepared to deal with any defence they might put up. Before the attack began they were called on to come out of the house. We can only guess as to what would have happened if they had come out. They refused however, and the attackers then offered to let the Boland women leave the house unmolested if they wished to do so. This offer was accepted, and the women, mother and daughters, came out and were not interfered with. The following account of the incident is taken from the Limerick Chronicle of that time. It is the version we might expect to find given by, and for, the ruling minority of that period. Eleven men were hanged and eleven more were flogged (mostly one thousand lashes each) and transported for life. How little these punishments helped to lessen the determination of the people may be judged from the fact that shortly afterwards many houses from Manister to Crecora were raided by an armed body seeking money for the dependents of those who lost their lives in the attack.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

THE LIMERICK CHRONICLE. Wednesday 12th March 1800. It appears that at a late hour on Friday night a great number of villains, armed with muskets, swords and pikes, attacked the house of Mr. John Boland of Manister and demanded his arms; at the same time a considerable part of the Banditti, on horseback, were placed at a distance to keep watch. Mr. Boland with his brother James and his sons Mathew and James were in the house in bed (as were Mrs. Boland and her two daughters).On the first alarm the men got up and determined to defend their house and property with that spirit for which as yeomen and loyalists they were most remarkable. After firing a number of shots among the barbarous assailants (several of whom there is good reason to believe did execution) unfortunately for this brave family the house was thatched, and the wretches set the same on fire which caused them to come out. In consequence of which Mr. John Boland, his brother James and Mathew were butchered in a manner shocking to relate; the latter lived until next morning but died without giving an account of his murderers. It also appeared to the inquest that Edmond Boland, brother of Mr. John Boland, who lay in the neighbouring house was coming to the assistance of his family and was murdered between the bridge of Manister and the house, which was burned down. To add to this more than hellish outrage poor Mrs. Boland who with her daughters narrowly escaped from the flames, has become quite deranged and the recovery of the daughters still remains doubtful. 2nd April 1800: Henry Stokes, Paul Slattery, and Patrick Sheehan were tried for the murders. 12th April 1800: Henry Stokes and Patrick Sheehan were convicted in the clearest testimony: to be hanged on Fedamore Hill on Monday next. Paul Slattery is to receive a thousand lashes at Bruff the same day and to be transported for life. 16 April 1800:


Henry Stokes and Patrick Sheehan were on Monday morning taken from the New Barrack under escort to the hill of Fedamore where they were hanged, after which their bodies were brought to the city and thrown into the Croppies' (Catholics’) Hole at the New Gaol. On the same day a man named Moriarty, for prevarication on the trial of the above, received one hundred lashes at the foot of the gallows. Sir James Duff addressed the deluded multitude at Fedamore last Monday and promised pardon to all (murderers, robbers and house burners excepted) who may come in and surrender themselves either to their clergy or to the magistrates. Among the spectators who attended the execution, a man named Patrick Haneen was recognised and brought into our county gaol, against whom, we are assured there is positive proof of him being the first person who set fire to the murdered Mr. Boland’s house. 19th April 1800: Trial of John and William Collins and Murtogh Ahern for the murders. John Collins confessed his guilt. The Collins brothers were convicted and were sentenced to be hanged near Croom. 3rd May 1800: Thirteen pikeheads and one bayonet, given in by some parishioners to Rev. Mr. Ryan P.P. Fedamore, were delivered to Gen. Sir James Duff. Bart. (Remainder illegible). LIMERICK CHRONICLE: Saturday, 12th March 1803. Re: The Bolands Murder of 7th March 1800. The real motive of this gruesome murder by Whiteboys or United Irishmen, or whatever they call themselves has now come to light. On Wednesday Murtogh Ahern was convicted of the murder of Messrs. Boland (John, James, Matthew Edward and James Junior) on the night of the 7th March 1800. This man appeared to have been principal in that bloody scene. The learned judge said in pronouncing sentence that he never felt so little pain in discharging this awful part of his duty; and a sentiment of


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” satisfaction seemed to pervade the court at seeing a principal of that massacre convicted, though at the end of three years. Upon this trial a very extraordinary circ*mstance occurred: a man who admitted to have been present at the massacre appeared as a witness for the prisoner at the bar, but as this man’s fate is yet undecided we shall have to abstain from all commentary as to this, only to observe that we hear his defence is that he is forced to the massacre by Patrick Ahern who sought revenge against Boland, then a tithe proctor, Boland having sold a cow of Ahern’s under decree for tithes against him obtained in the Civil Bill Court. Whether this man was under coercion or not may appear hereafter; but it is now unquestionably true that the dreadful carnage of the Bolands was occasioned by the circ*mstances above-stated. Saturday 19th March 1803: This morning Murtogh Ahern was taken from our County Gaol under escort of Captain Tuthill and Captain Waller’s troops of yeomanry Cavalry and Captain Marret’s Limerick Garrison Yeomen Infantry to Manister in this county where he was executed for the well-known horrid crime committed on the family of the Bolands. The malefactor's corpse was brought back and given to the County Hospital for dissection. Wednesday, 23rd March 1803: Yesterday, Tuesday, Banks and Sheerman were executed; the former at Honey Pound and the latter at Patrickswell.......O’Regan who was to be executed with Sheerman received a respite at the foot of the gallows. On this occasion as well as Ahern’s execution the High Sheriff declined making use of military force and the executions were conducted by the Civil Power. We never witnessed more zeal or unanimity than was displayed on this occasion, almost every gentleman in the county came forward to assist the Sheriff. It is added that the convicts died very penitent, but it is not stated whether or not they were attended by a priest. The Bolands are buried in Fedamore graveyard and there is a stone over the grave. We have seen that the Bolands were attacked because of the seizures they had made as tithe proctors, but it seems certain, that the


attack would not have been pushed to such a bloody conclusion only for the following incident. When the Boland women were allowed to leave the house some of the attackers came forward to lead them to safety. The Boland men took advantage of this and fired a volley, which killed at least two of the attackers. After that no quarter was given. The Bolands fought to the last and eventually perished in the flames of the burning house. It is said that the Boland women, as well as the men were trained to the use of firearms; and that of the eleven men who were hanged and the eleven who were flogged and transported more than half were innocent. After Mr. Cregan’s above work was first published he was contacted by two descendants of one of two Ahern brothers who had not been hanged but had been sentenced to “transportation,” had survived the voyage and the slave labor sentences. Mr. Cregan informs me that those two descendants visited Ireland, stayed with him, and visited and photographed all of the places of tragedy and British brutality reported above. Mr. Cregan adds the following: Four Ahern brothers were convicted and sentenced to death but were reprieved at the last moment and transported to Van Diemen’s Land. Two brothers died on the way there. The other two, Martin and Patrick survived the journey and their descendants now live in the Sydney area. As jingoistically as the Limerick Chronicle reported this story; for jingoism at its most extreme read William Carleton’s version of the same series of events in his contemporaneous book The Tithe Proctor. All newspapers in Ireland reflected the views of their exclusively Ascendancy (Protestant) owners, from 1649 until the 1840 founding of Ireland’s first Catholic-owned newspaper, the Kerry Examiner74 (folded in 1856), the 1841 founding of the Cork Examiner (now Irish Examiner) newspaper followed in 1842 by the Ascendancy-owned, but Irish-oriented, The Nation.75


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 1802 The new United States’ prohibition against enslaving any but Africans results in Britain sending all of its “felons” (the ones spared death) to its landlords in other colonies. Most are sent as slave labor to Australia and Van Diemen’s Land. The 1798 Rebellion, the “tithe wars,” and Britain’s increasingly-lethal squeeze on Ireland’s agricultural producers increases the number of Irish “felons” transported. They are endangered during the trip itself, aside from the travails that awaited them. In 1802 when the Hercules from Cork arrives in New South Wales it shows a 37% death rate. On Atlas II 65 of 181 Irish convicts die.76 1803 Let no man write my epitaph; for as no man who knows my motives dare now vindicate them, - let not prejudice or ignorance asperse them. Let them rest in obscurity and peace; my memory left in oblivion, and my tomb remain uninscribed, until other times and other men can do justice to my character. When my country takes her place among the nations of the earth; then, and not ‘til then, let my epitaph be written. 77 So ends immortal Robert Emmet’s Speech From The Dock prior to being hanged and beheaded. Notice his first sentence above wherein he acknowledges the silencing effect of the government’s lethal hostility toward all who would support democracy. The U.S. Revolution of 1776-1781 was inspiring many. This attempt at freedom for all of Ireland, led mostly by democracyleaning members of the Ascendancy, resulted in failure and the execution of its leaders, including Robert Emmet who was a leader in Dublin, and the Sheares brothers; also Corkman Thomas Russell, “The Man From God Knows Where” (Googleable) who organized the United Irishmen in Co. Down starting in 1795. 1814 In August the British army captures Washington. D.C. and burn down the White House. The attacking army is led by General Robert Ross, raised in Rostrevor, Ireland, son of an English landlord. Three weeks later, Ross is killed by American defenders during his failed attack on Baltimore (which, as observed by Francis Scott Key, was rendered into America’s national anthem, The Star Spangled Banner).


January 1815: At the Battle of New Orleans (“Down the Mississip’ to the Gulf o’ Mexico”) General Edward Pakenham is killed (six days after George III conferred on him an Order of the Bath). Pakenham’s junior officer, Edward Blakeney, would later, as a General, become Commander-in Chief of Britain’s 1845-1850 Holocaust of Ireland. The Pakenhams were landlords of large estates in counties Antrim, Roscommon, and Westmeath. Like essentially all of Ireland’s land the Pakenham estates are now split up and owned and occupied by their Irish cultivators, but the Pakenham/Mahon Big House in Strokestown, Co. Roscommon has been converted into Ireland’s “Famine Museum.” Visitors to it, seeking information as to which British regiment removed the food crops from their relatives, are diverted into celebrating the grandeur of that “Irish” landlord’s house and furnishings and are handed a brochure written by Mary Robinson, Ireland’s then-president. In it she grotesquely wrote that “1845-1850 was Ireland’s greatest NATURAL catastrophe.” (Emphasis mine). 1819 On May 24, the future Queen Victoria is born. While she was still a young girl her uncle, King Leopold of Belgium became her long-time mentor.78 1824 “How miserable must that man be who attempts to exact from poverty more than hunger and toil can pay! These men (tenants and their families, C.F.) live all the year on the produce of one or two acres of potatoes, and cultivate the remainder of their farms for an absentee landlord and an avaricious Church (C. of I., C.F). ”79 “…while her ladyship, desirous of exhibiting a splendid appearance, had asked, for that night, the officers of a neighboring garrison; for Ireland, resembling the absurd frivolity of her (Ascendancy) children, has, for every twenty cabins of mud, a stone palace for a barrack.”80 Cruickshank exaggerated but made his point that impoverished Ireland was blanketed by ostentatious barracks for British soldiers.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” The following is a return of the Bishops’ (C. of I.) landed estates made to parliament by the bishops themselves, and published on 11th February, 1824:81 The Archbishop of Armagh; “ Dublin; “ Tuam and Ardagh; “ Cashel & Emly; Bishop of Meath “ Clogher “ Kilmore “ Derry “ Ossory “ Ferns & Leighlin “ Limerick, Ardfert & Aghadoe “ Waterford & Lismore “ Cork & Ross “ Cloyne “ Killaloe & Kilfenora “ Elphin

63,470 acres 28,781 “ 49,281 “ 13,372 “ 18,384 “ 32,817 “ 51,350 “ 94,836 “ 13,391 “ 11,697 “ 6,720 “ 8,500 “ 22,755 “ 15,871 “ 11,081 “ 31,017 “

These 16 bishops who sent in returns had 473,313 acres of See lands. No returns are given for the other six dioceses; but according to Parliamentary Reports 1831-1833. The See lands of all 22 bishops were 669,277 acres. Besides the See lands they had demesne lands totaling 5,500 acres. Thus the total landed property of the bishops alone was 674,777 acres. Meanwhile, The Anglican Ascendancy’s Trinity College, the richest college in Europe, was a landlord in seventeen Irish counties. Its total Irish latifundia amounted to 200,000 acres. As on the rest of the island, the Irish tenants are legally robbed of their agricultural output on the basis that it was the property of the landlord on whose land it was grown. April 20, 1829: Despite the opposition of King William IV, Queen (then-Princess) Victoria, is already being mentored by letter from her


uncle, Prince (soon to be King) Leopold of Belgium. Their correspondence continued: King Leopold I and Princess Victoria, 22May1832, 22Oct34, 2Dec1834, 3Aug1835,16Apr1836, 13May1836, 7June1936, 30Jan1837, 11Apr1837, 2May1837, 25May1837, 26May1837, again 26May1837, 7June1837. 17Jun1837, 19Jun1837, now Queen Victoria to King Leopold I on 20Jun1837, 27Jun1837, 30Jun1837, 12Jul1837, 9Oct1837, 26Dec1837, 22feb1838, 13Apr1838, 25May1838, 15Jul1839, 12Oct1839, 15Oct1839, 24Oct1839, 22Nov1839, 26Nov1839, 9Dec1839, 4Feb1840, 11Feb1840, 30Nov1840, 15Dec1840, 26Dec1840, 5Jan1841, 22Jan1841, 18May1841, 31May1841, 6Jun1841, 17Jun1841, 29Nov1841, 7Dec1841, 7Mar1842, 8Sept1842, 12Dec1843, 15Dec1843, 4Jun1844, 11Jun1844, 18Jun1844, 5Oct1844, 7Oct1844 28Jan1845, 25Mar1845, 23Apr184510Oct1845, 23Dec1845, 7Jul1846, 4Apr1848, 16May1848, 11Jul1848, 29Aug1848, 21Nov1848, (Pope Pius IX to Queen Victoria 4Dec1848 in which he (the Pope) fulsomely praises her and her uncle, King Leopold and does not mention Ireland!) 19Dec1848, (Draft letter dated January1849 from Victoria to Pius IX in which no mention is made of Ireland!)10Apr1849, 22May1849, 6Aug1849 from Dublin 11Dec1849, 26Mar1850, 29Mar1850, 2July1850, 5July1850, 3May1851 and onward until 1861.82 Leopold I, mentor of Monster Victoria, created another - his son, Leopold II, of Belgian Congo.83 1831 Tithe collecting, after centuries in force in one form or another, began to meet more frequent resistance. It was, after all, a violent seizure of property from destitute Catholics to fulfill their legal obligation to tithe to the Protestant church of their English landlords. In Carrickshock, Co. Kilkenny, on December 14th, while enforcing seizures from the locals, the constables and proctors met unusually strong resistance. Called the “Carrickshock Incident,” or the “Battle of Carrickshock,” A total of seventeen were killed of whom fourteen were enforcers of the seizure, and only three were resisters. This incident was unique among Tithe War homicides. Until then practically all such casualties were of tithe resisters, not tithe enforcers. (See Wikipedia for more.)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 1834 From September 15 to November 28, 1834, British M.P. William Cobbett toured Ireland’s southern counties. He knew what he was seeing, as he was then growing crops on his farm in Surrey, paying wages to his farm laborers and rent to his landlord; much like Irish farmers except his tenancy was much larger and his per-acre rent payments were a fraction of what was being extracted from the Irish. He had promised to publish a book of his Ireland speeches and of the letters he wrote from there to persons in England; but he died within a few months of returning home. Finally, in 1984 a Dennis Knight published those letters in a beautifully-researched book titled; “Cobbett in Ireland; A Warning to England.” In revealing fashion Cobbett called for repeal of the union (of Ireland and Britain); writing:84 1. A Repeal of the Union would do a great deal to put an end to absenteeship. 2. It would give the Irish a legislature in which they would be fully represented, and the members of which must, of necessity, have a deep interest in the welfare of the country. 3. It could save England the expense of thirty thousand troops (my emphasis, Chris F.), besides a Bourbon-like police (and 37 militia regiments; C.F.), now found necessary to keep the people of that country in subjection. 4. It would, of necessity, prevent the misery, the famine, the human degradation which now mark that fertile land and that laborious people. 5. It would remove the constant danger which England is in, during war, in consequence of the discontents of Ireland, and, particularly, it would remove that greatest of all dangers, the deadly and justly-to-be-feared hostility of the United States of America. Cobbett’s seat in the House of Commons was next to that of Daniel “The Liberator” O’Connell whom he praised as follows: “Boundless is the gratitude which Ireland owes to her mighty and devoted


advocate for her emancipation from a slavery of three centuries duration.”85 It took courage for Cobbett, a loyal Englishman, to seek justice for Ireland while all of the forces of propaganda in England were demonizing the Irish. For example, William Makepeace Thackeray was making himself the very popular Goebbels of the coming Holocaust of the Irish, especially later in Punch magazine that he cofounded in 1841 and used to mock and slander the Irish as their death toll soared beginning in 1845.86 Cobbett pointed out that his concern wasn’t exclusively for the Irish producers then (1834) being starved to the edge of death, but for their English counterparts whom, he pointed out, were being targeted by the same governmental advisors whose policies were killing Ireland’s producers (and this was before the Holocaust!). It was class war by the very rich against everyone else. While the Irish produced a torrent of meats, dairy and poultry products, grains, flour, etc. they were squeezed by the armed forces to survive on little more than oatmeal and potatoes. It has echoes today in the major firms in the U.S. whose CEOs some decades ago paid themselves ten to 20 times as much as their line workers, while today that ratio is from 250 times to 450 times as much. With its destruction of labor unions it is a return to America’s robber baron days and is headed toward Ireland’s pre-Holocaust state. I recommend Cobbett in Ireland unreservedly, as it reveals all. His reports on Britain’s armed forces there and their extraction of Ireland’s abundant foods exposes as fraudulent Tony Blair’s much-praised “apology” and the entire shower of fraudulent “famine historians” (partially excepting Cecil Woodham-Smith). Cobbett’s book complements Gustave de Beaumont’s Ireland, John Stuart Mill’s Short View of the State of Ireland, O’Donovan Rossa’s Recollections, and the works of Lalor, Fox, Mitchel, Davitt and others you can see underlined in my Bibliography. Cobbett’s letters had informed British officials of the effects of their genocidal policies so it’s not that they were uninformed. British officialdom knew but Cobbett contended that the English people did


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” not; that were they to learn the truth they would not continue the destruction of the Irish, thus one can speculate that his book, had it been published (and Cobbett was widely respected), would have informed England and precluded the Holocaust. His book includes: “I have been for part of my life, for eight years, in the colony of North America (in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick). I saw that colony settled after the rebel war (U.S. revolution). I was there in an English regiment myself; I saw the colony increase very fast; I saw the whole of the people for four years; I saw 260,000 people who would have expired of hunger were it not for the bread; were it not for the meat, were it not for the butter; that came out of this island (Ireland). Two hundred and sixty thousand people were fed by this country. Not a soul of those 260,000 but were living better than those by whom the food was sent out!”87 In like vein: “Every country town in England has at this moment a supply of Irish flour, Irish meat and Irish butter…”88 Also: “I repeat what I said in my place in Parliament, and I say that it is impossible for any reasoning man to believe that eight millions of people will continue feeding another nation of ten or twelve millions of people; for you feed a great part of them, two millions at least, Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the West of Scotland; it is not possible to believe that there will be for a long time peace or tranquility amongst the eight millions held as a colony by the ten or twelve millions.”89 After passing through Mullinavat, Co. Kilkenny Cobbett wrote: “The hogs are to be killed and dried or tubbed, and sent out of the country to be sold for money to be paid to the landlords, who spend it in London, Bath, Paris, Rome, or some other place of pleasure, while these poor creatures are raising all this food from the land and are themselves starving. And this is what we will come to in England, unless we call upon our member, Mr. Leech, to protect us.”90 As an M.P., Cobbett would have possessed documentation to support his expressed outrage that 30,000 British soldiers were then in Ireland oppressing the people and rendering them destitute. ln summary; Cobbett In Ireland describes the semigenocide underway in 1834.


1835 Gustave de Beaumont and Alexis de Tocqueville toured Ireland together in July and August. I suspect that both had intended to repeat their celebrated performance upon completing their tour of the U.S. It appears that Tocqueville found no democracy worth the name in Ireland. His notes were not published until 1958. But Beaumont’s notes and observations in Ireland, to which he added his notes from a second tour in 1837, became his Irlande: Sociale, Politique, et Religieuse, the truths of which place him among the classical elite. My copy, in English, was published in 2006. Like Cobbett’s book it, even if alone, provides a full, documented, grasp of the long-time, genocidal purpose of English policy in Ireland. Beaumont writes: The proprietor, as we have said, is often an absentee, an Englishman living in England; it often happens that he is unacquainted with his own estates; he knows vaguely that he possesses some hundred, or hundred and fifty thousand acres in the county of Cork or Donegal; that it is bounded on one side by the sea, and on the other by the loftiest mountains perceptible in the horizon. Desirous of deriving from these possessions the greatest profit possible, he is also resolved to not spend a single farthing in improving their value. He or his ancestors obtained this vast tract by confiscation; who knows but some new revolution may take away what the preceding revolution has thrown into his family.91 Also: A great many clergymen of the Church of England are justices of the peace; that is to say, in other words, the Catholics are placed under the civil jurisdiction of churchmen, whose religious jurisdiction they reject. Thus the Irish Catholics, who knows the Protestant ministers only by the tithes he pays them, finds them on the bench, as judges at petty sessions and quarter sessions, meets them at the assizes, sharing in every process, whether civil or criminal, where favour prevails over right, where the rich condemn. It is bad, as a general principle, to unite temporal and spiritual power in the same hand; it is bad that the voice of the pious minister, which proclaims pardon in the name of the All-powerful, should be charged with the application of a law which does not pardon.92 Further: For nearly a hundred years Catholic Ireland was as if it had not existed. The Protestants established in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ireland, though a feeble and almost imperceptible minority (but supported by the British army), presented themselves in England as the Irish nation, and under this title regulated everything foreign and domestic. They said that they were Ireland and ended by believing it.93 After his post-Holocaust tour of Ireland in 1869 Beaumont wrote: I am sure that all those people who claim there is no religious persecution in Ireland are quite sincere. They think that the country is happy and free, because it is no longer subjected to the violence of Cromwellian soldiery or the everyday oppressions of the penal laws. But persecution varies from era to era. He continues: Here, oppression is allied to insolence. On the occasion of the recent death of an Anglican prelate it was calculated that in the course of his long ecclesiastical career that lasted at least sixty-five years, he received as reward for his various religious duties about 19,000,000 francs. All this was paid out by a Catholic country and by a poor population!”94 – “Ireland, Social, Political, and Religious,” by French nobleman Gustave de Beaumont (1802-1866) published in 1839, supplemented in 1869. To recap: the foregoing observations by Beaumont were made during his tour of Ireland with friend and fellow author Alexis de Tocqueville in 1835, and his second tour, solo, in 1837. In 1831-32 both had toured the U.S. to study its prisons, and had also collaborated in writing their observations of the new United States. They decided to combine their writings into a set of two complementary books; one book each, and both reviewed and revised the other’s work. The set was published. Tocqueville’s De la Démocratie en Amérique, being hugely laudatory to Americans was promptly translated into English as Democracy in America, an immediate best-seller in the US where it has never gone out of print. Beaumont’s complementary book, “Marie; ou l’Esclavage aux Etats-Unis,” his observations on slavery and racial injustice in the U.S. in the form of a novel, became an immediate best-seller in France and throughout Europe. Unlike Tocqueville’s book, in being less than laudatory to notoriously praise-


hungry Americans, Marie was never even translated into English until 1958. How much suffering and injustice would have been avoided if America had assimilated Beaumont’s book instead of Tocqueville’s! I suggest that Tocqueville’s tour of Ireland was undertaken to write an Irish version of his upbeat Democracy, but found nothing there that would justify it. Beaumont, though an extensive landlord in France and an avowed admirer of English parliamentary procedure, is the author of Ireland, Social, Political, and Religious; the most comprehensive work extant on pre-Holocaust Ireland. British parliamentarian and farmer William Cobbett’s “Cobbett in Ireland: A Warning to England” focuses on Ireland during the lead-up to the Holocaust. It is without equal in its exposition of conditions then extant. More 1835 Not until 1958 were Alexis de Tocqueville’s notes of his 1835 tour of Ireland published. The title is Journeys to England and Ireland. He frequently proclaims his admiration of the British system. To the vile Nassau Senior he wrote on 27July1851; So many of my thoughts and feelings are shared by the English that England has turned into a second native land for me.95 With astonishing incuriosity he wrote of Manchester; Among the workers are men coming from a country where the needs of men are reduced almost to those of savages, and who can work for a very low wage, and so keep down the level of wages for the English workmen who wish to compete, to almost the same level. So it is not surprising that Manchester already has 300,000 inhabitants and is growing at a prodigious rate.96 But he was not blind. About Liverpool he wrote; Town destined to become the centre of English trade. A fisherman’s harbour three centuries ago. A small town sixty years ago. The slave trade, basis of its commercial greatness. It carries slaves to the Spanish colonies at better prices than all the others. (… ) Liverpool is a beautiful town. Poverty is almost as great as at Manchester. Fifty thousand poor people live in cellars. Sixty thousand Irish Catholics. In Ireland Tocqueville notes; At the present the land is divided between a small number of owners. The whole Irish population, so to


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” say, consists of very small and very poor tenant-farmers, and labourers even poorer than they. Q. So nobody cultivates a field which is his own? No.97 On leaving there we came across a small covered barrow pushed by two paupers. This barrow was going to the doors of the houses of the rich. They throw the leftovers of their meals into the barrow and these debris are taken to the Poorhouse to make the soup. From the Poorhouse they took us to the University. An immense, magnificent garden kept up like that of a nobleman. A granite palace; superb church; admirable library. Liveried lackeys; twenty-four fellows… Enormous revenues. Men of all religions receive education there. But only members of the Church of England can administer the establishment and benefit from its revenues. The University was founded by Elizabeth I on land confiscated from the Catholics, the fathers of those whom we had seen sprawling in the filth of the Poorhouse. The University provides for 1,500 students. Few belong to rich Irish families. Not only does the Irish (Anglo-Irish) nobility live away from their homeland; not only do they spend abroad the money their country earns; they have their children educated in England, no doubt for fear that a vague instinct of patriotism and youthful memories might one day attract them to Ireland. If you want to know what can be done by the spirit of conquest and religious hatred combined with the abuses of aristocracy, but without any of its advantages, go to Ireland.98 The (agricultural) yields are immense. There is no country where the price of farms is higher. But none of this money remains in the hands of the people. The Irish cultivates beautiful crops and takes his harvest to the nearest port, and puts it on an English ship; then he goes home and eats potatoes. He rears cattle, sends them to London and never eats meat.99 (No mention of the armed forces that ensured that the growers’ output went to the ports.)

On 20 July Tocqueville conversed with Msnr. Nolan, Bishop of Carlow. Q. Is the land divided up in Carlow County? A. No, no more 83

so than in the rest of Ireland. The county practically belongs to two families, and these two families are not the richest in Ireland.100 On 24July1835 Tocqueville conversed with Msnr. Kinsley, Bishop of Kilkenny. He queried the Bishop, Q: “What are the proportions of Catholics and Protestants in Ireland? A. “In the South we are twenty to one, in the North only three to one.”101 Questioning President Fitzgerald of the Catholic College of Carlow; Q. Are the ills suffered by the people very great? A. Terrible. You can see for yourself. The people is treated as a conquered one by the landowners, and in fact those latter occupy lands confiscated from the same Catholics who are dying of hunger. Q. Is it true that the rift between upper and lower classes is increasing? A. Yes. As long as the upper classes saw the Catholics as slaves submitting to their fate, they did not treat them violently. But since political rights have been granted to the Catholic populations and they wish to use them, they have persecuted them as much as they can and try to drive them out of their land to put Protestant farmers in their place. Q. Is it true that the population has not the slightest confidence in justice? A. Not the slightest. The poor believe themselves to be somehow outside the law.102 Carlow. Irish Clergy (20July) There is an unbelievable unity between the Irish clergy and the Catholic population. The reason for that is not only that the clergy are paid by the people, but also because all the upper classes are Protestants and enemies.103

Between Thomastown and Waterford. Queried his host: Are there big landlords in the district? Several but like all the others they live in England where they spend their country’s money. I ask is there a way to force them to stay in the country? By taxing the absentees. Is there a Catholic church? Yes. A mile away. The parish is very large; one parish priest and two curates. How many Protestants are there in the parish? Three. Where is the Protestant clergyman? He lives in Waterford. Do they still pay tithes? No. They stopped paying it three years ago. What did the tithe amount to? Ten shillings for an acre of 84

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” wheat or potatoes; eight shillings for an acre of barley. Meadows exempt.104 The landlord-legislators had enacted laws that exempted the form of agriculture they favored – pastures for cattle and sheep with meadow for winter fodder. This left only tillage subject to the tithe, and thus the support of the Anglican Church was foisted exclusively onto the Catholics. Conversing with Lawyer Prendergast in Kilkenny on 25 July. Mr. Prendergast explained the hatred as follows: We came to this country as conquerors. By “we” I mean we English Protestants. The country’s aristocracy has always regarded the Catholic population as a crowd of savages and treated them as such. The latter is accustomed to regard the upper classes as their natural enemies. Now they have become strong by numbers and through political rights. The time for concessions by the aristocracy has passed. Q. Is the administration still in the hands of Protestants? Yes. Almost all the grand juries are Protestant. The Sheriffs are Protestants. There isn’t one Catholic among the judges. The Irish population cannot possess arms. An Irishman must have a judge’s permission to carry arms, and, should he do so without that, the penalty is a very big fine, and, if that is not paid, imprisonment.105 1837 “Famine” writers tend to claim that enforced tithing by Catholics to the Church of Ireland ended in 1837. On the contrary, the extraction was made more certain. By new legislation the landlords (whose churches they were) were required to pay their tenants’ tithes, and to add it to the land rent they charged the tenants. This method of enforced tithing continued until, in 1869, a law was enacted to abolish tithing, to take effect starting on January 1, 1871. Extracting the tithes via the landlords further aggravated agrarian tensions and gave impetus to the Repeal movement while it enabled the police and military to combine two enforced extractions into one. More 1837 On June 20, on the death of King William, Victoria became queen. Lord John Russell, in an elaborate oration, gave voice


to the general sentiment. He hoped that Victoria might prove an Elizabeth without her tyranny, an Anne without her weakness.106 1840, Twenty-one year old Queen Victoria married Prince Albert. The match was arranged by her mentor and uncle, King Leopold of Belgium (who was also her new husband’s uncle). Even before she succeeded to the throne, King Leopold had been advising Victoria by letter, and continued to influence her long after her accession.107 Judging by the horrifyingly similar nature of Victoria’s crimes against humanity in 1845-1850 Ireland and those later in Belgian Congo by her first-cousin King Leopold II, the advice from King Leopold I continued to be heard and acted upon by both. Roger Casem*nt would famously strive to end Victoria’s crimes in Ireland and Leopold II’s in Belgian Congo. 1843 The Repeal of the Union with Britain was eviscerated by Pope Gregory XVI. He issued a Rescript commanding the priests of Ireland to refrain from attending repeal meetings. He issued it at the urgent instigation of the British Ministry, through the Austrian Ambassador at Rome, and through the more direct agency of a Mr. Petre, who, it appears, had acted on behalf of England at the Court of the Holy See.108 This treacherous and unexpected blow had a stunning effect upon the movement. It silenced at once thousands of its active and trusted leaders. It was as if all the commissioned officers of their mighty army had been captured at once by the enemy. O’Connell (Daniel) saw in this Rescript the doom of his race and country; the blasting of all of his cherished hopes. He rose in the grandeur of his almost superhuman power to meet and turn the blow of the Holy See. He published a letter to prove that the Rescript was an illegal interference with the civil liberties of the clergy.109 In the agony of his soul he uttered his famous cry: “As much religion as you please from Rome, but no politics.” The priests came forward as before, but not with the firm step and earnest purpose of their former enthusiasm. They wavered between


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” love of country and vows of obedience. The mighty movement, then in its prime, which had grown and flourished and triumphed for fifteen years, withered and died.110 22Dec1843 If they (the Irish) are to have their way, or even a voice, in this reconsideration (of the Union) it would promote the downfall of England, which I look upon as synonymous with separation from Ireland…”; Lord Clarendon; later to be England’s Viceroy in Ireland.111 More 1843 Trinity College, Dublin, established by Elizabeth I in 1592 for the education of Ireland’s Protestant Ascendancy, was funded by the labor of the Irish living on the land granted to it by England. As of 1843 the following: Trinity College Dublin (aside from its estates in Connaught) had lands measuring 195,573 acres across 61 estates; Kerry with 21, Limerick (9), Donegal (6), Kings County (5), Armagh (4), Tipperary (3), Kildare (3), Monaghan (3), Down (2), Louth (2), Meath (1).112 Thus Trinity College was as genocidal a force in Ireland as the other English landlords.

1844 As an example of the malice of British rule in Ireland so blatant as to be mocked by Britain’s newspaper of record, we have this ironic report in The (London) Times date-lined Dublin, April, 1844: THE ADMIRABLE POOR LAW. The following graphic sketch of the satisfactory working of the admirable Poor Law in the ‘far west’ is given in the Evening Freeman: - At the Castlebar petty sessions on Thursday last 25 persons, inhabitants of the townland of Corra, in the parish of Islandeady, were summoned for the non-payment of the poor-rate (a tax to support the poor), amounting, in the aggregate, to the enormous sum of £1 4s 11.5 d! (One pound, four shillings and eleven pence half-penny; then about forty-five days’ pay for a laborer). Of these, six were cited each for non-payment of 7d and 3/16s of a penny! (Then approximately one day’s pay for a laborer), five for 10¾d each! and five for 11d each! the remainder for sums varying from 7d to 1 shilling ten pence and one-eighth of a penny, which latter sum was the maximum charge. The first defendant called 87

went into the witness box, and called upon the presiding magistrates, Mr. P. Burke and Mr. H. Browne, both of whom are ex-officio guardians of this (Poor Law) union, to send home the only pauper in the workhouse from that parish, and that the people would cheerfully support, clothe, and lodge him. Another defendant claimed to be admitted (requested admission) into the workhouse, alleging that he was more an object of relief than taxation; and a third, who described herself as a widow, with seven orphan children, declared her inability to procure food for herself and family, much less to contribute to the support of a workhouse. The other defendants did not appear. The poor-rate collector proved an attempt to serve summonses upon them, that on his appearance the inhabitants of the townland abandoned and shut up their dwellings, and that he put the summonses under or over the door of the house in each case. It was urged on behalf of these people that the service was not sufficient to justify the magistrates in adjudicating. Their worships held a contrary opinion, and pronounced decrees in a majority of the cases, not to issue, however, until the decision of the Attorney General should be had as to the validity of the service of summonses. The costs in these 25 cases will nearly double the amount of the poor-rate demanded, yet such is the inveterate hatred of the people of this union against the entire system, the parties decreed are determined on permitting the furniture of their wretched cabins to be seized and sold rather than voluntarily yield to the unjust demand made upon them. The union is in debt to the treasurer upwards of £900, and to other parties £300. The collection of the rate is completely at a stand, and the guardians have refused to levy a new rate while a large portion of the old rate is outstanding. Several latitats have been served upon the guardians, and, by the next term, it is most likely that the sheriff will have to sell by public auction the furniture and clothing of the workhouse under execution. Such is the outline of the practical wisdom and forecast of our most sapient Poor Law Commissioners, men who, sitting upon their office stools in Dublin or London, arrogate to themselves all of the wisdom, judgment, and discrimination of the Empire, totally regardless of the repeated opinions and declarations of various boards of guardians, composed of all shades of politics in this 88

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” country. (And this was published by Britain’s newspaper of record; The Times!) What England extracted from its colonies varied from country to country. In addition to usurping the land for distribution to its Crown-connected undertakers, it usually grabbed the colony’s other resources. For example, from Australia in 1851 through 1862 after the easiest gold was gone, England usurped, among other valuables, more than 21 million troy ounces of gold from Australia. A total of $23.7 billion worth (at today’s price) was taken into the British government's Gold Room in Melbourne.113 England couldn’t similarly usurp the produce of its North American colonies, but its other usurpations are listed in the U.S. Declaration of Independence as the reason why the nation had to free itself from British rule. Britain similarly commandeered Zimbabwe’s (then Rhodesia) diamonds, South Africa’s gold, India’s agricultural produce and other valuables, and Iran’s oil on which the British navy ran until President Mossadeq nationalized Iranian oil in 1953.

Fertile Ireland’s main resource was a torrent of agricultural products. The Irish were made tenants on their own land, and forced to pay rents that consumed most of their year’s labor. With force provided by the British army, Irish output was taken by English landlords (mostly absentees) on the basis that the English, not the Irish, owned the land on which it was produced. Britain extracted from Ireland this torrent of agricultural products. Being absent and thus not readily summonable, the landlords, though owning essentially all of the property, did not pay such taxes. In the depths of the Holocaust it was found that essentially all of Co. Offaly was owned by eight English landlords, all absentees and unreachable, thus making their land and their portion of its output tax-free, while the crops grown on a few acres of land rented by tenants were taxable and thus subject to seizure. Similar British Empire deeds continued decades later. For example, one phase of its long genocide of India is detailed in Madhusree Mukerjee’s Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India during World War II. A review in The Independent newspaper (UK) reads: Mukerjee has researched this forgotten


Holocaust with great care and forensic rigour. Mining an extensive range of sources, she not only sheds light on the imperial shenanigans around the famine, but on a host of related issues, such as the flowering of nationalism in famine-hit districts, Churchill's fury about the sterling credit that India was piling up in London, or the dreadful situation in the villages even after the famine was technically over. Her calmly phrased but searing account of imperial brutality will shame admirers of the Greatest Briton and horrify just about everybody else. For centuries prior to the Holocaust, during it, and ever since, British opinion molders have consistently smeared Ireland and the Irish. The Anglo-Norman invaders were accompanied by smear artist Geraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales). The smears continued nearly monolithically,114 enabling England to rob the Irish of their land and other possessions, to kill large numbers of them, and to enslave many of the survivors. From 1170 to today, England (and more recently, Britain) has claimed, successfully through the news media, that it has been in Ireland only to improve it. Cromwell’s “To Hell, or to Connaught” was an interim step in that genocide; it soon ravaged Connacht, also. All of these crimes were presented as civilizing, even holy missions. An adequate treatment of Ireland’s centuries of nightmare is beyond the scope of this book, but as an antidote to the news media and modern historians I encourage everyone to learn of Poyning’s Laws, the Statute of Kilkenny, the Penal Laws, the shipping of Irish “felons” into slavery along the east coast of North America, and into Australia and other British colonies after 1781 when the new United States closed its slave markets (for whites). Learn of the various Coercion Laws, and the statements and policies of Essex, Elizabeth I, Cromwell, Queen Anne, Queen Victoria, Princess Margaret, Thatcher, Blair, et al.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

CHAPTER 2: PRE-HOLOCAUST PRESENCE OF BRITISH ARMY RANK AND FILE IN IRELAND115 Parliamentary Paper. Troops (Ireland). Return to an Order of the Hon. The House of Commons, dated February 13, 1844, for an Account of the Total Rank and File of all arms in Ireland, on the 1st Day of January in each year, from 1830 to 1844, both inclusive. 1830 (20,408 officers and men), 1831 (16,701), 1832 (19,801), 1833 (23,998), 1834 (23,085), 1835 (18,962), 1836 (17,906), 1837 (18,480), 1838 (16,420), 1839 (16,264), 1840 (14,956), 1841 (14,587), 1842 (15,191), 1843 (14,476), 1844 (21,251). The troops mentioned here are regular British army only; militia regiments are not included. The extent of the 1844 continental potato crop failure was reported after the potato harvesting time of September/October. While Britain’s government began to plan redeployment of additional troops from its then empire to Ireland in time for the 1845 potato harvest, the above number of troops were in Ireland116 in the following regiments as of October 1: Cavalry - 2nd Regiment of Dragoon Guards, Longford; 3rd Ditto, Ballincolley (sic); 4th, Cahir; 1st Dragoons, Dublin; 2nd, Ditto; Piershill Barracks; 8th Hussars117, Dublin; 10th, Ditto, Newbridge; 11th, Dundalk. Infantry – 1st Regiment of Foot, Clare Castle, Depot Company; Ditto, 2nd Battalion, Enniskillen; 5th, Belfast; 14th, Depot Company, Belturbet; 15th, Limerick; 16th, Dublin; 24th, Kilkenny; 30th, Limerick; 32nd, Dublin; 33rd, Cork, Depot Company; 34th, Athlone; 35th, Nenagh, Depot Company; 36th, Newry;38th, Boyle, Depot Company; 46th, Dublin, Ditto; 54th, Birr; 56th, Dublin; 1st, Fermoy; 61st, Templemore; 65th, Mullingar; 66th, Dublin; 69th, Galway; 72nd, Cork; 73rd, Dublin; 77th, Carlow, Depot Company; 79th, Naas; 81st, Templemore, Depot Company; 82nd, Tralee, ditto; 85th, Londonderry, ditto; 89th, Newbridge, ditto; 90th, Clonmel, ditto; 91st & 93rd, Birr,


ditto; Rifle Brigade, 1st Battalion, Athlone. Effective regular army forces, including cavalry, infantry, and artillery, 26,000 men on October 1, 1844. The above deployment reflects the routine nature of those years, but they were about to change drastically. Probably due to reports of a partial failure of continental Europe’s 1844 potato crop (thought to have been brought in American cargo to a German port), the British government began to bring its regiments in Ireland up to their full complement lest the 1845 English and Irish potato crops fail, in which case more military force would be required to remove Ireland’s other crops. However, as you can see, the 1844 deployment of 21,251 was an increase by 47% of the 1843’s total of 14,476. Was there a partial failure of the Continental potato crop in 1843?


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

CHAPTER 3: THE HOLOCAUST Ballintubber is gone – alas. My fine, virtuous, holy people have been starved to death.118 Sir Edward Blakeney119 says that the Country (sic) is tranquil and if it were not for the harassing duty of escorting provisions the troops would have little to do.120 (Lord Clarendon by 5July1847 letter to Prime Minister Lord Russell.) The “Sir Edward Blakeney” named by Lord Clarendon was the commander-in-chief of the Holocaust mission and of the army perpetrating it. Blakeney’s food removal mission in Ireland was so successfully conducted that, though prior to “mission completion,” on 7May1849, Queen Victoria conferred on him a prestigious Order of the Bath. Given General Blakeney’s key role as commander-in-chief of a mission of such magnitude as to require more than half of Britain’s army and to earn him such an official accolade, it is difficult to understand why Ireland’s academia have “disappeared” him; written him out of all Irish history books. This book, alone, names Blakeney. It, alone, presents the truth that the food removal was a major military operation that was led by a commander-in-chief. General Edward Blakeney was that leader of mission in Ireland from prior to 1/1/1845 to subsequent to 1/1/1851.

For details of the Holocaust turn to Exhibit A, my “smoking gun” map. Its white crosses mark some of the Holocaust mass graves that were filled by the British regiments121 shown nearby. Adjacent to each cross is the name of the townland in which it is located. Most people in that townland or town can point out the mass grave to you. Townland is the smallest political division of Ireland; typically a couple of hundred acres. Though the map shows only a fraction of Ireland’s Holocaust mass graves, it includes all of the workhouse mass graves in some of which tens of thousands are buried. The tragic facts of Ireland’s Holocaust are contained in all of the A Exhibits, Exhibit B, and all of the C Exhibits. “Famine” writers, until recently, denounced as “myths” that food left Ireland while its people starved. When published facts of massive exports of Irish food (see Exhibit B) forced them to cease that particular falsehood they had to fabricate a new falsehood to sustain their exculpation of England. That new lie (now a decade or two old)


is that “it was the rich Irish starving the poor Irish.” Isn’t it startling that some 160 years after the commission of that crime there are persons still creating new lies to conceal it? This new lie is refuted by Exhibit E. The means by which the Holocaust was executed, including the involvement of the Crown and its armed forces is revealed by a perusal of all of the C Exhibits. An example of a typical landlord is shown in E5. The Exhibits are presented as evidence of the crime of genocide. They constitute the substance of this chapter. The rest of this chapter is background information. 1845 Though the carefully arranged, permanent destitution of Ireland is covered in previous chapters, the official start of the Holocaust per se was November 3, 1845 as follows: On that date a delegation of alarmed Irishmen including Daniel “The Liberator” O’Connell, Mayor Sullivan of Dublin and twenty others visited Britain’s Viceroy in Ireland; Lord Heytesbury. The same “blight” phytophthora infestans that had destroyed the 1845 English potato crop (and part of the Continental crop for the second year running) had also destroyed the Irish crop, and due to the enforced removal and export of all other Irish meats, livestock, and food crops, the people were beginning to starve. The delegation entreated Heytesbury to head off the catastrophe by doing what Belgium and Portugal had done; close the ports against further food exports and also, to order a temporary cessation of distilling and brewing to leave more grain available for human consumption. This was a crucial moment in history, and British intent could not be concealed (though it was largely concealed until now!). The reason for the recent additions to its police and army in Ireland was made abundantly clear. Heytesbury read to them a statement that referred only to potatoes and questioned the extent of the crop loss, and then “bowed them out.”


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” The Food Removal continued apace and the starvation death of Ireland, especially of Irish-speaking Ireland, officially began. (See Exhibit C2 for 1845 and 1846.) Heytesbury was not acting alone in his stonewalling; the recent increase of British armed forces in Ireland had been a Crown decision. To the mass deaths being caused by the food removal, the Crown responded, not with a cessation or slow-down of the food removal, but with Coercion bill after Coercion bill, all to render the Irish yet more defenseless.122 THE TIMES editorial of September 30 had warned; “In England the two main meals of a working man’s day now consists of potatoes.” England’s potato-dependence was excessive, reckless. Grossly over-populated relative to its food supply, England faced famine unless it could import vast quantities of alternative food. But it didn’t limit its grab to Ireland’s surplus food, or to enough Irish food to save England. It took more, for profit and to exterminate the people of Ireland. More 1845. The landlords of Ireland made a raid upon the grain crops and seized them and sold them for their rents, leaving the producers of those crops to starve or perish or fly the country. Thousands of families were broken up; thousands of homes were razed; I am one of the victims of those bad times. People now allude to those years as the years of the “famine” in Ireland. That kind of talk is nothing but trash. There was no “famine” in Ireland; there is no famine in any country that will produce in any one year as much food as will feed the people who live in that country during that year.123 Then one of our fields had a crop of wheat, and when that wheat was reaped and stacked, the landlord put ‘keepers’ on it, and on all that we had, and these keepers remained in the house till the wheat was threshed and bagged, and taken to the mill.124 1846 British authorities denied the existence of Ireland’s starvation pandemic until July 8th. On this date British authorities claiming that


the “famine” had ended, prohibited American relief food ship Sorciére from entering Cork harbor with a cargo of urgently needed Indian meal. On September 2nd editorialists in THE TIMES suggested “Total Annihilation.” August 3, 1846: Queen Victoria writes to Lord John Russell to tell him that Lord Bessborough is pressing her to visit Ireland. The people are getting hungry, thus desperate, She expresses her concern that the public might think that she might not DARE to go. Victoria, always guided by King Leopold I, writes that it must not be seen as a pleasure trip but as a State Visit, done “handsomely.” This requires a huge military presence to overawe the people.125 1847 See Exhibit C2 for 1847. On February 27, 1847 the Kilkenny city workhouse contained 2,204, of which 48 were in the hospital, and 520 were in the fever hospital, a total of 568 hospitalized. Excavations in 2006 of 63 mass burials on those grounds found a total of at least 970 individuals. Coinciding with the banning of pauper burials at the local cemeteries of St. Patrick’s and St. Maud’s, the workhouse authorities had no choice other than to look within their own walls. Comparing the numbers in each grave with the mortality rate recorded in the surviving workhouse minute books suggests that each mass grave held approximately a week’s worth of the dead.126 At 15.4 deaths per week, Kilkenny city workhouse was one of Ireland’s less lethal workhouses. However, the study accounts for only 63 weeks. The weekly toll certainly increased as “Black ’47” progressed. The “Irish” government is intent upon obliterating these mass graves. It has been issuing building permits for housing developments to be built atop mass graves, e.g. the Killala workhouse mass grave. Decades ago a housing development was built atop the Castlerea workhouse mass grave(s). My old schoolmate Johnny Croghan was the excavation contractor. He later semi-whispered to me how the remains of toddlers were jammed together, evidently having been


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” buried in piles, how he hauled their remains and other debris to a dump. He recounted how the desecration became a scandal that forced it to end, and thus a reduction in the number of houses to be built there. Today those large green areas indicate the extent of the undesecrated part of the mass grave. I walked or cycled past that site daily during my school years in Castlerea, but nobody ever told me of the thousands who died there. For years in the 1990s and 2000s I tried in vain to get some of my old school buddies to form a committee to front for a memorial that my wife and I would purchase. Finally, last year the cover-up operatives installed a cover-up “memorial” there. After decades of obstruction, in March, 2015 my wife and I managed to get a memorial installed over a Castlerea Holocaust mass grave located outside the wall of Kilkeevin cemetery. (See photo.) May 1, 1847. God’s famine is known by the general scarcity of food of which it is the consequence. There is no general scarcity, there has been no general scarcity in Ireland, either during the present or the past year, except in one solitary species of vegetable. The soil has produced its usual tribute for the support of those for whom it was cultivated… The vice inherent in our system of social and political economy is so settled that it eludes inquiry. You cannot trace it to its source. The poor man on whom the coroner holds an inquest has been murdered, but no one killed him. Who did it? No one did it. Yet it was done.127 January, 1847. The Telegraph newspaper reported that the Duke of Cambridge, uncle of Queen Victoria, had advised that ‘rotten potatoes and seaweed, or even grass, properly mixed, afforded a very wholesome and nutritious food. All knew that Irishmen could live upon anything and there was plenty of grass in the field even though the potato crop should fail.’ This ignited a heated editorial reply…128 March 25, 1847 Pope Pius IX, from St Mary Major Basilica in Rome, delivers his address of Praedecessores nostros calling for prayers for the Irish.


He, fatally to millions, made no mention of the Food Removal and the need to oppose it or cease its operation. See April 20, 1829 for a list of Victoria’s correspondence including reference to a laudatory Dec. 4, 1848 letter to her from Pius IX when most of her Irish Holocaust victims were already dead. June, 1847 Death became a way of life in the workhouse, and the Irish Poor Relief Act of June, 1847 empowered the Guardians to acquire land adjacent to the workhouse for use as burial ground for deceased members of the workhouse, as the ordinary graveyards were unable to cope with the vast numbers of workhouse dead….Deaths were so numerous that corpses were carried on special carts day after day to be thrown into mass pauper graves or pits in the workhouse grounds and covered with lime.129 It was about this time that instructions were issued to Ireland’s workhouse masters to bury bodies in mass graves in the workhouse grounds in pits dug twelve feet deep. Excavations of the Kilkenny workhouse and others indicate that upon the filling of each pit, a new one was dug close by. June 8, 1847 While the removal of Ireland’s abundant production of food was in full operation as was the resultant Holocaust a law was enacted (10Victoria, Cap. 31) “An Act to make further Provision for the Relief of the destitute Poor of Ireland” Its “Gregory Clause” mandated that no governmental relief of hunger be granted to a person possessed of more than a quarter-acre. It resulted in the landlords’ capture from the Irish of the latters’ typically tiny portion of Ireland’s land, and it accelerated evictions. Gregory Clause author, Sir William Henry Gregory, M.P., was a landlord in south Co. Galway. For his murderous clause he was publicly reviled by the few, including Archbishop McHale and John Mitchel, not subject to summary “judgment.” Upon Gregory’s death his widow, Lady Gregory, became a noted artist and made an artists’ colony of her Coole Park, Gort, Co. Galway estate. She supported and promoted nationalist artists. Like all such English estates in Ireland, Coole Park was purchased and distributed to its Irish producers in 1900-1910. July 5, 1847. On this day during the depths of genocide Lord


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Clarendon wrote from his Vice-Regal Lodge in Phoenix Park to Prime Minister Lord Russell: Sir Edward Blakeney says the Country (sic) is tranquil and if it were not for the harassing duty of escorting provisions the troops would have little to do.130 (my bolding; CF.) Blakeney was the commanding general of the 67 food removal regiments; thus this letter, like the Exhibits in this book, constitutes further evidence of genocide. (The Bodleian College source of Clarendon’s statement was located by James O’Hara, Santa Fe, NM, ex-Killarney.)

1848 See Exhibit C2 for 1848. Queen Victoria’s economist, Nassau Senior was heard expressing his doubt about policy in that … the famine of 1848 would not kill more than a million people, and that would scarcely be enough to do much good. 131 When an eye-witness urged a stop to the genocide-inprogress, Treasury Head Charles Trevelyan replied; We must not complain of what we really want to obtain. 132 Influential British essayist Thomas Carlyle wrote: Ireland is like a half-starved rat that crosses the path of an elephant. What must the elephant do? Squelch it – by heavens – squelch it! Also in 1848 editorialists of The Times infamously crowed: A Celt will soon be as rare on the banks of the Shannon as the red man on the banks of Manhattan. The immortal Society of Friends (“Quakers”) strove valiantly to save lives. But in 1847 they despaired and quit upon learning that the Crown planned to perpetuate the genocide’s pretext; the British claim of “ownership” of Irish lands, and thus all that was produced thereon. Quakers refused to facilitate the genocide by pretending (as Concern133 does today regarding African genocides) that it was an act of nature.

1847 or 1848: Asenath Nicholson traveled much of Ireland during these two years. She wrote of taking a ferry from the Donegal mainland to Aranmore Island: Six men, beside Mr. Griffith, crossed with me in an open boat, and we landed, not buoyantly, upon the once pretty island. The first that called my attention was the death-like stillness - nothing of life was seen or heard, excepting occasionally a 99

dog. These looked so unlike all others I had seen among the poor I unwittingly said - How can the dogs look so fat and shining here, where there is no food for the people? Shall I tell her?” said the pilot to Mr. Griffith, not supposing that I heard him.”134 1849 See Exhibit C2 for 1849. Foreshadowing Arbeit Macht Frei was the policy of public works projects that paid starvelings little more than the replacement cost of the energy calories consumed by the worker, but on which a family tried to survive.135 Throughout the genocide while the least Anglicized of Ireland’s population were being exterminated, official reports by Ireland’s British rulers express fear that “something terrible MIGHT happen.” They obviously were not referring to the mass deaths then underway, their fear was that instead of dying the Irish would rebel in sufficient numbers to block the continued export of their production. Even today a Googleable Internet report titled The Irish Constabulary in the Great Famine by HISTORY IRELAND includes a section headed Fears of Famine Violence as if Britain’s militarized removal of Ireland’s food were not violence, but that armed survival-attempts by the Irish would constitute the feared “violence.” May 7, 1849. Though the genocide mission is not yet completed, it has been so efficiently conducted, that on this date Queen Victoria conferred on its commander-in-chief General Edward Blakeney a prestigious Order of the Bath.136 The hastiness in conferring “honour” on Blakeney was presaged by the identical “honour” conferred by George III on General William Howe.137 Howe’s temporary success against George Washington’s forces in the late August 1776 battles of Long Island and Brooklyn Heights earned him an Order of the Bath weeks later on October 13, 1776; a ritual unattended by him.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” August 6, 1849. Lodge. Phoenix Park, Dublin. Victoria writes to her mentor King Leopold I. This was almost three years to the day since the trip was planned, so they evidently waited until there were fewer corpses in the streets. She boasted of the success of the State visit to Ireland, but recounted that the people were “shrieking instead of cheering,” and signed “your most affectionate Niece, Victoria R.”138 1850 See Exhibit C2 for 1850. Exterminations according to THE TIMES. The January 2, 1852 edition of THE TIMES, in its following report of population loss in Ireland while covering up the food removal referred to “exterminations:” The change which has taken place in the population and condition of Ireland is inadequately expressed in the fact, prodigious as it is, that during the ten years ending with 1850, about 1,600,000 have emigrated from that island. That calculation is itself below the truth, for it assumes the emigration from Ireland into Great Britain to be no more than that from Great Britain to the colonies or foreign countries. The change is inadequately expressed in the gloomy figures at the foot of the census return, putting the decennial decrease at 1,659,300. There are two important considerations that much aggravate the force of this statement. In the first place the population of Irish cities and towns has very generally increased during the ten years included in the census. Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Waterford, Belfast, Galway, and many other places of which a return has not yet been made, have increased, either from their own comparative prosperity, or from the influx of refugees from the neighbouring exterminations. (Emphasis added) When these towns are deducted the depopulation of the rural districts is much greater than appears in the grand total; and that depopulation we know is still going on. The second consideration is the greatly increased proportion of women, and the probability of the disproportion being increased instead of diminished. …” The Times, the newspaper of record, had an interest in understating the death toll by overstating the number of emigrants.


More 1850: One American visitor’s observation; Talk of Southern slavery! In practice it is not a thousandth part as wrong, as cruel, and abominable as the tenant system of Ireland. Our planters are obliged to treat their slaves mercifully, to provide for them in sickness and old age, and always give them enough to eat. (The visitor omitted a crucial distinction: slaves are property of pecuniary value; their deaths constitute significant loss to

But here if the rent is not paid, the constable is called in, and the tenant is distrained, and if he can not pay he is evicted – his wife and family turned penniless upon the world to dig a shelter in a bog, or build one by a stone wall, and get his food as best he can. I abominate the American slave system from the bottom of my soul. What then must be my feelings in the midst of such scenes of wrong and suffering as abounds in all parts of this ill-fated country? They are indescribable.* their owners. Not so the Irish.)

*”In Galway Union, recent accounts declared the number of poor evicted and their homes leveled within the last two years, to equal the number in Kilrush – 4,000 families and 20,000 human beings are said to have been here also thrown out upon the road, houseless and homeless. I can readily believe the statement, for to me some parts of the country appeared like an enormous graveyard – the numerous gables of the unroofed dwellings seeming to be gigantic tombstones. They were, indeed, records of decay and death far more melancholy than any graveyard can show. Looking on them, the doubt arose in my mind, am I in a civilized country? Have we really a free constitution? Can such scenes be paralleled in Siberia or Caffraria?” – P. Scrope, M.P. NOTES ON IRELAND. “Dear Sir: I have been for the last ten days through the Counties of Limerick, Galway, Clare, and across thence to the King’s County…….All attempts to depict the existing state of the misery of the masses beyond the Shannon must come utterly short of the truth. All that tract of country from Killaloe to Portumna, on the Galway side of the Shannon, is lying waste and uncultivated. About three out of four of the miserable huts are unroofed. Some of the former inmates are dead, some in the union, and some few huddled together in one or two of the huts still existing. The men generally have perished.”-EVENING PACKET.

I am overwhelmed! Oh England, thou boasted land of freedom and justice, of philosophy and nobleness, of religion and philanthropy,--English laws, models of Christian jurisprudence-- British honor and magnanimity—spirit of Blackstone and Wilberforce—speeches of Peel and Russell--glory of Wellington, himself an Irishman---pride and extravagance of Victoria! What meaneth these roofless huts, these starved stomachs, cadaverous faces, naked limbs, and scattered corpses! Have ye compassion for well-fed, laughing, singing, shining black men of our republic? It is well. But remember “Charity Begins at Home.”139 NOTE: The Wellington cited above is NOT Irish but the English son of an English landlord in Ireland. Also, Mr. Balch, to underscore his observation of British genocide in Ireland, greatly exaggerated the well-being of American slaves. He must have never seen what photography has revealed;


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” the whip-scarred backs of many American slaves, nor have noticed that rape of female slaves by their owners must have been rife, as evidenced by the fact that most African-Americans, even the oldest of them, are partEuropean.

Instead of recounting the bloody struggles between British forces and the Irish who were being robbed of their output, my purpose here is to present fact, evidence. They refute the notion of famine so assiduously promoted by Lord Heytesbury on November 3, 1845 and by corrupt individuals in the U.K and Irish governments and their accomplices in academia to this very day. New York’s onceprestigious Fordham University hosted a “Famine Tribunal” as late as April 20 & 21, 2013. In 2019 academics from Ireland are touring Irish-America trying to revive the “Irish famine” lie. No army of English agricultural laborers came to Ireland each spring to plow, plant and cultivate crops; as none arrived to save the hay, tend the crops, or to harvest them each Fall or to thresh the sheaves of grain. None came to tend to the livestock, shear the sheep or tend to their lambings, milk the cows, churn cream into butter, and tend to poultry. It was all produced by the Irish. Yet, Ireland’s landlords, essentially all English “owners”-by-conquest of some ninety-five percent of Ireland’s land, and domiciled largely in England, claimed nearly all of that torrent of output as their own, it having been grown on “their” lands. The grotesque injustice is recorded by the following poem; AN IRISH PEASANT’S LAMENT To His Wife The harvest is over, my corn not sold, Ochone! Acushla Machree pulse of my heart);

But I’m little the better, if truth must be told, Ochone! Achusha Machree; For though mine was the toil, yet the landlord’s the spoil. Sure he says that the soil belongs not to me,


(Alas; thou

As if God, through some whim, made the world for him, Ochone! Achushla Machree. Though in labor unceasing my days are all spent, Ochone! Acushla Machree, A just rent to pay I did always consent, Ochone! Acushla Machree. Though in sunshine and snow I delve and I sow, Yet to pay what I owe I will surely agree; But ‘tis hard to resign what is rightfully mine, Ochone! Achushla Machree The fish in the brook and the bird in the brake, Ochone! Acushla Machree Were made for his honor, without a mistake, Ochone! Acushla Machree While I toil all the day, with pains for my pay, He dwells far away, amid wild revelry, And squanders in sin what I labored to win, Ochone! Acushla Machree. And now that I ask an abatement of rent, Ochone! Acushla Machree, Sincerely hoping his honor’s consent, Ochone! Acushla Machree, Though my holding is small, I can’t see at all Why he should take all and leave nothing to me. If it’s legally so, ‘tis not justice, I know, Ochone! Acushla Machree. From the law-shop in London no succor we’ll get, Ochone! Acushla Machree, Still, ‘tis vain to complain, and ‘tis idle to fret, Ochone! Acushla Machree. But courage awhile, for soon o’er our isle, Kind Heaven will smile, and each Saxon decree,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Will be righted straight away, and I fervently pray, May God hasten the day, a cushla-machree!140 James Berry writes, that in the spring of 1847 …some 600 of the starving peasantry thronged into the town of Louisburgh (Co. Mayo), looking for food or an admission ticket to the Westport workhouse; the Relieving Officer told them he had no power in these matters, that they should apply to the two paid guardians . . . who were to hold a meeting on the next day at Delphi Lodge…. The six hundred, in rags, sat on the street of Louisburgh through the night and many of them ‘were found stark dead where they lay next morning.’ About 400 set off for Delphi, through the Glankeen River, over the hills and finally arriving only to find that the vice-guardians were at lunch. The people sat among the trees, ‘and there many of them expired.’ When the two gentlemen appeared, they refused to grant any relief or tickets to the workhouse. The people set off for home in miserable weather, and at Stroppabue many were swept into the lake and drowned. The few ‘who survived the struggle continued to fall and die until the last of them perished on the southern bank of the Glankeen River. When, in 1997, my Mary and I participated in the commemoration walk from Delphi Lodge to Louisburgh, the story seemed too sketchy to be credible; but this account is direr than the legend. Berry goes on to write that on the next morning, the trail “from Glanced to Houston’s house was covered with corpses as numerous as the sheaves of corn in an autumn field.”141 (John Lyons: Louisburgh, A History, p. 62-63)

During the Holocaust, in his The United Irishman, John Mitchel exposed in detail the form of the injustice causing the genocide then underway. He exposed all of the perpetrators; the landlords, the judiciary, the State Church, the British army. In one published letter he gave an account of a typical Irish farmer “…who has the entire produce of his land in his haggard (“hay guard;” harvest storage area) in the form of six stacks of corn (wheat, oats, or barley; not maize); he shows that three of these ought, in all honour and conscience, to be sufficient for the landlord and the government to seize upon, leaving the other three to support the family of the man whose labour had produced them. But what are the facts? – The landlord and the government sweep all away, and the peasant and his family starve by the ditch (earthen fence) sides. As an illustration of this state of


things, he quotes from a southern paper an account of an inquest held on the body of a man named Boland, and on the bodies of his two daughters, who, as the verdict declared, had ‘died of cold and starvation,’ although occupants of a farm of over twenty acres in extent. On this melancholy case the comment of the editor of the United Irishman was as follows: Now what became of poor Boland’s twenty acres of crop? Part of it went to Gibraltar to victual the garrison; part to South Africa, to provision the robber army; part went to Spain, to pay for the landlord’s wine; part to London, to pay the interest of his honor’s mortgage to the Jews142. The English ate some of it; the Chinese had their share; the Jews and the Gentiles divided it amongst them – and there was none for Boland. This had to be common knowledge by members of parliament; especially its House of Lords, many of whom were also the very landlords involved. Mitchel’s denunciations of those robberies of Irish produce are echoed by William Cobbett, British farmer and Member of Parliament in his letters from Ireland published in the book; “Cobbett in Ireland; a Warning to England.” Some of Cobbett’s utterances that reveal the policies that inflicted 1845-50 Ireland (emphases are Cobbett’s): “Though I have been, perhaps, more conspicuous than most other English and Scotch members of Parliament in expressing my sentiments relative to the treatment of Ireland, I am, in entertaining sympathy for her sufferings, very far, even amongst them, from standing alone; while with regard to the people of England, and Scotland, be assured, that, with very rare exceptions, they feel every wrong done to Ireland as a wrong done to themselves. Truth and sincerity and duty also bid me declare to you further, that I believe, that the present Ministers are sincerely disposed to better the lot of Ireland. Nature, reason, their own fame, their own interests, now, at last, dictate this to them in tone so commanding, that it is impossible that these should not prevail over those prejudices and passions, which, for so many dismal ages, have been tearing this fine country to pieces, and making strife, beggary and misery to reign, when all ought to have been peace, plenty and happiness. It is not, be you assured, Gentlemen, want of feeling for


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ireland; but want of knowledge of the nature, the extent and the real causes of her suffering, which has hitherto prevented the application of remedies to an evil so great, so notorious throughout the world, and so dishonorable to the very name of England. It is more especially, the want of knowledge in the people of England, who, in the end, always have decided, and always will decide, every great public question. Boundless is the gratitude which Ireland owes to her mighty and devoted advocate (Daniel O’Connell, C.F.) for her emancipation from a slavery of three centuries duration.” (From a speech by Cobbett in Ireland, Sept. 1834)143 More from Cobbett: Gentlemen, when we were boys we read of ’the Seven Wonders of the World;’ but of all of the wonders of the world Ireland is the greatest, for here we see a country teeming with food; we see that food sent to other nations, in many parts of the globe, and we see the people starving and in rags, and without ever partaking of that food which their country produces.144 (-actually, which the Irish themselves produce; C.F.) More: I have been part of my life, for eight years, in the colony of North America. I saw that colony settled after the rebel war (the U.S. Revolution); I was there in an English regiment myself; I saw the colony increase very fast; I saw the whole of the people for four years; I saw 260,000 persons who would have expired of hunger if it were not for the bread, if it were not for the meat, if it were not for the butter that came out of this island. Two hundred and sixty thousand persons there were fed by this country (Ireland). Not a soul of that 260,000 that was not living better than those by whom the food had been sent out! I have seen the Negroes in the West Indies, of whom so much has been said, and for whom there has been so much tenderness and petition calling upon Parliament to put an end to the miseries of the Negroes; I have seen that the food with which they were constantly fed for years; I have seen those negroes better fed than the people of Ireland; and I have seen that the food which they mostly received came from Ireland, from a people who had not as good food as was sent out to the negroes. I could never see the sense of justice of taxing


the people of England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the benefit of the owners of those negroes. I voted against every penny of that grant from beginning to end. But if it were just in England (and I do not admit that it was) to give £20,000,000 to assume a tax £800,000 a year for the negro owners, is it not most unjust to refuse a tax which would keep from starving the people of Ireland? If it were just, and I say it was not, to give so much to benefit the negroes (actually their owners, C.F.), is there a God in heaven and shall we dare to say in HIS face that it is just in those who did that, to refuse food to those who are in a state ten thousand times worse than those negroes? Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, all of the colonies of North America, except Canada, are fed with this food of Ireland. Is this wrong? No. Supposing we are to keep colonies (a question I shall not now discuss), it is not wrong in Ireland to supply them with food; but it is wrong when those who raise the food and supply others, have not a sufficiency for themselves. (Hear, Hear). England herself, why she received food from Ireland it is a great blessing to her that Ireland can supply her. Not only London itself, but all round about it, is supplied by this country. Every country town in England has at this moment a supply of Irish flour, Irish meat, and Irish butter; and, curious enough, as it was only last spring I entered into possession of my present place (a farm in Oldham, England, C.F.) I had not time to make up my own bacon and pork, and my fellows are now eating Irish bacon.145 More Cobbett: Amongst the causes to which have been ascribed the present state of Ireland is this, that ‘the people are lazy, careless, and are wanting in trustworthiness’ – another is, ‘the existence of the Catholic religion’; another, ‘the refusal of Catholic emancipation for a long time’; another ‘tithes’; another ‘the Union’; another ‘absentees’; another ‘agitation.’ Now, gentlemen, as to ‘the laziness of the Irish people’, the ‘laziness’ and ‘carelessness’; never before did it come to pass that food was sent out of that country to feed another, in which the people were lazy and careless. As much corn, flour, cows, sheep, pork, bacon, beef, butter, are produced in Ireland as cannot be matched by a like number of people in the whole world, England herself not excepted. These things cannot be created except by labor.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” It is impossible to produce them without labor, they are not spontaneous; and, therefore, the general answer to this charge is, that it is false.146 To an “Irishman” (probably an English landlord in Ireland) who told Cobbett that the Irish actually do not like meat, they like to have their cabins without a chimney, and that if they smoke, if it will go out at all, should only escape through the roof, Cobbett answered: “I have seen the United States of America, and I have seen other colonies; I have seen Irishmen in those places, and I never yet saw them that they loved other food better than meat and bread; they did not like dirty clothes, they did not like filthy rags, but liked to be well dressed. They have laboured successfully, and if I should say more so than those of any other European nation in the United States, I should speak the truth. Besides, I have seen how they have risen to eminence in the United States, and to be persons of the first consequence there.”147 Cobbett, after effectively refuting those supporting the law that forced Ireland’s Catholics to tithe to the alien “Church of Ireland,” and having elegantly disposed of the smear that their Catholicism was why Ireland’s people were permanently destitute, he focused upon the undisputable fact, the fact so avoided by Brit-Irish academia to this day: I repeat now what I said in my place in Parliament, and I say that it is impossible for any reasoning man to believe that eight millions of people will continue feeding another nation of ten or twelve millions; for you (Ireland’s people) feed a great part of them, two millions at least, Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the West of Scotland; and it is not possible to believe that there will be for a long time peace or tranquility amongst the eight millions held as a colony by the ten or twelve millions. And: The cause of the misery was, that those who work, and those were the majority of the people in every country, those who laboured had not what they ought to have, a due share of what they laboured for. (Hear, Hear). This should not be left to charity.


As to soil fertility Cobbett wrote to Charles Marshall, his labourer in England, on 18 October, 1834; (italics and capitals are Cobbett’s) “Marshall, I have now been over 180 miles in Ireland in the several counties of Dublin, Wicklow, Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, and Waterford. I have, in former years, been in every county of England, and across every county more than one way. I have been through the finest parts of Scotland; I have lived in the finest parts of the United States of America. And here I am to declare to all the world, that I never passed over any 50 miles, in my life, any 50 unbroken miles, of land so good on average during the whole way, as these 180 miles. Perhaps there are parts, patches, of England better than this; and yet here are these starving people! And this is only because they have no law to give them their due share of the fruits of their labour! In coming from Kilkenny to Waterford I and my friend (Mr. Higgins), in a post chaise, came through a little town called MULLINAVAT, where there was a fair for cattle and fat hogs and apples. There might be 4,000 people; there were about 7 acres of ground covered with cattle (mostly fat), and all over the streets of the town there were about THREE THOUSAND BEAUTIFUL FAT HOGS, lying all over the road and the streets; and our chaise was actually stopped and blocked up by fat hogs; and we were obliged to stop until the civil and kind people could get them out of our way! There was a sight to be seen by me, who had never seen thirty such hogs together in the course of my life, these hogs weighing from ten to thirty score each! (200 to 600 lbs.; C.F.). Ah! But there arose out of this fine sight reflections that made my blood boil; that the far greater part of those who had bred and fatted these hogs were never to taste one morsel of them, no not even the offal, and had lived worse than the hogs, not daring to taste any part of the meal (oatmeal and barley meal boiled with potatoes and/or turnips) used in the fatting of the hogs! The hogs are to be killed, dried or tubbed, and sent out of the country to be sold for money to be paid to the landowners, who spend it in London, Bath, Paris, Rome, or some other place of pleasure, while these poor creatures are raising all this food from the land, and are starving themselves. And this is what we shall come to in England, unless we call upon our member, Mr. Leech, to protect us!148


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Cobbett also exposed and denounced those economists (the Ayn Rands of their day) who promoted what they called the “rule of nature” to the ears of officialdom while demanding more for the richest at the expense of the producers. He especially blames Malthus and Lord Brougham for promoting that and even greater injustice. Malthus’s error was in his contention that the food supply is a constant, an error refuted by the effects of machinery, from mowing machines to combine harvesters, milking machines, etc. About Malthus, Cobbett wrote; “Did the ‘law of nature’ give to the nasty and greedy parson MALTHUS his PENSION? He told us, that a law ought to be passed to refuse relief to all poor persons whatsoever who should marry after a certain day, to them and their children. He told us that for such persons ‘there was no seat at nature’s board.’ Monster! Did nature bid him, then, have a pension of a hundred pounds a year for doing nothing; and that pension, too, wrung from the sweat of the laboring people? …The nasty MALTHUS says, that a man who shall marry and be in want, after notice be given him, ‘has no claim upon society for the smallest portion of relief.’ Impudent parson! What claim had he? And what claim have the swarms who are upon the pension list, upon the sinecure list, and upon the dead-weight list; and all the lists that swallow up the earnings of the working people. And is impudence to prevail for ever? …No, it is not always to be thus; a day of justice must come; a day of judgment it will be, to those who plead the law of nature for giving pensions to the rich, and for not giving relief to the poor.”149 For yet another bill that, in effect, claims for itself, writes Cobbett, that “it is agreeable to the ‘LAW OF NATURE’, that those whose labour causes the victuals, the clothing, the houses, and the drink, to come, should live on potatoes and seaweed, while the lazy part of the community have the meat and the drink, and all the good things of this world. You must believe this; and yet you profess that you support the bill because you believe that it will make the working people BETTER OFF!”150


In his speeches and letters Cobbett does something that academia refuses to do to this day; he identifies Ireland’s landlords as English. To his own English laborer, Marshall, he exposes, among others, Lord Middleton as follows; “But, MARSHALL, mind me well. You know that, at PEPPERHARROW (only about four miles from your cottage) there lives LORD MIDDLETON. You know that he was a long while Lord-Lieutenant of our country. Now, MARSHALL, He is one of the GREAT LANDHOLDERS OF IRELAND. His real name is BRODERICK. He is the owner of a town, called Middleton (sic), (Co. Cork) half as big as Guilford. He is the owner of lands for many miles around, and, it is supposed, that he draws, yearly, from twenty-five to thirty thousand pounds from this estate! I came here to see things with my own eyes; and, I have, today, been to see BRODERICK’S estate, which begins at about sixteen miles from this City of Cork; and the land of this sixteen miles, taking in two miles on each side of the road, the finest that you can possibly imagine. Ah! But, how did I find the working people upon the land of this BRODERICK? That is the question for you to ask, and for me to answer. I went to a sort of HAMLET near to the town of Middleton. It contained about 40 or 50 hovels. I went into several of them, and took down the names of the occupiers. They all consisted of mud-walls, with a covering of rafters and straw. None of them so good as the place where you keep your little horse.”151 After much description of the misery of the inhabitants Cobbett writes: “LORD MIDDLETON may say that HE is not the landlord of these wretched people. Ah! But his tenant, his middleman, is their landlord, and LORD MIDDLETON gets the more rent from him by enabling him to let these holes in this manner. If I were to give Mr. DEAN a shilling a week to squeeze you down to twelve shillings a week, who would you think was most to blame, me or Mr. Dean?”152 (Cobbett thus refutes those who still, today, go to ridiculous extremes to exculpate the landlords by claiming that Irish middlemen are to blame.)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” While Cobbett was in Limerick in October, 1834, he received news that England’s parliament had just been set afire, and that Londoners raised a “SAVAGE shout of exultation.” He wrote; “And this ‘unreflecting mob’ might in this case have reflected, that in the building which they then saw in flames, the following, amongst many other things, took place. They might have reflected that it was in this House, That the act was passed for turning the Catholic priests, who shared the tithes with the poor, out of the parishes, and putting Protestant parsons in their place, who gave the poor no share at all of the tithes. That this was the VERY FIRST ACT that was passed after this building became the Parliament House! That the all-devouring Church of England was BORN in this very House. That, soon after the people became compelled to beg or starve, in this same House an act was passed to put an iron collar on a beggar’s neck, and to make him a slave for life. That, it was in this House, that the aristocracy (who had got the abbey lands and great tithes), solemnly renounced the damnable errors of the Catholic religion, in the reign of Edward the Sixth. That, it was in this same House, that they solemnly recanted and received pardon and absolution from the Pope, in the reign of Queen Mary, bargaining to keep the abbey lands and great tithes. That, it was in this same House, that the same aristocracy chopped about again when ELIZABETH came, and again renounced the damnable idolatry of popery. That, it was in this same House, that the act was passed for plundering the guilds and fraternities of their prescriptive property. That, it was in this same House, that all of the tyrannical and bloody penal laws were passed against those who faithfully adhered to the religion of our fathers. That, it was in this same House, that the Riot Act and the Septennial Act were passed. That, it was in this same House, that the sums were voted for carrying on a war to subjugate the Americans.


That, it was in this same House, that new treason-laws, new gamelaws, new trespass laws and new felony laws were passed. That, it was in this same House, that the million and half of money was voted…to be given to the parsons of the Church of England, over and above their tithes to enormous amount. That, it was in this same House,… But I must break it off. The post is going. I will finish the list next week.”153 Cobbett suggests that England (having HQ’d the slave-ship business in Bristol, and getting little benefit from it since losing its main American colonies, especially Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia) abolished slavery when it did in order to sabotage the U.S. economy. He writes to Lord Althorp; “…I would send you an American publication, in which the question is gravely discussed, whether it be not as laudable to raise money in the United States for the purpose of freeing white persons in an European island that shall be nameless, as it was to raise money to free black persons in the islands of America.”154 What Cobbett shows is that under British rule the people of Ireland are kept near-starvation in lives made harder than those of English-owned slaves elsewhere. Cobbett exposes Lord “Egremont”s (sic) rack-renting in Ireland, and alludes also to his estate in Sussex. However, Cobbett misspells the name. It is a Lord “Egmont” that is listed (in 1881) as possessing 14,021 acres in Sussex, more than 4,000 in three other English counties, and 16,766 acres in Co. Cork.155 Do buy the book; Cobbett in Ireland; a Warning to England. It is a treasury of facts that prove that the Holocaust was not an isolated event; the basis for it was a permanent, genocidal, component of British law and prejudice, as witnessed by him, an English Member of Parliament, and Anglican Church member. The book’s importance is enhanced by the informed notes of Denis Knight, its rescuer and editor, by whom Wm. Cobbett (though dead before 1845) is made a main demolisher of the Big Lie “famine” literature. Fintan Lalor, in The Irish Felon, July 8, 1848. Here, then, is the confession and faith of a Felon. Years ago I perceived that the English


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” conquest consisted of two parts combined into one whole – the conquest of our liberties, the conquest of our lands. I clearly saw that the reconquest of our liberties would be incomplete and worthless without the reconquest of our lands…” Lalor’s next essay, of July 22, 1848 resulted in suppression of The Irish Felon by the British government. Thomas Davis (Oct. 1814- Sept. 1845) died tragically young, just as the Holocaust began. Though a member of the Ascendancy (his father was Welsh-born, a doctor to the British army stationed at Mallow Co. Cork) he was a revolutionary Irish writer, the chief rallier and poet of the Young Irelanders. As an immortal champion of justice and the Irish people he wrote many published poems and songs (eighty-one in one book in my possession) including A Nation Once Again, Lament for the Death of Owen Roe O’Neill, and The West’s Asleep. Many of his writings were published in The Nation including the following (note that it describes conditions prior to the actual Holocaust): In a climate soft as a mother's smile, on a soil fruitful as God's love, the Irish peasant mourns. He is not unconsoled. Faith in the joys of another world, heightened by his woe in this, give him hours when he serenely looks down on the torments that encircle him — the moon in a troubled sky. Domestic love, almost morbid from external suffering, prevents him from becoming a fanatic or a misanthrope, and reconciles him to life. Sometimes he forgets all, and springs into a desperate glee or a scathing anger; and latterly another feeling — the hope of better days — and another exertion — the effort for redress — have shared his soul with religion, love, mirth, and vengeance. His consolations are those of a spirit — his misery includes all physical sufferings, and many that strike the soul, not the senses. Consider his griefs! They begin in the cradle — they end in the grave. Suckled by a breast that is supplied from unwholesome or insufficient food, and that is fevered with anxiety — reeking with the smoke of an almost chimneyless cabin — assailed by wind and rain when the weather rages — breathing, when it is calm, the exhalations of a rotten roof, of clay walls, and of manure, which gives his only chance of food — he is apt to perish in his infancy. Or he survives all this (happy if he have escaped from gnawing scrofula or familiar fever), and in the same cabin, with rags instead of his mother's breast, and lumpers instead of his mother's milk, he spends his childhood. Advancing youth brings him labour, and manhood increases it; but youth and manhood leave his roof rotten, his chimney one hole, his window


another, his clothes rags (at best muffled by a holiday cotamore [overcoat]) — his furniture a pot, a table, a few hay chairs and rickety stools — his food lumpers and water — his bedding straw and a coverlet — his enemies the landlord, the tax-gatherer, and the law — his consolation the priest and his wife — his hope on earth, agitation — his hope hereafter, the Lord God! For such an existence his toil is hard — and so much the better — it calms and occupies his mind; but bitter is his feeling that the toil which gains for him this nauseous and scanty livelihood, heaps dainties and gay wines on the table of his distant landlord, clothes his children or his harem in satin, lodges them in marble halls, and brings all the arts of luxury to solicit their senses — bitter to him to feel that this green land, which he loves and his landlord scorns, is ravished by him of her fruits to pamper that landlord; twice bitter for him to see his wife, with weariness in her breast of love, to see half his little brood torn by the claws of want to undeserved graves, and to know that to those who survive him he can only leave the inheritance to which he was heir; and thrice bitter to him that even his hovel has not the security of the wild beast's den — that Squalidness, and Hunger, and Disease are insufficient guardians of his home — and that the puff of the landlord's or the agent's breath may blow him off the land where he has lived, and send him and his to a dyke, or to prolong wretchedness in some desperate kennel in the next town, till the strong wings of Death — unopposed lord of such suburb — bear them away. Aristocracy of Ireland, will ye do nothing? — will ye do nothing for fear? The body who best know Ireland — the body that keep Ireland within the law — the Repeal Committee — declare that unless some great change take place an agrarian war may ensue! Do ye know what that is, and how it would come? The rapid multiplication of outrages, increased violence by magistrates, collisions between the people and the police, coercive laws and military force, the violation of houses, the suspension of industry — the conflux of discontent, pillage, massacre, war — the gentry shattered, the peasantry conquered and decimated, or victorious and ruined (for who could rule them?) — there is an agrarian insurrection! May Heaven guard us from it! — may the fear be vain! We set aside the fear! Forget it! Think of the long, long patience of the people — their toils supporting you — their virtues shaming you — their huts, their hunger, their disease. To whomsoever God hath given a heart less cold than stone, these truths must cry out day and night. Oh! How they cross us like Banshees when we would range free on the mountain — how, as we walk in the evening light amid flowers, they startle us from rest of mind! Ye nobles! whose houses are as gorgeous as the mote (who dwelleth in the sunbeam) — ye strong and haughty squires — ye dames exuberant with tingling blood — ye maidens, whom splendour has not yet spoiled, will ye not think of the poor? — will ye not shudder in your couches to think how rain, wind, and smoke dwell with the blanketless peasant? — will ye not turn from the sumptuous board to


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” look at those hard-won meals of black and slimy roots on which man, woman, and child feed year after year? — will ye never try to banish wringing hunger and ghastly disease from the home of such piety and love? — will ye not give back its dance to the village — its mountain play to boyhood — its serene hopes to manhood? Will ye do nothing for pity — nothing for love? Will ye leave a foreign Parliament to mitigate — will ye leave a native Parliament, gained in your despite, to redress these miseries — will ye for ever abdicate the duty and the joy of making the poor comfortable, and the peasant attached and happy? Do — if so you prefer; but know that if you do, you are a doomed race. Once more, Aristocracy of Ireland, we warn and entreat you to consider the State of the Peasantry, and to save them with your own hands.

At the end of the latter, Davis predicts doom for Ireland’s landlords unless they allow Ireland’s Irish to keep a livable amount of their own production. That they did not do; but nor were they doomed. Further on you will see that the British gov’t bought them out and they repatriated to England. “Irish Famine” books in which the writers seemingly champion the victims while covering up the food removal, some even referring to the starvelings as “dirty,” “negligent,” “f*ckless,” “lazy,” “improvident,” etc., are a particularly obscene category of genocide p*rn. To portray the plight of the dying innocents during those years I include here the following example of famine p*rn (No mention of the food removal; “The starvation ‘came’.” It merely “came.” Nothing to see here folks; just avert your eyes and walk on by). Translated from Irish:156 The starvation came, and Sheila, her father and mother and little Diarmuid had to go down to Macroom (Co. Cork) and go into the workhouse. As soon as they were inside they were separated. The father was put with the men and the mother with the women. Sheila was put with the little girls and little Diarmuid with the younger children. The workhouse was full and all the poor people in it were sunk in every kind of dangerous sickness. The people were falling with the sickness as soon as they came in, God save the hearers, and dying as soon as it came on them. There was not room in the workhouse for half of them. Those who could not get in just went


and lay down on the bank of the river below the bridge. They were to be seen there every morning after spending the night there, stretched in rows, some stirring, and some who were quiet enough and stirring no longer. Presently people came and lifted those who were still, put them into carts and carried them up to a place near Carrigstyra where a big, wide, deep pit gaped open for them, and threw them all into the pit together. The same was done with those who were dead in the workhouse after the night. Not long after they went in and he was separated from his mother, little Diarmuid died. The small corpse was heaved onto the cart, carried up to the big pit, and thrown into it with the other corpses. But it did not matter to the child. His soul was happy above in the presence of God long before his body was thrown into the pit. Soon Sheila followed little Diarmuid. Her young body went into the pit, but her soul ascended to where Diarmuid was, in the presence of God, and in the joy of Heaven, where she had solace and the company of the saints and angels, and the Virgin Mary. The father and mother were enquiring as much as they could for Sheila and Diarmuid. The children were not long dead when they heard of it. All the poor people knew Irish, but those in charge did not know it, or knew it but badly, so that the poor people could often get information secretly about one another. When the parents found out that the two children were dead, they grew so heartbroken that they could not stay in the place. They were separated, but they managed to get some word to each other. They agreed to steal away. Kate was the wife’s name. Patrick slipped out of the workhouse first. He stood up at the top of Sop Road waiting for Kate. After a while he saw her coming, but she was walking very slowly. She had the sickness. They went on up Sop Road towards Carrigstyra, and reached the place where the big pit was. They knew that their children were below in the pit among all the other corpses. They stood by the pit and cried their fill. Above at Derryleight, east of Cahireen, was the cabin where they had lived before they went into the workhouse. They left the big pit and faced north-west towards Derryleight, where the cabin was. It was six miles away, and night was falling, but they kept on. They were hungry and Kate had the sickness. They had to walk very slowly.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” When they had covered a couple of miles Kate had to stop. She could travel no further. They met neighbors. They were given a drink and some scraps of food, but everyone was afraid to let them in because they had come straight from the workhouse, and the wife had the bad sickness. So Patrick took his wife on his back and continued northwest towards the cabin. The poor man himself was very weak. He would have found it hard to do the journey, even without a burden. Laden as he was he had to stop often and rest his burden behind him on the ditch for a while. But however tired he was, he continued on the journey and did not part with his burden. He reached the cabin. It was cold and empty before him, without fire or heat. The next day some neighbor came to the cabin and went in. He saw the two of them lying dead, with his wife’s feet held to Patrick’s breast, as if he were trying to warm them. It would seem that he had noticed the death weakness coming on Kate and her feet growing cold, and he drew them to his breast to take the chill off them. ‘That was a fine, a faithful and noble man,’ someone will say perhaps, ‘and he did a noble deed.’ That is true. But I tell you this. Thousands of deeds of the same kind were done throughout Ireland during that time, and no one wondered at them very much. Everyone thought that Patrick Buckley did only what any man would do who was worthy of the name Christian. From Mo Sceal Fėin, by an t-Athair Peadar O Laoghre (My Own Story, by Fr. Peter O’Leary). O’Leary (1839-1920) was obviously sympathetic towards the suffering; but why was he covering up a genocide? He was also old enough during it to remember seeing the British soldiers seizing Ireland’s crops grown by the likes of Pat Buckley. Why was he evoking sympathy for people who if they weren’t murdered, their millions of deaths must be attributed to national terminal stupidity, that the people of Ireland “fell into a trap of their own making” by supposedly growing only one crop; a failure-prone one? The torrent of Irish food going to England during the Holocaust didn’t cultivate and


harvest itself – it was produced by the sweat of millions. No army of English seasonal spalpeens came to Ireland; so it obviously was the Irish who had produced that abundance. The landlords, overwhelmingly English, and many, if not most, England-domiciled, claimed the entire output of the crops grown on “their” Irish lands. O’Leary doesn’t mention Ireland’s cries for justice. Where could the people find justice? The English landlords (those living in Ireland) were also the local judges. They were the commanders and officers of their own county militias, they included those to whom the Irish were forced to tithe, and they gave the orders to the constabulary. The British army was always there to enforce their tyranny. Was Fr. O’Leary ashamed of the dire poverty of the victims? (But the people were being robbed of their output!). The disgrace of entering a workhouse? This was very real and remains a sensitive issue. To this day, though nearly half the population were inmates, nobody has ever admitted to me to having a relative an inmate. On the other hand, people did enter as families and few left alive. Other pretexts for seizing Irish product were the following: tithes owed to the Church of Ireland (C. of I.; Britain’s State church) on all tilled crops. An additional sum was owed to maintain the local C of I reverend. Also, in addition to extortionate rents “owed” to the landlord, taxes, rates and cesses were extracted by the constabulary and army, if not in cash, then by taking livestock, crops, poultry, clothing, tools, or furniture. These, grown on rented land, formed a portion of the torrent of food flowing to England and its colonies. The armed robbery of that vast treasure of foods was perpetrated by some 12,000 constables, the resident magistrates and judges, thirty-seven regiments of landlord-commanded militias, sixty-seven British army regiments, British warships, coast guard vessels, excise vessels, some marines, Revenue Police, Dublin Castle Police, tithe proctors, drivers, house-demolition teams, et al; all either British or British-controlled.

The material in this book constitutes superabundant evidence to defeat all of the falsehoods. 120

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


CHAPTER 4: RESISTANCE TO THE FOOD REMOVAL The intensity of Ireland’s resistance against the Food Removal is made abundantly clear by the amount of firepower brought to bear against the people. (See Exhibit A.) The number of army regiments, militia regiments, and carbine–toting constables was determined by the intensity of that resistance. Having seen Exhibits A, B, and C, you are already knowledgeable about the resistance. But the following is further corroboration: An example of the people resisting the Food Removal The Cork Examiner, September 23, 1846 FOOD RIOTS IN YOUGHAL (The article from which the following is extracted) On making inquiry, it was ascertained that this demonstration was made in order to prevent the merchants and manufacturers from exporting the corn or provisions of the town, for which purpose upwards of a dozen ships were lying in the harbour. After visiting several of the corn stores with the apparent intention of intimidating the proprietors, the mob proceeded down to the quay, where they speedily compelled some carmen, who were loading the vessels with corn for exportation, to desist and return to the stores; on coming back, they met another carman who however, did not remain to receive the injunctions of the mob, but immediately turned the horse's head, and commenced a speedy retreat amidst the cheers and jeers of the multitude. Not satisfied with their success in these instances, they turned towards another portion of the quay, where they succeeded in a similar manner. Accessed from Google, then Irish famine, then clicked on The Cork Examiner, September, 1846.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

January 22, 1847 Cork Examiner DEATHS IN BANTRY. BANTRY is now as badly off as Skibbereen. Could we give a more fearful description? Impossible. We have only time, this post, to call attention to our report of ten inquests more in Bantry, and allow the following extract, hastily selected from a private letter, to speak the rest:--

"Each day brings with it its own horrors. The mind recoils from the contemplation of the scenes we are compelled to witness every hour. Ten inquests in Bantry-- there should have been at least two hundred inquests. Each day-- each hour produces its own victims-- Holocausts offered at the shrine of political economy. Famine and pestilence are sweeping away hundreds-- but they have now no terrors for the poor people. Their only regret seems to be that they are not relieved from their suffering and misery, by some process more speedy and less painful. Since the inquests were held here on Monday, there have been not less than 24 DEATHS from starvation: and, if we can judge from appearances, before the termination of another week the number will be incredible. As to holding any more inquests, it is mere nonsense. The number of deaths is beyond counting. Nineteen out of every twenty deaths that have occurred in this parish for the last two months were caused by starvation. I have known children in the remote districts of the parish, and in the neighborhood of the town too-- live some of them for two-some for three-- and some of them even for four days on water. On the sea shore, or convenient to it, the people are more fortunate, as they can get sea weed, which, when boiled and mixed with a little Indian or Wheaten meal, they eat, and thank Providence for providing them with even that to allay the cravings of hunger." (See http:// Jan1847.html) 123


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


Ireland was ruled directly by Britain since 1801. The British army, constabulary, and the militia forces were not in mutiny while they removed Ireland’s food; they were executing orders from London. Thus the Food Removal was no aberration. As recorded in Chapter 1, the pattern of British genocide in Ireland had been in operation for centuries. You read the evasive response by Lord Heytesbury to the visiting group of alarmed Irishmen who had beseeched him to stop the food removal. You read how he attempted to change the subject from food removal to potatoes and blight by reading to them from a paper on that latter subject. Britain’s genocide in Ireland was merely one of many it perpetrated throughout its empire. It is beyond the scope of this book, but to be informed one ought not blink at England’s clearances in Scotland, its complete take-over of the African slave trade which it HQ’d in Bristol, its genocides in Africa, India, Australia (especially Tasmania where nobody survived), New Zealand, its Opium War (imposing opium on China by military force), India and Bangladesh (repeated during WW2), and through to its genocidal “Bomber” Harris (affectionately called “Butcher” by his troops) for his aerial bombings of Kurdish villages and, later, his WW2 firebombings of German cities. It is appropriate to include here Britain’s employment of mass murder while refastening its grip on Ireland’s Counties Fermanagh, Derry, Tyrone, Antrim, Armagh, and Down. Britain continues to stonewall regarding its massacres in Ballymurphy, Loughinisland, Dublin/Monaghan, Omagh, Bloody Sunday, etc. and its uncharged incarcerations and tortures in Maghaberry Prison. While stonewalling the demands for the prosecution of the perpetrators, the British government has recently offered £50,000 payoffs to the relatives of the fourteen its soldiers murdered with impunity in Derry on Bloody Sunday. Britain’s policy 125

of genocide is by far, the world’s most long-lived. It is being extended by connection to American neo-cons who have converted our onceproud republic of the U.S. into a squalid Anglo-American–Israeli empire. The genocidal notions of England’s Malthus, Lord Brougham, and Ricardo that brought so much death and destruction to Ireland and the rest of the world are being revived by disciples of Ayn Rand. The Churches The “Church of Ireland,” England’s State church in Ireland, comprised “Ireland’s landlords at prayer.” The people of Ireland, Catholic, were forced by law to tithe to it (but via the landlords from 1837 until 1/1/1871), and Britain’s constabulary and army enforced collections throughout the Holocaust. When cash proved unavailable, anything of value was seized; crops, livestock, poultry, tools, furniture, clothing, anything. Thus these tithe collections had a significant causal effect on the Holocaust. The Catholic Church has been the spiritual home of the indigenous Irish for 1,500 years. The priests, brothers, and nuns I’ve known well have been exemplary, inspiring. Yet, in addition to Britain’s always up-to-date killing equipment, it has been partly through the Catholic Church that Britain kept Ireland enslaved for centuries. A corrupted Vatican was key. Excepting the rare priest and the even rarer bishop the Catholic Church, in obedience to Rome, has betrayed its Irish communicants since long before the Reformation. The Vatican, for 800 years, both before and after the Reformation, has issued Rescript after Rescript, all against the Irish and in favor of England.157 London, prior to perpetrating the Holocaust, appointed a few Catholic Bishops to a Dublin Castle commission and awarded a £30,000 lump sum to Maynooth while increasing its annual grant from £9,000 to £26,000!158 Mr. Gladstone had left the government in January through disagreement with the proposal to increase the grant to Maynooth College from £9000 to £39,000.159 (Was it £26,000 or £39,000? The latter figure is probably the accurate one, its source being a contemporaneous one.)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Before British troops began starving Ireland Britain’s parliament enacted a law to divert some of the seized foods in the form of rations to all of Ireland’s Catholic hierarchy down to the level of, but not including, curates. Faced with residual hierarchical disquiet, parliamentarians amended the law to include curates. This ended obispal objections to the Irish Holocaust; it proceeded efficiently thenceforth. An Irishman (Mitchel? O’Casey?) subsequently wrote; “…for the spire on the cathedral of Maynooth is the dagger at Ireland’s heart.” The priest, Fr. David Moriarty, who publicly thanked God that he “lives in a country where a farmer will starve his own children to pay his landlord’s rent” was later elevated to Bishop of the Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe. In the Penal Laws era priests in Ireland, like the whole Catholic population, were felons a priori. All Irish men, women and children (excepting five septs) were murderable at will, but there was also a five shilling price on the heads of the priests. In 1795, British ministers decided that to completely subjugate Ireland the collaboration of the Catholic Church was indispensable. Britain thus ceased murdering priests and founded and funded Ireland’s national seminary in Maynooth. The tactic worked; Ireland’s Catholic Church became London’s tool.160 Priests excommunicated rebels, and preached “God’s Will” to the people as they sank from hunger. The News Media Britain’s press, while reporting factually as to ship loadings and landings (see Exhibit B), acted as cheerleaders for the crimes of empire. In Ireland under British rule the news media existed to serve its masters. You saw, in the 1800-1803 era how twistedly the Limerick Chronicle reported on a local response by Catholics to tithe proctors who, to collect tithes owed by law to the local Protestant Reverend, had seized a cow belonging to a poor Catholic man whose children depended on its milk. You read how triumphantly that newspaper reported the punishments of those who had tried to undo that gross


injustice; the consequent hangings, floggings, and sentences to slave labor in Australia. A report in the Dublin-Castle-supporting Freeman’s Journal inadvertently reveals the plight of the indigenous Irish: Yesterday, a boat capsized on the Grand Canal at Portobello. Five men, four women, and two children were drowned, but no person of any note has suffered.161 All newspapers in Ireland, from the Irish Monthly Mercury by Cromwellian soldiers in Cork in 1649, were owned and operated by, and for, the Ascendancy (English Protestants in Ireland) until 1841. This year saw the second Irish-Catholic-owned newspaper; The Cork Examiner, followed in 1842 by The Nation. During the Holocaust, among the 101 newspapers operating in Ireland, The Nation was the only one objecting to that Holocaust (excepting the Cork Examiner which consistently referred to it as *Holocaust*). The Nation operators were hunted down, prosecuted and imprisoned. Into the 1870s, news organs founded by Irish patriots were brutally suppressed and their publishers and writers convicted of felony crime. Some were hanged, others were sent to Australian slave-labor camps. But inexplicably, Ireland’s current news media including State-owned Radio Telefis Ēireann, like its government, promotes Britain’s interests over Irish ones, especially in matters of life and death, hydrocarbon rights, and major finance. Exposing governmental crimes must have been as career-blighting then as it is today for Pvt. Chelsea Manning, Aaron Swartz, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Jeremy & Jeffery Hammond, John Kiriakou, Thomas Drake, William Binney, Frederick Whitehurst, and Jeffrey Sterling of newly-criminal, official America. The establishment news media of Ireland have parroted the British line throughout the Holocaust and to this day. There is a reason: Ireland got rid of its British landlords, but not the Brits who owned its banks, insurance companies, flour mills, brokerages, and newspapers/magazines.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

CHAPTER 6: TOLL OF THE HOLOCAUST WHAT WAS THE POPULATION OF IRELAND BEFORE THE HOLOCAUST? The question of the population figure for Ireland in 1846 has never been established conclusively. It does not even appear as an issue in the literature on the Irish Holocaust though it is a crucial fact to establish. For some odd reason most seem satisfied with the official Census figures for 1841. Those who died were not counted at the time and the figures for those who died are treated in the most arbitrary and flippant way. The usual practice is to deduct the 1841 figure from the 1851 figures and accept that as sufficient. I submit that nothing could be further from the truth and that the figures are wrong by several million. (In addition to the valuable data in this Chapter 6 by Jack Lane, please peruse Chapter 12’s pages 193 197 of the obfuscatory census work of William Wilde, a key operative of Ireland’s 1841 census, and Commissioner of its 1851 and 1861 censuses. C. Fogarty)

Previous Census figures The following is a table of some of the accepted figures for Ireland’s population up to 1841: 1603 Fynes Morrison


1652 Sir William Petty


1672 Sir William Petty



The same corrected,


1695 Captain South


1712 Thomas Dobbs









1731 Established Clergy


1754 De Burgho


1767 Hearth-money Rolls




1778 Arthur Young




1788 Gervase Parker Bushe


1791 Hearth-money Rolls


1792 Rev. Dr. Beaufort


1805 Tomas Newenham


1814 Incomplete census


1821 Census


1831 Census


1841 Census


Some of these have been revised but there is at least one clear conclusion from these figures that nobody queries which is that the rate of population growth was very high over the centuries and during the first decades of the 19th century. Higher than anywhere else in Europe. This increase was one constant. In fact there is almost a tenfold increase over the period which is amazing. Indigenous Ireland had been systematically shattered during this period, in fact since Tudor times, and the natural cultural and social constraints of a viable civilization on excessive population growth were constantly weakened. What is clearly questionable is why the population growth rate apparently declines so dramatically in the 1830s and this needs explaining. There is every reason to believe that the rate should have remained essentially the same - if not actually increase – as there were no great changes in the society during that decade. Cormac Ó Gráda of NUG estimates that in the early decades of the 19th century the annual rate of growth was between 1.5 and 2% and this is accepted by L. A. Clarkson of QUB. Joe Lee of UCC


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” implies a rate of 1.6%. (Goldstrom & Clarkson: ‘Irish Population, Economy and Society’ 1981: Oxford). These estimates are perfectly credible and I think it safe to accept Lee’s estimate. But what is not credible is that this rate should have declined in the decades up to the Holocaust. The rate of population growth does not alter dramatically in any society without some very clear and obvious reason/reasons – war, sudden climatic changes, massive economic change, plagues, pandemics, nuclear attacks or whatever. Nothing like this happened in the period we are looking at. I submit therefore that the population in 1846, continuing to grow at a constant rate, was in the region of 12 million. There are a few obvious and banal, but ignored, facts to bear in mind when dealing with this issue. Censuses were not conducted by an Irish government and there was automatically a question of trust that must militate against full disclosure by the whole population – it was ‘outsiders’ counting the ‘insiders.’ Inaccurate census figures are nothing new. In fact all censuses are notorious for their inaccuracy and are very prone to all sorts of errors for all sorts of reasons. I was an enumerator in the UK census of 1991 and it was quietly written off, for all practical purposes, as soon as it was completed. I know of whole streets in London that had a few dozen people recorded. Why? For reasons not very dissimilar to those that contributed to make census taking in Ireland inaccurate – taxes and fear of the state. Specifically, Margaret Thatcher and the Poll Tax in this case. While all common sense would accept that any miscounting is normally an underestimating of the figures we have the extraordinary instance of the Commissioners of the 1841 Irish census claiming that


the census of 1831 was an overestimate as one of their arguments to try to prove that their figures for 1841 were accurate. This was an amazing claim and may be unique in the history of census taking. The tradition has been to find reasons for a declining rate of population in the 1820s and 1830s on the basis of accepting the official figures as automatically and incontrovertibly correct and then assuming things like emigration, disease etc. as the reasons for the rate of decline but this has a self-fulfilling connotation in the absence of any verifiable and convincing reasons for such a change. 1821 Census This was, officially, the first proper census. But it cannot be accepted as a reliable census by any standard. The enumerators were drawn from the Ascendancy and the lumpen Ascendancy in particular. They also tended to be tax-collectors. It does not take much imagination to realise that these types were not likely to be very successful in eliciting information from the mass of population who rejected the moral basis of the Ascendancy itself and were literally at war with its members over land, political and social rights, taxes, and the most infamous tax of all - the tithes for the Established Church. In any society at any time tax collectors should not do this type of work – human nature being what it is. Its accuracy, or rather its inaccuracy, might be gauged from one pertinent fact - the returns of the enumerators accounted for 6.8 million acres which would mean that nobody lived in two-thirds of the country! The 1831 census used essentially the same methodology and there is no reason to accept that it produced any more reliable figures. Fortunately, we have a firsthand contemporary account of the problems in counting the population and a more accurate figure from a very competent and inquisitive visitor in the year after the 1821 census.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Thomas Reid (1791-1825) Thomas Reid was an Irish born naval surgeon. In 1822 he visited Ireland. He was a most serious and competent individual, a member of the Royal College of Surgeons and much travelled. He was perplexed as to why Ireland was not benefiting from the virtues of the Union, after 20 years, and not becoming more like the rest of the UK. It was self-evident to him that this should be happening. He was a most inquisitive individual. He would go into cabins and hovels to find out what was going on. Often at some risk to himself. One of the first things that struck him was how difficult it was to establish how many people actually lived in these places and the attitudes he came across would have existed until during the 1831 and 1841 censuses. “It would scarcely be imagined by anyone who has not tried the experiment, how difficult it is to ascertain the population of Ireland. There exists among the peasantry an unconquerable aversion to tell the exact number of which their families consist, and in nine cases out of ten they represent it under the truth. On what grounds this prejudice exists I am not able to explain; but I had ample experience of the fact.” (Travels in Ireland, 1823) He described his experience on entering eleven households in Cork city’s lanes which were typical of the reception he got: “Walked through some of the lanes, between six and seven o’clock, and visited several cabins after the families had risen. I was desirous of knowing how many persons had taken refuge in those places for the night, but I found the people very unwilling to gratify my curiosity, and in suffering their fears to be overcome, they intimated their expectation of ‘a treat’ for their civility. ...those cabins average a population of eighteen and a half to each; and even if they’d deceived me as to the persons belonging to them who were then absent, still those whom I myself numbered give an average of sixteen to each


house; it should be remarked also, that all these persons were Catholics. I inquired in each cabin how many had slept there the previous night , but could only obtain answers from two of them, namely, the second and the fifth; the question appeared to alarm and displease all the others; one man observed ‘I suppose you are a Millstreet Peeler (the local term applied to police-officers) come here to look after some of the innocent blades, but take my honest word for it, I have nothing to do with it, nor never giv’d one of them a mail’s mait, nor a bit of my blanket’.” “...I am well aware of how very difficult it is to arrive at anything near the truth in such an undertaking (an estimate of the whole population, J.L.), that, in fact, correctness is in most cases absolutely impracticable. When in the north of Ireland, some of my relations gave me the number and names of certain families, to whose house I afterwards went, and put the question ‘How many of you are in family?’ but in no instance was the answer correct, - it was always under the actual number. Whatever be the cause of this disposition to represent their families as being smaller than they really are, it is quite certain that it pervades all the lower, and even middle classes of the Catholics in every part of the country; and that the poorer order of Protestants are influenced by the same spirit, but in a much less degree.” “I had visited Cork in January 1817, since which time, it appears greatly altered, and altered for the worse; several houses have been added, the population has wonderfully increased, and the distress has more than kept pace with them both.” (ibid.) We will ignore his naivety for the moment and respect his honest efforts. He was not to know that to the majority of the population at that time any person visiting them in a suit most likely meant danger, trouble and/or a threat of some sort. Reid could not be expected to appreciate this. Being oblivious to this situation and the type of man


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” not to be defeated by such a task he embarked on a project to count the population in 1822. He set up an extensive project with relations and friends to do it and published it with a breakdown by county, number of houses and number of Catholics and Protestants. It came to 7,855,606. A million more than the official census of 1821. Mr. Reid published this but he did not believe it. Being a gentleman he would not contradict his friends and be seen to rubbish their hard work. But he was quite certain they were wrong. He said: “ is feared the statement is far from correct. Had I trusted entirely to my own observations, the result would have been considerably greater. I am quite certain that the view here given is much below what it should be; indeed I had many opportunities of proving it; but deference for those who kindly interested themselves in the inquiry... has induced me to adopt their calculation.” (ibid.) He went on to give a concrete example of the levels of underestimation that could exist and the efficiency of the census enumerators in those days. He quotes from: “A Mr. Harriman, in his History of Galway, page 192, says, ‘The return of the inhabitants of the town and liberties, after the census act of 1812 amounted to 24,284; but those to whom the enumeration was entrusted were, according to their own subsequent accusations of each other, guilty of gross neglect and omission in the execution of that duty. The general and most probable opinion is, that the population amounts at present (1820) to 40,000, which comprehends a vast number of daily increasing poor, without trade, manufacture, or adequate employment.’ In 1814 before a Committee of the House of Commons, the population of Galway was stated to be 50,000. I regret to say that the charge of ‘gross neglect and commission’ set forth in the preceding note, is fully borne out by my own observations in a great many parts of the country. Desirous of having some conversation with the ‘enumerators’ I made my inquiries about them, but did not happen to pass through any district where anyone


appeared to know or even to have heard anything at all of such a person.” (ibid.). What possible credence could be given to census figures from such a background? It confirms the total inadequacy of the 1821 census which was a crude and corrupt affair and cannot be taken seriously. It is a great pity Mr. Reid did not give us his own estimate but we can definitely, and conservatively, say he would reckon it was well over 8 million. This would give rise to a population of just under 12 million by 1846. César Moreau 1827 A few years later another attempt was made by a rather amazing statistician, César Moreau, a Frenchman resident in London who specialised in trade statistics. (Moreau, 1791-1860, was Director of the French Statistical Society, French Vice Consul in London, Member of Royal Institution and of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland and of the London Western Scientific & Literary Institute, a Foreign Member of the Board of Agriculture & the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, Manufactures & Commerce in the British Empire, Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Arts & Belles Lettres of Marseilles, Rouen, Dijon etc., etc.) In 1827 he produced The Past and Present Statistical State of Ireland established in a series of tables constructed on a New Plan and principally derived from official documents and the best sources.” It provided thousands of statistics on every conceivable subject relating to Ireland including its history, geography, industries, trade, products, politics, administration and, of course, population and it sold for 30/-. It was a stunning piece of work and all done in the neatest of handwriting.

He calculated the population in 1827 and also provided detailed breakdowns of the main towns by sex, occupations and houses, inhabited and uninhabited. My sample test for his figures was the 136

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” town of Millstreet and they ring true and accurate as they correspond with other contemporary accounts and if anything his figures are low but they are quite credible. Based on the information he put together he came to a number of estimates for the overall population with the highest being 9,050,000 (he emphasised quite rightly that these were not official figures). But of course there were no credible official figures available at the time. This figure would complement the assumption that Thomas Reid had about the figure of over 8 million five years earlier. One of Moreau’s estimates as with Reid’s estimated figures would also give rise to just under 12 million by 1846 at an annual growth rate of 1.6%, the average rate of growth implied by Joe Lee as above. By the way, Lee is the only academic I have come across to do a serious critical assessment of the 1821cenus figures and the methodology used. Lee was probably provoked into doing his critical research after discovering that his native Chorcha Duibhne and other well-known places in Co. Kerry were not included in the 1821 census. There is no evidence that these two, Reid and Moreau, ever knew of each other’s existence and they would have arrived at their estimates independent of each other and this adds to the credibility of their figures. They are a test of each other’s calculations. Yet, I have yet to see a reference to them by anyone who has done work on this issue. Thomas Newenham, Esq., 1762-1831 Thomas Newenham, a Member (thus Protestant) of Ireland’s Parliament where he represented the constituency of Clonmel, Co. Tipperary, was born in Coolmore, Co. Cork. He opposed, voted against, the Act of Union (1800) as he believed that the ignorance of the English with respect to Ireland would lead to injustice under the union and would undermine her foreign and colonial trade. An economist and statistician of whom T.R. Malthus was a critic, he published A Statistical and Historical Inquiry into the progress and magnitude of the Population of Ireland in 1805. Newenham calculated 5,395,456 as the population of Ireland in 1805 with a growth rate of 1.9


percent per annum since the previous census accounting by Gervase Parker Bushe in 1788. This figure extended to 1851 would yield a population of more than 13 million by 1851.162

1841 Census This is the most important census of the period. It is always quoted as gospel and the people who did it were very proud of their work. Everyone knows of the official figure for the 1841 of 8,173,124. What is not often noted is that this figure was not even credible to the Census Commissioners themselves (led by Thomas Larcom) and it was revised upwards by them in the official report to the Lord Lieutenant in 1843. They added 572,464 and gave a new figure of 8,747,588 which is rarely quoted. What is even less often noted is the reasons they gave for making the revision. When they had put their figures together for the 1841 Census returns they noted something very, very odd. These figures meant that the rate of population increase during the ten years of the 1830s was 5.25 % but the rate of increase during the previous decade of the 1820s was 14.5%. Why did the rate decrease so dramatically during the 1830s? Anyone who knew anything about Ireland would not have appreciated why such a drastic decline should have occurred. Quite the contrary, in fact. Disraeli said that Ireland was the most densely populated country in the world – more so than China, for example. So the Commissioners set about giving explanations. They pointed out that the army and navy recruits were excluded from the 1831 census but this amounted to very little, relatively speaking, about 39,000. They mentioned cholera outbreaks but then said that this amounted to little if any change. Then they claimed that in 1831 there was some payment in some situations to the enumerators according to the size of population counted. (This has been refuted by Joe Lee). So they then say the census of 1821 was also inadequate, being too low, which up until then would have been vehemently denied as 1821 was purportedly the first proper census. So 1821 was


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” too low and that of 1831 too high. They could not be wrong themselves! Perish the thought! The great issue to fall back on was emigration. This was used to explain the fall. But then they find it very difficult to quantify this. Migration and immigration are not allowed for at all. These things were not accounted for properly at the time and they arrive at emigration by counting whatever official records exist of emigration from Irish ports during the 1830s and then add on the Irish emigration from Liverpool! It did not seem to occur to them that this could be double counting. Then they allow for “estimated additions” and “probable increases” and as they could only account for 104,814 actual emigrants going to England they said the rest went to the colonies! It is news to me that literally hundreds of thousands of Irish people could afford or were inclined to emigrate to the English colonies at this time - to the other side of the world. The fact is that emigration as opposed to migratory seasonal labour was not a prominent feature of Irish life at this time. People were not starving and they had no problem with their culture and society. Cecil Woodham-Smith came to the same conclusion. The Report is a defensive document of special pleading with quite arbitrary assumptions and huge blind spots. There is absolutely no way all the factors they describe could convincingly explain the apparent dramatic rate of decrease. And all the elements used to justify it are impossible to quantify and are therefore unconvincing. Their view of the 1821 Census is worth noting for its magisterial understatement “that it was probably effected with less perfect machinery. We may perhaps therefore assume that it was rather below than above the truth.” The returns that omitted two thirds of the country is rather far below the truth indeed! What is wrong with the 1841 Census?


So why was the 1841 Census unreliable? In their report on 1841 the Commissioners unwittingly do give a very good reason why the rate and the figures looked so odd and so wrong. They are at great pains to explain that their Census was carried out for the first time by “a highly disciplined body of men” i.e., the Irish Constabulary. They were no doubt accepted as the ‘perfect machinery’ for the task by the Commissioners. As well as the “very efficient exertions of the constabulary” they also claimed to have the “general goodwill of the people” and that was the next major factor in its favour! The Commissioners believed the involvement of the Constabulary was a plus, in fact the key to its accuracy. Anyone who knew anything of the real attitude of the vast majority of the population towards the Constabulary would appreciate that their involvement meant a distinct disadvantage to any such accuracy. So what the Commissioners considered were the Census’s great strength were in fact its greatest weaknesses. Trust between those counting and those being counted is an essential element in implementing any credible census. There are many places in the world where that trust is missing and it was certainly missing in the Ireland of 1840. The Constabulary were historically and currently associated with implementing evictions, enforcing the tithes and other taxes, arresting, imprisoning and if necessary executing political opponents of the government, etc., etc. There had been an actual long war over the tithes up to a few years previously with the Constabulary to the fore in that war. The force were consequently alienated from the population and regarded quite rightly as the para military police and intelligence arm of a foreign government that had no accepted moral authority as a police force for the population as a whole. They were the last people in the world that the population would have been willing to give personal information.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” The Constabulary (later RIC) subsequently ran the census right down to 1911 and always treated it quite blatantly as an intelligence gathering exercise. Other problems with the Census of 1841 There were of course many other factors that made the figures questionable - apart from the police involvement – levels of literacy and language differences as the return had to be completed by household heads for the first time. There was also the fact that it was held on a Sunday which was the day for visiting (rambling or scoraiochting), travelling and being anywhere but in your own home. This betrayed the severe Protestant view of the Sabbath held by the Commissioners as opposed to the weekly diversion of a festival for sport and entertainment as it was regarded by Catholics. Form-filling for the police would have been a very low priority for them on that day of all days. There were other assumptions that militated against accuracy. The census was based on the family but what was a family? Irish family life was very robust and was so because it was flexible and ambiguous as regards definitions. For example, fosterage was normal and informal and people moved around families quite easily. The nuclear family was not the norm, nor was it a collection of nuclear families. It was a community that merged with other family communities and defied any modern definition. But the head of the household and others would have had to get their heads around the following to complete the census: “the family was to be understood either one in which being independently in a house or part of a house on his or her own means of support, or several individuals related to each other, with the addition of servants or visitors living together in some house or part of a house with one common means of support.”


When the ‘house’ in question, for the majority, was a one roomed cabin of an extended and ever changing family, how could one cope with the above definition? How could such communal living be reshaped to meet a strict family definition? And how could one satisfactorily define a servant or visitor in the Ireland of the time? The country had plenty people who rambled around permanently, staying where the fancy took them. And how could the tinkers, beggars, evicted tenants, peddlers, gypsies, itinerant entertainers (poets, musicians, story tellers) and odd job men be counted? Were they likely to ‘report to the police’ to be accounted for? Even the very concept of defining a house was problematic. The Commissioners pointed to some results that they admitted they could not explain. The population of Clare grew by 10.9% and Carlow by 5.2%. The population of Cork city actually fell but they did not seem to notice that peculiar fact. Anyway, the Commissioners decided to add an arbitrary figure of just over half a million. This was clearly not a satisfactory census and even if credible it was still 6 years before the Holocaust really struck. So the official figures for 1841 are inadequate for several reasons in assessing the number of victims. A middle class view of the census It is worthwhile to look at the Census for a completely different angle – that of the middle classes who had no problem with the police. But many of them were provoked to protest at how Dublin Castle had manipulated the census for their own ends, extending the questions and doubling the penalties. If they were upset by the Castle’s behaviour, intrusions and threats, imagine how the ‘peasantry’ so-called, were likely to be. The Freeman’s Journal reported about the large number of people ‘taking to the hills’ while the census was being held for fear of it being used to question or even arrest them. This included any


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Whiteboys, Ribbonmen, Captain Rocks, etc., as well as members of the Repeal Association. The following are samples of indignant letters published in the Freeman’s Journal: 6 Fitzwilliam Square East, Dublin. May 28, 1841 To the Editor of the Freeman’s Journal Sir -.....the method adopted by the Irish Government is one hundred times more inquisitorial and is not only without any authority from, but in direct contravention of the (Census) Act. Enumerators are sent round to our houses before the 7th of June. These enumerators, not content with asking questions about our persons, ask questions about our property also, without any authority derived from the act, either directly or indirectly. Further, they leave schedules to be filled up by us, although the act neither mentions nor alludes to schedules, except with reference to England, Wales and Scotland. Still further, these schedules contain questions relating to our private affairs, totally unauthorised by the act, and unconnected with its purposes.... I beg to ask by what authority these steps are taken, in violation of the act of Parliament under which the census is held. And I further ask if these steps are taken, as I believe they are, without the authority of Parliament, will the people of Ireland submit to them? I am, Sir, your obedient servant James Henry.

To the Most Noble the Marquis of Normandy Dublin, Thursday, 2 June 1841


Most Noble Marquis – I have the honour to enclose a paper left at my house yesterday by a policeman. The manner in which I have filled the paper will best show the feelings I have on the subject. By being obliged to fill in and sign this paper under a penalty, the modest privacy of my family is broken into. An unconstitutional act, only fit for the meridian of Algiers, or the city of Paris in the days of Robespierre, or the city of Dublin in the year 1798, when the ever to be abhorred and detestable act of union was carried through a corrupt and profligate parliament. There can be no correct census taken under the impertinent machinery of this act, I am, my Lord Marquis, your lordship’s most obedient and very humble servant. James D. Shanley Elizabeth Smith recorded in her journal: “June 7 Busy filing in the Census papers which are very complete as to information, the use I don’t exactly know, the poor people here are all terrified that they were to have been kidnapped or pressed or murdered on the night of the 6th. Half of them were not to go to bed & had barricaded their doors.” (The Irish Journals of Elizabeth Smith 1840-1850.) (1980) This gives some idea of the feeling surrounding the census and it does not take much imagination to realise that there is no way in the world there could be an accurate response. Captain Wynne 1846

The inadequacies of the 1841 were highlighted by many people who tried to estimate the numbers needing relief. The figures were totally wrong being so low. In West Clare there was a very conscientious Inspecting Officer called Captain E. Wynne who sent 144

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” regular and detailed reports to Dublin castle and confirmed this to be the case. On the 5th September, 1846 he reported as follows to Thomas Lorcam: “The census of 1841 being pronounced universally to be no fair criterion of the present population and consequent destitution, I tested the matter in the parish of Clondagad, Barony of Islands, where I found the present population more than a third greater than that of 1841. This I believe to be the case in all the districts along the coast.” Wynne’s estimate would therefore, again, give a figure of up to 12 million in 1846. What this means is that three independent, unrelated, unconnected sources from three different countries Captain Wynne, Thomas Reid and Cesar Moreau, would confirm a figure of up to a possible 12 million people in 1846. I submit that these unofficial figures and assumption are more consistent and more reliable than the official figures as they were not operating under the inevitable handicaps associated with official counting of the population at the period. A typical town Another way to give a realistic assessment of the rate of population growth in this period is to take the growth of a typical rural market town. This is more manageable than taking the country as a whole and far easier than assessing the countryside. I looked at the local town of Millstreet. As the police were based right in the middle of the town we can assume they got the figures in the town around them pretty well correct. After all, they did not necessarily have to rely on what people actually told them as they would have had to do in places such as the distant mountainy historic centre of culture and learning from time immemorial – the townland of Aubane – which then did not even officially exist for them.


Fortunately we have figures for the town during the previous decades: 1,564 in 1821 census 1,680 in 1825 (Samuel Leigh) 1,935 in 1837 (Samuel Lewis and Rev. G. Hansbrow). 2,162 in 1841 census This is an increase of over 38% and no doubt by 1846 it would have increased by at least 40% in the 25 year period. The question is could there have been a freakish increase in a typical town if, by comparison, the overall population hardly changed at all? It simply does not make sense. It could be argued that its growth was caused by migration from the countryside to the town but I don’t think this was the case as the town was not industrialising which is the normal reason for such migration. It consisted essentially of services by artisans and shopkeepers passed down through the same families in the town. In fact there was a strong tradition for those who had ‘made their pile’ in the town to acquire land as it was seen as the only real wealth. 1851 Census The other issue that needs to be examined (outside the scope of this essay) is the accuracy of the 1851 census because they are likely to have been inaccurate in the very opposite direction to the earlier censuses in being too high. The trauma and shock of the Holocaust had encouraged people to ‘overcount’ themselves in the hope of attracting any assistance that might be available. Also the census was three years after the Holocaust and therefore for natural reasons alone was potentially a higher figure than in 1846-7. So it may be reasonable to assume a figure of something in the region of 6 million instead of the official 6.5.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 6 Million Victims? So with up to 12 million in 1846 and perhaps less than 6 million after 1851 we are left with the uncanny figure of a possible 6 million victims with at least a million consisting of emigrants. Can this be disproved? This chapter is by Jack Lane. Mr. Lane, a member of the Aubane Historical Society, has a

longstanding interest in ascertaining the facts of 1845-1850 Ireland.


CHAPTER 7: THE AFTERMATH: THE CONTINUED COERCION ACTS, THE LAND WAR, BOYCOTT, THE CONTINUED EVICTIONS A diminishing, though still massive death rate, largely due to evictions continued from 1850 through to the end of landlordism in 1900 – 1920. 1848 While the people were still dying en masse there was an attempt

at a rising; by the Young Ireland Party. They were preeminently the party of religious tolerance. As a first principle they established fraternity between Catholic and Protestant members. The personification of this was one of its leaders, the immortal Thomas Davis, dead at 30 It was he who wrote A Nation Once Again, also the following: What matter that at different shrines We pray unto one God? What matter that at different times Our fathers won this sod? In fortune and in name were bound By stronger links than steel; And neither can be safe or sound But in the other’s weal. And oh, it were a gallant deed To show, before mankind, How every race and every creed Might be by love combined – Might be combined, yet not forget The fountains whence they rose, As filled by many a rivulet The stately Shannon flows.163 The weakened people could not sustain the rising and it amounted to little more than a skirmish in Ballingarry, Co. Tipperary, around Widow McCormick’s house. The leaders were hunted down and


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” prosecuted and the landlords, police, militia, and army accelerated the rate of evictions. One can only speculate whether it was due to the Church’s denunciations of the leaders of the 1848 Rising or to its acquiescence to the ongoing Holocaust, or both, but in 1848, the British parliament restored to the Vatican a political privilege that had been terminated three centuries earlier. An act of parliament opened diplomatic relations with the Pope, to receive, in regal state, a papal ambassador to the Court of St. James. Right or wrong, for good or evil, another “Irish movement” lay dead at the feet of the triumphant Vatican!164 1849 The Holocaust was still in progress when the first law, The Encumbered Estates Act, was enacted to ostensibly transfer land from the landlords to its Irish cultivators. This Act was the chief legislative result of Clarendon’s Viceregency. (Perhaps it was the least genocidal enactment of his viceregency. He literally lorded it over the worst of the Holocaust from 1846 to 1854. His own writings reveal the monster.) But the sales brought over from England a host of speculative investors attracted by the security of parliamentary title; prices were raised by competition to such a pitch that it became the only care of successful bidders to exact the highest rents that could be wrung from the tenantry. The last condition of such estates was worse than the first.165 But don’t the “virtuous intentions” of empire-builders ALWAYS result in mass death? The subsequent series of such land laws were the following; 1870: Gladstone’s Landlord & Tenant (Ireland) Act. 1881: The Land Law (Ireland) Act. 1885: Ashbourne’s Purchase of Land (Ireland) Act. 1887: Balfour’s Land Act. (Also the founding of the Congested Districts Board.) And, when international pressure and attacks upon landlords finally forced Britain to end its genocide:


1903: Wyndham’s Land Purchase (Ireland) Act. 1909: Birrell’s Land Purchase (Ireland) Act. Under this law, for the first time, landlords’ lands were taken compulsorily. This eventually ended landlordism in Ireland. 1850 From Wicklow on June 7th Lord Clarendon wrote; “Every morning of my life I deal with 10 to 20 convict cases.”166 These ten to twenty petitions daily involved either executions or exile in chains to forced labor in Australia. There must have been a far greater number of other capital cases that were not brought to his attention as relatively few Irish at the time had the money, connections, or confidence to have such a plea written and delivered to the Lord. Thus, the Lord’s self-pitying complaint inadvertently indicates the plight of Ireland and the hell-hole that the Lord and his forerunners had made of it since the day they entered. 1851 The Belfast Mercury, Ireland, April 19th, 1851 reported under the heading EMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. - NEW YORK, APRIL 2. - The number of emigrants arriving daily from Europe, and especially from Ireland, is astonishing..... (cut) The Marine Hospital at Staten Island is crowded to excess, and a New York paper observes: - ‘The number of poor people from Ireland who are wandering through the streets, in a starving condition, is dreadful. Every night they go to the police station-houses for food and shelter. Last night, in the Fourth-ward station-house, there were 80 poor people, of this description, huddled together, and when food was laid before the children, they rushed at it, and devoured it like hungry wolves. Such are the victims of Irish Landlordism.’ - Freeman. To this Lynn Rogers (see Exhibit A2, re Staten Island) adds; “The Police Station house(s) would have been small structures and most likely in this neighborhood only one. By this time the Irish shanties had developed along the shore lines of Staten Island. The families that had member(s) held in quarantine wandered the streets or lived at the shanties awaiting the outcome of their family member(s) before completing their journey elsewhere.”


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” More 1851 John Mitchel, John Martin, Smith O’Brien, Terence Bellew McManus and other prominent men in the Young Ireland movement of 1848 were transported to Australia, and the movement collapsed. There was no armed fight for freedom. The Irish people had no arms of any account. England seized all they had, and she supplied with arms all the English that lived in Ireland. She supplied the Orangemen with arms, and she supplied arms to the Irish who were of the English religion.167 I remember the time of the passing of the ecclesiastical Titles bill in 1851, when England made a law subjecting to a fine of £100 any Catholic bishop in Ireland who would sign his name as bishop or archbishop of his diocese. As soon as this bill was passed, Archbishop McHale defied it, and issuing a pastoral, signed his name to it as ‘John McHale, Archbishop of Tuam.’ England swallowed the defiance, and did not prosecute him. The Rev. Father Perraud, a French priest, writing on that subject says that England came to see that the policy of arresting a bishop for such a breach of law would not work well. Here are a few of his words: ‘It is useless to conceal the fact it is not regiments encamped in Ireland; it is not the militia (sic) of 12,000 peelers distributed over the whole of the surface of the land, which prevents revolt and preserves the peace. During a long period, especially in the last century, the excess of misery to which Ireland was reduced had multiplied the secret societies of the peasantry. Who have denounced those illegal associations with the most persevering, powerful, and formidable condemnation? Who have ever been so energetic in resistance to secret societies as the Irish Episcopacy? On more than one occasion the bishops have even hazarded their popularity in this way. They could, at a signal, have armed a million contestants against a persecuting government – and that signal they refused to give.’”168 1858 In May, the Fenian Movement was organized by a few daring spirits to drill and prepare to liberate Ireland. Similar organizations of


Irishmen in America were to supply them with weapons of war, all to rise upon a given signal to storm English strongholds and proclaim Ireland free. Bishop Moriarty of Killarney, within an hour of hearing of it commenced a bitter war against it, so that Ireland’s Catholic clergy were soon denouncing it as a “secret society” unauthorized by the Church. In 1867 the British hanged three of its promoters; Allen, Larkin, and O’Brien. These men died with the prayer, “God Save Ireland” on their lips, while their gentle Christian antagonist, Bishop Moriarty, of “unimpeachable loyalty”169, regretted that “hell is not hot enough, nor eternity long enough to punish such miscreants.” 170 The attitudes of the legislator/landlords can be seen by the laws they enacted in London. Their legalized robberies of Irish labor continued until they were bought out and repatriated to England. Here is a sample of laws they enacted subsequent to the Holocaust. Coercion Acts from 1851 to the End of Landlordism

Unlawful Oaths Act. Crime and Outrage Act. Crime and Outrage Act. Crime and Outrage Act. Peace Preservation Act. Peace Preservation Act. Peace Preservation Act. Peace Preservation Act. Unlawful Oaths Act. Peace Preservation Act. Suspension of Habeas Corpus Act. Suspension of Habeas Corpus. Suspension of Habeas Corpus. Suspension of Habeas Corpus. Peace Preservation Act. Protection of Life and Property. Peace Preservation, Cont’n. Peace Preservation Act. Peace Preservation Act. Unlawful Oaths Act. 152

1851 1853 1854 1855 1856 1858 1860 1862 1865 1866 1866 1867 1868 1870 1871 1871 1873 1875 1875

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 1881 to 1882: Peace Preservation Acts (Suspending Habeas Corpus). Arms Act. 1882 to 1885: Crimes Act. 1886 to 1887: Arms Act. 1887 Criminal Law and Procedure Act. 1863 Britain’s murderous malice continues; The lion of St. Jarlath’s, Catholic Archbishop of Tuam … surveys with an envious eye … the Irish Exodus… and sighs over the departing demons of assassination and murder! So complete is the rush of departing marauders, whose lives were profitably occupied in shooting Protestants from behind a hedge, that silence reigns over the vast solitude of (Post-Holocaust) Ireland. …Just as civilization gradually supersedes the wilder and fiercer creatures by men and cities, so de-civilization, such as is going on in Ireland, wipes out mankind to make room for oxen. Saturday Review, London, Nov. 28th171 1867 During this year Dr. Maziere Brady, on page 158 of his “The English State Church in Ireland,” wrote; Out of the 2,428 parishes (Protestant) in Ireland there are 199, covering an area of 557,000 acres, in which there was not a single Protestant. Yet the revenue to the amount of £13,400 a year went out of that district to non-resident Incumbents for their labours in saving souls that did not exist there. The old churches which had been taken from the Catholics were let go to ruin, and may be seen to this day standing in lonely desolation in the midst of country graveyards. According to Dr. Brady there were, out of the 1,570 benefices in Ireland, 107 covering an area of 626,000 acres and yielding a revenue (from enforced tithing) of £20,000 a year, in each of which their total congregations consisted of an average of only two or three families, including the families of the parson and the sexton. According to Godkin,172 in 1834 there were 456 Protestant parishes, each of which had a Protestant population of from one to twenty; that is, only a few families at most, always, of course, including the families of the parson and the sexton. And the number of such parishes had increased to 575 in 1861. In 1834, there


were 382 parishes in which the Protestants varied from 20 to 50; and the number of such parishes had increased to 416 in 1861. In 1849 George Henry Moore (the landlord [one of the few Catholic ones] of 12,522 acres at Moore Hall, Ballyglass, Co. Mayo) stated in parliament that he paid tithes in eight parishes, and that in all there was neither Protestant church nor glebe, nor a resident parson, nor a single Protestant as far as he knew. Keep in mind that, starting in early 1830s, tithes were imposed only on tillage (labor-intensive; engaged in by Catholic Irish). 1869 The Irish Church Disestablished and Disendowed. – August, 1869 to take effect on January 1, 1871.173 This would end the legal requirement that Catholics tithe to the Anglican Church of their landlords. Because Catholic hierarchical interests were affected in this issue the people were supported by their bishops. Also, collecting the tithes had become prohibitively expensive due to the danger and the number of armed enforcers it required. In 1837 a law was enacted to more efficiently extract these tithes from the Catholics. Landlords were required to collect them along with their rent from their tenants and forward them to his Church. Armed forces continued to enforce these collections until January 1, 1871. 1870 “In rural Ireland generally, the establishment of the Ulster Custom was another negation of the principle of laissez faire. In short, Belfast and Ulster supply a crushing condemnation of the British economic policy enforced in the rest of Ireland.” “The point just made was exemplified by the Tories’ condemnation of Gladstone’s Land Act of 1870 – the first of a series of such Acts – as a ‘gross interference with the rights of property’ – with the landlord to ‘do what he wants with his own’. Gladstone’s Act was, in fact, an attempt to extend the Ulster Custom to the rest of Ireland. It failed; partly because it contained restrictions which prevented tenants from taking advantage of it; but chiefly because its operation was sabotaged by the landlords.”174


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” On May 19 the Home Rule Movement was instituted. It was a purely peaceable movement to secure, by constitutional agitation, “the establishment of an Irish parliament, with full control over Irish affairs.” 1872 Early in 1872 Home Rulers noticed that important newspapers (among the few Irish-oriented ones) that had come under the influence of the Catholic clergy “began to draw off from the movement and to say that the demand for Home Rule was no doubt, very right and just, but it was inopportune.” The movement had grown and prospered but the opposition of the clergy continued. On the 6th of August, 1875. At a banquet in honor of the centenary of the birth of Daniel O’Connell, a number of Catholic clergymen, native and foreign, were present, and an unseemly discussion arose between them and the Home Rulers present. On the 15th of August, the price of this clerical opposition to the Home Rule movement was duly paid by parliament, by the abolition of the Queen’s Universities in Ireland and the establishment in its stead of a new university for Roman Catholics.175 1875: The murderous malice continued but, sad to say, Ireland’s English landlords had accomplices in the United States. See below.


A “scholarly” tome of 768 pages demonstrates the plight of Ireland. The new “Science” of Physiognomy/Phrenology “proved” the subhuman status of the Irish, and the “highly-developed” state of the 156

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ascendancy (English in Ireland); thus “justifying” England’s continuing subjugation of Ireland and legalized robbery of Irish output. The 768-pager is titled: “New PHYSIOGNOMY, or SIGNS OF CHARACTER as Manifested through External Forms, and Especially of The Human Face Divine;” by Samuel R. Wells. Samuel R. Wells Publisher: New York 1875. Phrenology’s “scientific” observations are presented here in two drawings; one of regular facial features, the other with a protruding mouth, wrinkles, pug-nose, a dewlap, recessive chin, etc. Thus, “science” presents the female of Ireland’s genocidal English landlords as personifying culture and virtue, while the female of Ireland’s productive people, the Irish, as unvirtuous. We ashamedly acknowledge that Author Samuel R Wells had a U.S. market for his “scientific” racism. And it was racism against the Irish, in addition to racism’s usual targets – people of color. 1876 Queen Victoria’s first-cousin, King Leopold II (1835-1909), son of her mentor, King Leopold I (1790-1865), created the ostensibly civilizing and philanthropic “Association Internationale Africaine“ and became its single shareholder. Emulating cousin Victoria who oversaw the policy of robbery and genocide of some five million Irish, and having been mentored by his father who had mentored Victoria, Leopold II’s policies in the Congo surpassed Victoria’s in Ireland; he murdered some 10 million Africans. 1877 “In the British Registrar-General’s official report, 1876, may be found the following item: ‘Ninety-four thousand houses in Ireland have but one room each, in which an entire family of generally five to seven persons dwell; male and female, married and single old and young, lie and rise, eat drink, and sleep in the presence of each other.’”


Also 1877: “The area of Ireland is about twenty million (20,157,557) acres, of which about thirteen millions are cultivable. Half of the entire island is ‘owned’ by five hundred men and women, who hold it simply by the title of the robber, maintained by British bayonets; while nine-tenths of the remaining half are in the hands of a few thousand individuals. Here are some of the facts taken from the last (1871) census: 110 individuals hold, in Ireland, ……..4,152,142 acres 192 others “ “ ,……..2,607,719 “ 440 others “ “ , …….3,071,471 “ “Now examine the opposite page of the ledger: Five and a quarter millions of human beings in Ireland own: …Not a rood One-roomed huts (about 12 feet square) inhabited in Ireland:…….94,000 Number of families evicted in Ireland during past thirty years….....250,000 Absentee rents drawn from Ireland yearly from Irish tenants, to be spend abroad (lowest estimate)…………………$25,000,000. Can a man hope to grow strong whose life current steadily oozes out from an unstanched hemorrhage? Can a country similarly afflicted grow prosperous? One hundred and fifty years ago Dean Swift wrote: ‘The rise of our rents is squeezed out of the very blood and vitals and clothes and dwellings of the tenants, who live worse than English beggars.’ The words are as true and appropriate in 1877 as they were in 1727. The vast bulk of the Irish people are tenants-at-will, and the tenant-at-will is several degrees below serfdom. He quakes at every footfall of landlord or agent, lives from


“This means that one-tenth of the people in Ireland live in a condition of squalid degradation not to be surpassed in Borneo or Caffraria; and, what is more, every effort they make to rise beyond their woeful plight is certain to throw them back to a lower depth – if such be conceivable. Next let us hear from John Bright, who CAN HARDLY BE SUSPECTED OF UNDUE PARTIALITY. In a speech which he delivered at Birmingham in February, 1876, he said: ‘One half of Scotland is owned by forty-one landlords; one great noble there holds as much soil as three millions of his poorer countrymen. Six thousand persons own the whole of Ireland. Five thousand own the whole land of England and Wales. So that fourteen thousand persons own all the lands of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, amounting to about ninety millions of acres. This is the power that makes and administers the laws. It is a power which has been for generations A CURSE in this country, which is enormous now , and with which, whenever it chooses to act in Parliament – in spite of your household suffrage in boroughs – there is an end of your opinion; for it carries any measure it thinks necessary to its own interests.’”176

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” day to day on the perilous verge of starvation, pouring out his heart-sweat in a ceaseless effort to satisfy the remorseless vampires that will surely choke him in the end.177 Within the past thirty years, more than two hundred and fifty thousand families have been evicted in Ireland—flung out like wild beasts, their hearthstones quenched, their roofs leveled, without a penny of compensation for the toil and sweat which had fertilized their little farms. A quarter of a million evictions means upward of a million and a half men, women, and children driven to the emigrant hulk or the pauper grave, exclusive altogether of the still larger number who were compelled to seek safety in exile through less direct pressure of the same agencies. No other country in the world presents so pitiful a spectacle. The organized iniquity of Ireland’s landlordism surpasses even that of the old seigniorial system in France whose fruits were plucked in the whirlwind of the Revolution.” “To show most impressively what tyrannous powers are placed in the hands of this monstrous oligarchy, let me cite a few illustrative cases.” (Here the author cites the details of a lease contract by landlord Scully to destroy the tenant.)178 A second case involves an English landlord of Donegal land who evicts a widow and her daughter after the latter rejected his sexual advances. The third is of British soldier Charles Bradlaugh who, while in the West of Ireland, was required to participate with “the Crowbar Brigade” in evicting a community. Among those he was ordered to evict was a dying man and his wife. The man died on the roadside while his cabin was being demolished. Sickened by the spectacle, Bradlaugh applied to some friends in London who purchased his discharge from the army.” The fourth is as follows: “Delivering judgment on a land-case in 1858 (O’Fay vs. Burke) the Master of the Rolls said: ‘I am bound to administer an artificial system, and being so bound I regret much that I must administer injustice in this case!’ Every consideration of equity was on the side of the evicted tenant, but the iron meshes of the law – a law framed and administered by landlords – left no loophole through which the voice of equity could be heard.’ (…) “Where among the despotisms of Asia can be found so horrible a mockery of government! Even Froude has the candor to say: ‘The landlords in Ireland represent conquest and confiscation, and they have gone on with an indifference to the welfare of the people that would never be tolerated in England or Scotland.’”179 I cite these words written in 1877 to show that Britain’s genocide of Ireland did not end in 1850, but continued through 1877 until the 1900-1910 repatriation to England of Ireland’s landlords.


1878 The landlords continued, with British army forces, to rob the Irish of their massive agricultural output. Such robbery is incomprehensible until one grasps that British governmental policy toward Ireland was largely controlled by its House of Lords which, in turn, was largely based on land ownership. One of the crucial underpinnings of the “famine” was the successful cover-up of the fact that the landlords of Ireland were, as lords of the realm, able to legislate in their own interests regarding the land of Ireland and the crops grown thereon. (See Exhibits E.) There were countless Irish fatalities of this revived wave of evictions and land war. There was also the assassination of a landlord, Lord Leitrim (William Sydney Clement). In 1960 a monument with cross was erected at Kindrum, Clondavaddog, Co. Donegal, to commemorate it, honoring McElwee, Shiels, and Michael Heraghty as the men whose actions were “the beginning of the end of the tyranny of English landlords in Ireland.” 1879 On August 16, the Land League Convention was held at Daly’s Hotel, Castlebar. Michael Davitt read out the Declaration of Principles. He also quoted John Stuart Mill regarding Irish land.180In September, the Irish National Land League was formed, not to replace, but to supplement the Home Rule movement. By collecting funds for evicted families, and counseling others as to avoidance of eviction, they saved thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of lives. Catholic Archbishop McCabe of the archdiocese of Dublin issued pastoral letters on October 10, 1880 and October 30, 1881 denouncing those who participated. More 1879 The prevailing economic and socio-political climate led to a sharp decline in the selling value of landed estates from 1879 onwards. Irish land was no longer regarded as safe collateral. Mortgagees panicked during the land war and began to call in their loans as landlords temporarily defaulted, closing all avenues of borrowing to the latter.181 Yet, the Congested Districts Board, as arranged by the landlords themselves, granted the landlords above-market prices which incoming owner-occupiers had to amortize via Rents paid annually until about 1970.

The 1879 – 1880 Land War The people, those who survived the genocide as children and, later, survived the continuing robbery of


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” most of their production, began to organize. They intensified their demands for justice. Not getting it, they began to “turn” fields set to pasture or meadow. By spade, large groups would stealthily, overnight, dig up grasslands rendering it useful only for tillage that year. They organized cattle-drives, putting landlords’ livestock on the roads and setting their dogs on them, sending the cattle into neighboring townlands whose inhabitants would send them farther with their dogs.182 They established organized demands that they had property rights in improvements they had made to the land they rented; but the landlords continued their practice of evicting tenants who had improved the land with drains, fences, a good house, etc., so as to rent it for more money. In 1834 William Cobbett, M.P. had written that landlords in Ireland extorted much higher rents from their tenants than they did from the tenants on their English estates.183 “(George Henry) Moore (a landlord himself) observed that, by raising rents whenever tenants improved their holdings, Irish (sic) landlords, had for generations, expropriated tenants’ capital as well as exploiting their labor.”184 1881 In Cork City in October, 1881, Charles Stewart Parnell, in attempting to influence the new land courts’ decisions as to fair land rents, publicly stated; “Estimating the true rental value of the land of Ireland as being then between two and three million pounds, he noted that the rent actually being paid was seventeen million pounds.”185 Earlier that year in Cookstown, Co. Tyrone, Parnell addressed the crowd; “The landlords of Ireland have reaped where they have not sown, they gather where they have not toiled. It is time to put an end to them.”186 The true heroes in all of this and for preceding centuries were the thousands who had paved the way for Parnell, the ones who, unlike Parnell, had suffered the full rigor of the genocidal laws, from summary execution, to biased courts, to what amounted to death camps – slave labor in English plantations in the Caribbean, in pre-1776 America, especially via the slave ports of Charleston, Savannah, and New Orleans, and, after 1787, to the same fate in Australia.


More 1881: Thrice bitter that the hovel he provides for his family does not even have the security of a wild beast’s den.” And the following: “”…the improvement of the farm made the condition of the tenant worse. His labor was confiscated; his money was confiscated; his industry was turned into misfortune. If he improved his land his rent was raised or he was turned off it…he could not, in good season or in bad, however great his energy or complete his sacrifice, save enough to give his children a chance to rise above the squalor into which they were born.” Reported by Chicago journalist Margaret Sullivan; it shows that the genocide continued until Ireland’s landlords repatriated to England.187 Additional 1881: Under pressure from Michael Davitt’s Land League, international outrage, and the excessive rents charged by the landlords, Ireland’s Land Commission was founded as a rent-fixing commission by Gladstone’s Land Law (Ireland) Act 1881. It later re-distributed farmland in most of Ireland. It and the later Congested Districts Board ultimately ended landlordism in Ireland; mostly achieved by 1910. 1883 On January 20, Pope Leo XIII sent a rescript to Ireland’s clergy commanding them to use their power to suppress certain groups, the description being broad enough to include Irish political leagues. On May 11 he sent a more powerful and mandatory rescript, condemning and forbidding disaffection to the (British) government, and forbidding donations to the Parnell testimonial fund. 1885 Upon the death of fiercely pro-British Cardinal McCabe in February, the British secretly secured from the Pope a rescript or order commanding the bishops of Ireland to observe the wishes of England in nominating a successor to the vacant archbishopric.188

Also 1885 While evictions increased, and Davitt’s/Parnell’s Plan of Campaign spread, Ashbourne’s Land Act (1885) established a £5 million fund for farmers to borrow for land purchase (to be repaid in forty-nine annual payments). Irish producers could thus incur debt to buy back land robbed from their forefathers. 1886 Evictions (frequently a death sentence) continue after the Holocaust until the repatriation of the landlords to England. Evicted in the years 1837-50 were 263,000 families (1,841,000 persons); in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 1852-60, 110,000 families (770,000 persons); in 1861-70, 70,000 families (329,000 persons); and in 1871-86, 104,000 families (728,000 persons).189 July 31, 1888 Evictions continue, as shown in the photographs taken this day on the estate of Landlord Vandeleur in County Clare. 1888 During the bad harvest of 1880 the tenants on the County Mayo estate of Lord Erne sought a reduction of rents. They had petitioned the Lord’s land agent, Captain Charles Cunningham Boycott, which Boycott refused. The burgeoning Land League responded to Boycott’s cruelty by organizing a “moral Coventry” (“social Siberia”) against him. The tenants shunned him, refused to harvest his crops, and the community refused all dealings with him. To save his Lord’s crops Boycott hired Orangemen from the north. When they arrived, though they were in no danger whatever, approximately one thousand soldiers were assigned to “protect” them. Boycott, unable to function alone, returned to England with his family. Boycotting spread further in Ireland, and emigrants brought it to workplaces everywhere as a nonviolent tactic of organized labor. However, on June 24, 1888 Pope Leo XIII issued his Saepe Nos Encyclical on Boycotting in Ireland. Then, having pronounced boycotting intrinsically evil, “un-Christian” when employed in Ireland, he, the Pope, ordered a “…boycott in full force against Dr. Edward McGlynn of the city of New York, a boycott which is, in its terms, infinitely more rigorous and terrible than any ever declared or enforced by any secular body in Ireland. The Church boycott delivers the victim immediately, and for all eternity, over to the devil; the faithful are forbidden to hold either religious or civil communication with him; they cannot attend a meeting at which he is to deliver a lecture without incurring the penalty of excommunication190 by contagion; and if a Catholic, however devout, even if he have received communion within a month, should suddenly die while


attending a lecture delivered by an excommunicated person, he must be deprived of Christian burial.”191 While Judge Maguire was writing Ireland and the Pope the body of a man was held in a public vault in New York, denied Christian burial for having attended a lecture by the excommunicated Dr. McGlynn where he suddenly died. Thus, the Pope, having issued seven rescripts and an encyclical all against “intrinsically evil” boycotting in Ireland, and having excommunicated the boycott-supporting Dr. McGlynn in New York, he ordered a more extreme boycott against the deceased lecture attendee than the ones he forbade in Ireland. 192 1891: In response to international outrage regarding the plight of Ireland’s food producers under English landlords, then-Britain’s Chief Secretary of Ireland, A.J.Balfour, M.P. enacted his Land Act (1891). It made £33 million available for tenants to borrow to buy their farms. Forty-six thousand availed of the Act which also established the Congested Districts Board (CDB). It partially undid Cromwell’s “To Hell or Connacht.” The congested districts comprised just over 3.6 million acres and accounted for over one-sixth of the total area of Ireland and included parts of counties Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon, Sligo, Donegal, Clare, Kerry, and Cork. Its stated purpose was to move tenants from congested areas into less populated ones, but it lacked adequate funding. Our little farm east of Castlerea and the many hundreds or thousand farms east of us towards the towns of Roscommon, Elphin and Strokestown had been depeopled by multi-thousand-acre landlords whose agriculture was grazing; not tillage. Upon acquisition of the estates and their division into small holdings, into this area came farmers from poorer, smaller holdings west of us from Fairymount to Ballinlough to Glennamaddy in Co. Galway, while their vacated holdings were distributed among adjoining small-holdings. 1903: The Wyndham Act, achieved what the previous Land Acts by Gladstone, Balfour, and Ashbourne had not quite managed. It ended Ireland’s nightmare of eight centuries; but at an unconscionable price.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ireland’s English landlords, the titles to whose property were robberybased, were being bought out at above-market prices. The Irish agricultural producers and Michael Davitt, were on one side. The other side was the landlords who were supported by legislation that many landlords controlled, being members of the House of Lords. The Act’s initial funding allocated £100,000,000 to buying themselves out; plus a £12,000,000 “sweetener” to themselves. It was a bonanza. Michael Davitt and his Land League were ultimately powerless against the Landlords. The landlords, as legislators, typically paid themselves out of the Exchequer. As Ireland’s land-owners they sold their land to the government, not for the usual 12 or 15 times its annual rental income, but for up to 27.5 times it. Ultimate recipients had to amortize that price by continuing to pay annual Rents for the next 68.5 years. That new annual Rent paid to the State was less than the earlier annual rent to the landlord, so the destitute Irish had essentially no choice.193 They had to accept the only deal on offer. It kept them and their heirs, all of Ireland, in poverty until it was paid off about 1970. Lawrence Ginnell, M.P. for North Westmeath, was gravely concerned by the price land was being sold for under the Wyndham Act. He believed that the poorest tenants were often paying the highest prices and many would not be able to repay their annuities in the future.194 About 1906 our district was “striped” into typically 28-acre holdings fenced with ditches (sod fences). Slate-roofed, stone houses were built on them. (My grand-aunt’s husband, Martin Moran of Cloonreliagh, Ballinlough had been the builder of our house and those of our neighbors about 1906.) By the time that some failed to make a “go” of it, the Irish had sovereignty, so they did not die. For example a farmer in nearby Bohagh lost his house and land, but a County Council cottage in Church Road, Castlerea was available for him and family.

Trinity College, Dublin, was founded by Elizabeth I in 1592 for the English in Ireland; the Protestants. It had been granted 200,000 acres of land robbed from the Irish and was one of Ireland’s bad landlords. 165

The production of that estate’s ten thousand tenant families was largely usurped by Trinity. It, too, was bought out at prices very advantageous to Trinity.

The following pages of photos are of typical evictions in 1888. Evictions in earlier years were executed without such palaver. The evictees are tenants on the 19,790-acre Kilrush, Co. Clare estate of Crofton M. Vandeleur. Vandeleur’s wife Lady Grace née Toler, was daughter of Lord Norbury who, in 1803, had sentenced Robert Emmet, “the Darling of Erin, “to death by hanging and decapitation. Lord Norbury was assassinated on 14January1839. In 1853 Landlord Vandeleur ran for office. The Clare Journal newspaper of 23June1853 reported; “The Roman Catholic soldiers of Capt. Trevor’s company (regiment) the 14th of Foot, at Kilrush, were ordered out of the chapel on Sunday last when the priest began to address his congregation about the Clare election.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

1) Evictors arrive. Battering ram, and ladder to access the ridge to collapse the roof. British-run constabulary. On horseback are Britain’s Third Hussars. On far right are Britain’s Royal Berkshire regiment. Clare Co. Council web site names evictee Thomas Considine, Tullycrine, Kilmurry (house on left) and Patrick Carrig’s house on right. July 30, 1888.


2) Eviction: Kilfearagh, Co. Clare. Constabulary Inspector Lapdell (helmeted head above the roof line) leads the constabulary force. To Lapdell’s left facing us in helmets are soldiers of the Royal Berkshire Regiment. The ornately-uniformed soldier with his back to us is a member of the 3rd Hussars as is the soldier hidden by the horse’s head. (ID’s from Clare Co. Council web site.)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

3) Eviction of Thomas Considine family, Tullycrine, Clare. July, 1888


4) Battering Ram Does its Work.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

5) Matias Magragh’s House, Moyasta, Kilfearagh, Co. Clare. 1888 (These five photos have been in my family’s possession since 1927.)


CHAPTER 8: ENGLAND REPATRIATES ITS LANDLORDS “An alien conqueror;” (description of Ireland’s landlords by the British government’s own Devon Commission, 1843. So the British gov’t knew it, knew the landlords were not Irish). British misrule of Ireland had become infamous. The resultant international outrage against England was forcing it to do something more than merely cosmetic. The injustice would never end for so long as English landlords controlled the land of Ireland; not while through their legislative seats they made law and controlled Britain’s military. Britain’s propaganda machine had attributed its starvation of Ireland to “Irish improvidence.” As the truth leaked out to the world about Britain’s central role in that genocide, that machine began to withdraw its support from its landlords in Ireland and to portray them as “Irish.” With groups of Irish-American veterans of the U.S. Civil War joining forces in Ireland during its Land Wars of the 1870s and 1880s the British government feared an aroused U.S. government. Opinion molders and cartoonists in England’s press began to demonize its landlords in Ireland. The landlord/legislators enacted laws mandating the State to buy their estates (at above-market prices) ending the alien ownership of Ireland’s land. Wikipedia contains much relevant data on this subject; but its data are contaminated by cover-up artists promoting their new lie; “The rich Irish starved the poor Irish.” It hypes the “Irishness” of the landlords, as follows; A survey of the 4,000 largest landlords in 1872 revealed that already 43% were Roman Catholics, 48% were Church of Ireland, 7% were Presbyterians, and 2% unknown. To see how false, or at least, misleading, is Wikipedia’s statement, see Exhibit E; Ireland’s landlords’ names with initial letters A though D, also see Exhibits E2 through E8. Wikipedia’s falsehood was almost certainly achieved by counting Catholic “landlords” not of 4,000 acres but of,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” say, 300 acres. During the Holocaust 616 landlords (including the 312 listed in Exhibit E) held the vast majority of Ireland’s useful land. Exhibit E3 is comprised of a two-page table showing in what proportion each county in Ireland, in 1878, was held by peers, by three classes of commoners, by public bodies, and the Crown. This crucial table is labeled IV in Bateman’s original 1878 “The Great Landowners…” but is missing from the reprint. Only the issuers of the reprint can explain why it excludes that revelatory table. The table for Co. Mayo reveals its acreage held by peers195 amounted to 337,593. These peers sat in Britain’s House of Lords, thus possessed all the coercive power that Lordship then entailed. Anglican bishops were also Lords, automatically. Some were also major landlords in Ireland. Continuing with 1878 Mayo; in addition to the 337,593 acres of County Mayo held by English lords, commoners’ holdings of 3,000 or more Mayo acres each totaled 351,769. (This category includes holdings of 50,000 acres.) Commoners’ holdings of 1 to 2,999 acres each totaled 592,344. Acreage of small properties, 160. Government, Barracks, Lighthouses, etc., 25. Religious, Educational, Philanthropic, etc., 20,021. (These were mostly “glebes,” Anglican Church holdings). Commercial, Misc., 6,464. Waste land, 9,500. Total of Co. Mayo, 1,317,866. Of this total, note that more than half of Co. Mayo was held by British lords and by commoner landlords of holdings of more than 3,000 acres. Of the 592,344 total acres held by landlords of less than 3,000 acres each it is likely that the bulk was held by landlords of just under 3,000 acres. During those centuries personal and political power were land based. Some commoners who were extensive landlords were also members of parliament thus, like lords, able to legislate in their own interests.


CHAPTER 9: BUT THE RENT EXTRACTION CONTINUES Another component of the scandalous cover-up is the fact that even after repatriating its landlords back to England the British government arranged to continue to extract rent from Ireland. The sums extracted could exceed the total value of what had been produced by labor on that land, so the earnings of emigrants were sent to Ireland to keep their kin alive. The following is part of a speech by John Boyle O’Reilly on October 20, 1888 in Faneuil Hall, Boston, in aid of the Irish Nationalist cause: “...we have here (in the U.S.) a terrible reason for continuing this Irish fight in this State and over all the Union, and this Boston Merchant’s letter suggests a word to me. Here is a man employing hundreds of men and women, and he says that nine tenths of them are Irish or Irish-Americans, and he says that they have to give, sir, a large portion of their earnings to pay rents in Ireland, and save relatives there from eviction and starvation.”(The letter, enclosing a $100.00 donation, was from A. Schulman, Esq.).196 The landlords had to realize that they could no longer usurp Ireland’s agricultural output so, being members of both houses of parliament in London, they enacted laws to further benefit themselves at Ireland’s expense. They enacted new laws paying themselves above-market prices for their land and those not already in England returned to it. The Irish cultivators of that land that had been robbed from their ancestors, were allocated small farms on it, typically, like ours, twenty-eight acres. They (and we) were forced to pay an annual Rent to amortize the sum given to the landlords. My father and his neighbors in County Roscommon were still paying that “rent” into the 1970s. That “rent” is not to be confused with “rates,” the semiannual land tax that paid for roads, schools, etc. We and all of our farming neighbors paid both rents and rates.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Though Taoiseach DeValera stopped forwarding the rents to England in the early 1930s, his and subsequent administrations continued to extract it regularly along with rates from Ireland’s farmers. This scandalous extraction of rent has remained covered up other than my reports of it, and the following report: As a land owner, John Redmond, according to Irish reports, was one of the first to rush in and sell his estate to the tenants under the Wyndham land purchase act. He put the top figure on his land and secured the maximum figure from the land board, according to reports. Immediately the other landlords said, ‘Redmond is your leader, naturally he has vast influence with the land board; we will take the same rate per acre as Redmond.’ Good judges in Ireland say that this exhibition of greed on the part of Redmond cost tenants at least $9,000.000 in excess land prices.197 Redmond was the Gerry Adams of his day. Like Adams, he winked at official crime and called for obedience to British rule. He and his party fronted Britain’s clever psy-ops campaign to induce Irish youths to join Britain’s military early in WW1. Redmond and his party thus destroyed themselves politically.


CHAPTER 10: THE TRUTH-TELLERS Here be giants. Appreciate their works. Balch, Wm. S., Ireland, As I Saw It: The Character, Condition, and Prospects of the People. Gustave de Beaumont, his “Ireland…” Henry Carey; his “The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign” (1853); especially chapter X111; How Slavery Grows in Ireland and Scotland, regarding the tyranny that followed 1688. See http:// William Cobbett, M.P. his “Cobbett in Ireland; a Warning to England.” Thomas Davis’ poems and songs Michael Davitt’s 1904 “The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland” after years of imprisonment and advocacy.198 J.A. Fox’s “The Irish Question…”; perhaps the most revealing book of all. James Fintan Lalor A giant, despised by tyrants and current academia. He influenced Mitchel. John Locke. A classical defender of Irish rights. John Stuart Mill. His The Irish Land Question and Essays on England, Ireland, and Empire. “ “ “, his On Liberty. John Mitchel’s works are those of an unflinching eyewitness; his work outlives generations of detractors and will continue to do so. O’Donovan Rossa, his deathless Rossa’s Recollections. The Rev. Jonathan Swift; he exposed the genocide of his era through his “A Modest Proposal,” etc. Be sure to read the entire essay. The (London) Times; for its shipping news, etc., not its bias. Alexis de Tocqueville; his “Journeys to England and Ireland.” Wilde, (Lady) Jane Elgee; her The Stricken Land/The Famine Year. Woodham-Smith, Cecil; her The Great Hunger was the first nonfiction book of our lifetimes to reveal the food removal, naming some of the perpetrating British army regiments. Writers in The Irish People, The Nation, The United Irishman, etc.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

It is appropriate here to mention a relatively recent (1988) truth-teller, one who points out the fallacies peddled by Ireland’s academia. He is Peter Berresford Ellis, author of “Revisionism in Irish Historical Writing; the New Anti-Nationalist School of Historians” on page 8 of which he exposes the systematic hypocrisy of Christine Kinealy who, for the past two decades, has been the most prolific falsifier of Irish history. (See Ellis also in the bibliography.) For the complete list of pertinent writers known to me, recommended and otherwise, see the Bibliography (all of its sections). The writers of the past 120 years who did not/do not conceal the Food Removal are (other than my published works) these five. O’Donovan Rossa Rossa’s Recollections 1838 to 1898 (1898). Holocaust survivor Rossa reveals the catastrophic effect that historic crime had on him, his family, and his neighbors in Skibbereen. He cites all of its essential details; the deaths of neighbors, the seizure and removal of the family’s harvested and threshed wheat crop, his father’s death, their eviction and break-up of his family, etc. He also recounts the rest of his life including a lengthy imprisonment while risking all in pursuit of national sovereignty for Ireland. A master work by an intelligent, deeply moral person. Buy Rossa’s Recollections 1838-1898. It is the preeminent, directly-experienced account of Ireland’s Holocaust. Michael Davitt’s The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland, or the Story of the Land League Revolution (1904). Davitt led the struggle. Liam O’Flaherty’s 1937 novel, Famine, was the first truth-teller in decades. He described the food removal by British army troops but did not name the regiments. Here are some exemplary excerpts: He was born in Black Valley, where his grandfather had been one of the first settlers, following the “Act For Reclaiming Unprofitable Bogs” being passed by the Parliament of George II in 1742. This Act


permitted Catholics to lease fifty acres, plantation measure, of bog, together with one half acre of arable land for the site of a house. The dispossessed Catholic peasantry swarmed into the bogs and on to the mountain sides as a result of this Act, became landholders and multiplied, so that the population of Ireland rose from under four millions at the passage of the Act to eight millions at the period dealt with in this narrative. (Cap. x, pages 77, 78, “Famine” by Liam O’Flaherty) (Those mountain sides and bogs proved largely unreclaimable. My maternal g.grandmother, “Kitty” Connolly, was born on one of those fifty-Irish-acre holdings of mostly worthless, virgin bog mountain in Foughil, Trien, Castlerea, Co. Roscommon.) On the left stood the police barracks, with its ominous fortress holes and its crowd of men with carbines standing in the yard. The people, their rulers and the soothsayer speaking from a green mound! While carried on the bleak October wind came the lowing of cattle and the squealing of pigs, being driven away down into the lowlands toward the sea, by shouting drovers. (As portrayed on this book’s front cover.) Thus are described two core components of the Holocaust, an array of official force, and the food removal itself. Buy the book; The Famine, by Liam O’Flaherty. Though a novel, it includes all of the key facts, from genocidal landlords, to conscienceless soldiers and police, to conniving Bishops, news media, policy makers, and willfully blind pols. O’Flaherty wrote …, to realize that by a merciful Providence there is more than sufficient food in this country, as the result of a plentiful harvest of oats, to feed double the population, but this food is passing out of the country, at the rate of sixteen thousands of quarters of oats per week, not to mention a vast number of cattle, sheep and pigs. There they go before my eyes. With a great sweep of his arm he pointed down the road, which was dotted with animals being driven to the sea for export. (Cap XII, and on page 97), “And then they all trooped meekly over to Mr. Chadwick’s rent office with the money they had received for that


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” food which was being driven down the road for export, together with the jaunting car of Mr. Lalor, the savior of the people. And in Chapter XVI, page 16 “That’s what Sir Robert Peel tells his cabinet” he cried. ‘The greatest scoundrel in the history of man. Think of it. Charity! Did you ever hear the likes of it? He held out both arms toward his listeners as he continued: ‘England takes five millions of pounds from us every year in rent alone. As rent for land she robbed and holds by the law of the brigand, by law of the bayonet and of the grape-shot. In rent alone she takes five million pounds a year. Not to mention taxes. She takes three million quarters of grain each year. She takes one million head of cattle, sheep and swine. And now, when the poor Irish people, who supply her with this wealth, year after year, have lost the potato crop on which she forces them to live, she talks of charity. We want justice. Justice! We want our own.” O’Flaherty, from the Aran Islands, was recording the local lore which excoriated the very notion of “charity” as a response to systematic, armed robbery. How tragic that the telling of the story has been usurped by fraudulent “Irish Famine” writers who conceal an historic genocide by promoting a fabricated context of “helpless Irish peasants” who depended on “charity.” As to the Church’s performance, review year 1872 herein, as to how the bishops suppressed conscientious priests. I’m not out of my mind atall, Father John, but it’s the people’s leaders that are out of their minds, for letting the people’s food go out of the country and then begging for some of it back. Ha! Ha! It’s the most foolish thing I ever heard. There isn’t enough food in England to feed the English, so Ireland is kept as a granary and a butchery next door. Isn’t that their policy? (Famine; pages 120 and 121.)


But the demagogue O’Connell had professed himself a pacifist and a loyal subject of Her Majesty. The bishops also preached peace and obedience to the laws that gave them fat bellies and rich vestments and palaces. All those in command said that life must be spared and that no cause was worth the shedding of a single man’s blood. Now that blood was going to rot in starved bodies; bodies that would pay for sins of craven pacifism, the punishment that has always been reinforced by history. (Page 328) Daniel “The Liberator” O’Connell did side with Ireland’s Catholic bishops in denouncing resistance to the Food Removal. Father Geelan was a voice crying alone in the wilderness; a revolutionary solder disarmed by the soutane which he wore and by the mitred felons to whom he had vowed obedience. Page 391. To my knowledge O’Flaherty’s “Famine” is the only book to expose hierarchical complicity. Decades later, so did my and its earlier format; The Mass Graves of Ireland (C. F.) Tom Gallagher’s 1958 novel, “Paddy’s Lament” is partial to those murdered, but he relied heavily on (truthful) lore instead of using even better primary sources. Cecil Woodham-Smith’s (W-S) “The Great Hunger; Ireland: 1845-1850” is almost certainly the best nonfiction “famine” book (1962) written in the twentieth century; certainly since Davitt wrote in 1904. The power of W-S’s work is undeniable; she was the first-ever writer to report (though only passingly) some facts of the food removal, even naming thirteen of the perpetrating regiments. But she then buried those facts under hundreds of pages that, for example, cites two sources that claim that the starvation was due to Irish women having forgotten, fatally, how to cook anything but potatoes! Ultimately W-S’s book equivocated; so that it did not impel me to excise “famine” from my vocabulary regarding Ireland as a fully truthful work would have done. To my knowledge none of her other readers has abandoned “famine” as they would have done had her book not included so many falsehoods that contradicted her truths.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” The Big Lie regarding the Holocaust reached its zenith about 1997. For the previous three decades “famine historians” had thoroughly slandered Cecil Woodham-Smith for having mentioned the Food Removal. What so exercised her slanderers were its key facts, as follows: her page 10: “The British army in Ireland was increased to 100,000 men.” (She overstated; for the actual figures see my C Exhibits.) Page 12; “… on the eve of the famine the government of Ireland was admittedly a military occupation and the garrison of Ireland was larger than the garrison of India.” As to British regiments involved in food removal and evictions: page 66; the 49th Infantry evicting 300 families near Mountbellew, Co. Galway, and 9 families in Guitmore, Co. Tipperary by the 72nd Highlanders.; page 120; in Youghal, Co. Cork; an attempt to hold up a boat laden with export oats; in Dungarvan, Co Waterford, the 1st Royal Dragoons shot into a large crowd, killing two and wounding many for demanding that no more grain be shipped away and for stone-throwing. The 47th Foot were assigned to Dungarvan, and Trevelyan arranged for 2,000 troops to be formed into mobile columns for use at short notice. Page 121; Troops were daily sent out into harvest fields to “protect” the grain lest its producers keep it. Page 132; the 7th Hussars in Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo. Page 148; the 73rd regiment in Clareabbey, Co. Clare, and on Dec. 19th, 1846, its Capt. Wynne reported that the people of Clare Abbey were starving, “but as yet peaceably.” Page 169; In Co. Mayo the two revenue cruisers, Dee and Comet stood by Clew Bay and in addition the Mayo rate collectors had the assistance of two companies of the 69th regiment, a troop of the 10th Hussars, fifty police, two police inspectors, and two stipendiary magistrates. On page 240; At Spike Island in Cork Harbor the HMS Zephyr, the British marines, 1st Royal Dragoons. On 281; the Scots Greys. On page 315; In Tralee, Co. Kerry troops were called in and along with police dispersed a starving crowd. On page 317; during the winter of 1847-48 on the Belmullet peninsula, 99 of Mullaroghe’s 101 families were evicted by the 49th of Foot and other forces, who also pulled down their houses. By the same means the nearby hamlets of Tiraun and Clogher were depeopled and erased. On page 325; during the


same winter of 1847-48, an additional 15,000 troops were sent in. On page 327; details as to 10,000 more troops into Dublin in 1848 and the quantity of additional arms and ammunition, and the fleet ordered from Lisbon to Cork. Page 338; the 52nd, the 57th, and the Carabiniers. Page 341; the 71st, the 48th and the 31st. Page 345; in the river of the export port of Waterford city, on July 12 three warships, the Dragon, Merlin and Medusa, were capable of knocking the town into rubble in an hour. Movable columns were formed to travel quickly to anywhere in the country. Three hundred soldiers were sent to Waterford, 400 to Kilkenny, 800 to Thurles. Cork was ‘occupied.’” The above facts prove that Ireland’s food was removed, making it a genocide; not a famine. That is why Woodham-Smith was smeared by so many academicians for so long. She told the truth when nobody else would do so. She exposed a genocide that officialdom wants to keep covered-up. It is tragic that the author herself buried these key facts in 429 other pages, some of it self-contradictory. Harolyn Enis’s 2011 historical novel; When Ireland Fell Silent, has earned an honorable place alongside the books of O’Donovan Rossa, Davitt, O’Flaherty, Woodham-Smith, and Gallagher. Enis had the integrity to weave the Food Removal repeatedly into her story at a time when the entire “Irish Famine” industry including all of academia were, and as of July 31, 2021, still are, covering it up. Tim Pat Coogan’s The Famine Plot is also worth mentioning because, while he completely covers up the Food Removal, he quotes extensively from perpetrating bureaucrats’ correspondence that reveals the official malice that produced the Holocaust recorded here. Coogan attempts to prove genocide by fixating on correspondence while covering up the Food Removal. He thus fails to make his case (especially when he accuses the Crown of violating a law that didn’t exist until enacted by the post-WW2 UN). Who would similarly charge the Nazis with genocide based solely upon Hitler’s Mein Kampf while covering up deeds that constitute genocide?


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

CHAPTER 11: THE COVER-UP ARTISTS WHO KEPT THE HOLOCAUST “PERFECT.” It’s too soon: the Anglo-American publishing establishment will still kill any book that tells the truth about the starvation of Ireland – John Pilger, Doolough, Co. Mayo, 1997. “The press is so powerful in its image-making role, it can make a criminal look like he's the victim and make the victim look like he's the criminal. This is the press, an irresponsible press. . . If you aren't careful, the newspapers will have you hating the people who are being oppressed and loving the people who are doing the oppressing.”199 Genocidists everywhere and always dehumanize their victims in advance. It is indispensable: without it they couldn’t manipulate soldiers into perpetrating the genocide. For centuries prior to the Holocaust, during it, and ever since, opinion molders have been busy smearing Ireland and the Irish.200 Look through the literature and you will find disparagements – nearly exclusively. The Anglo-Norman invaders were accompanied by Geraldus Cambrensis and others. The smears continued nearly monolithically, enabling England to rob the Irish of their land, possessions, and output, to kill large numbers of them, and to enslave most of the survivors. From 1170 to today, England (and more recently, Britain) has claimed, successfully claimed, through the news media, that it has been in Ireland only to improve it. Cromwell’s “To Hell or Connaught” was an interim step in that genocide; Britain soon ravaged Connacht, also. All of these crimes were presented as civilizing, even holy, missions. A fuller treatment of Ireland’s centuries of nightmare is beyond the scope of this book, but as an antidote to the news media and modern historians I encourage everyone to learn of Poyning’s Laws, the Statute of Kilkenny, the Penal Laws, the shipping of Irish “felons” into slavery along the east coast of North America, the British Caribbean, and into Australia after


the new United States prohibited the enslavement of whites and closed its slave markets to them. Learn of the various Coercion Laws, and the statements by Essex, Elizabeth I, Cromwell, Queen Anne, Queen Victoria, Churchill, Princess Margaret, Thatcher, Blair, Cameron, et al. The British Government. Its cover-up began contemporaneously with the genocide itself. Britain’s Viceroy, Lord Heytesbury on November 3, 1845, officially started both Ireland’s Holocaust itself and its “potato famine” coverup in his reply to a delegation of alarmed visitors urging him to stop the food removal. He ignored them and their urgent request by reading from a prepared paper about potatoes and blight, casting doubt on the extent of the latter. His refusal to stop the food removal constituted the official start of the Holocaust, and his diversion of attention from it to potatoes and blight was the official start of the “potato famine” lie. Which will prevail? Truth or Falsehood? The British and “Irish” governments promote the “famine” lie but the contest continues. Britain generally works through others to cover up that historic crime. An exception is that, Carole Craycraft of Chicago’s British Consulate headed one clever disinformation campaign. The campaign was built around a wooden cross said to be made from a hinged-bottom coffin used during “the famine.” The focus was on the cross and its supposed source; no mention of the Food Removal. We attended its exposition at Chicago’s Old St. Patrick Church, Irish-Catholicism’s main “shrine” in the Mid-West, distributing my Mass Graves of Ireland; 1845-1850 pamphlet outside on the sidewalk. After a while, a woman came out screaming; “Stop interfering with my ‘famine’ display!” I finally got her to calm down and identify herself and her employer and remembered seeing her at the consulate. That “famine” cross promotion was Britain’s last overt campaign, at least in Chicago.

An indication that the British establishment remains incorrigibly criminal was Prime Minister Tony Blair’s “apology” for the “Irish Famine.” The Los Angeles Times (June 03, 1997) headlined it; British 184

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Apology for Famine Welcomed. Its text read; The Irish Times (one of the pro-partition newspapers of Ireland’s Ascendancy) typified the reaction to a weekend statement from new British Prime Minister Tony Blair by giving front-page coverage to Blair's acceptance of British blame for the Irish potato famine 150 years ago--the first such acknowledgment of his country's role in prolonging the famine. ‘Those who governed in London at the time failed their people through standing by while a crop failure turned into a massive human tragedy,’ Blair said in a message read by Irish actor Gabriel Byrne at a weekend rock festival in Millstreet, 150 miles southwest of Dublin. So “…London…failed…through standing by…?” In what way can the removal of Ireland’s abundant food crops by more than half of Britain’s empire army be construed as “standing by?” Shall we similarly accuse the Nazis of mere “standing by, of failure to provide a sufficiency of gas masks to Auschwitz workers addicted to Zyklon B?” Blair’s attempt to convert Britain’s massively-planned-andexecuted genocide of Ireland into a mere “failure to act” was gratefully and vociferously welcomed by everyone controlled by “Ireland’s“ government. The gullibility extended, sad to say, nearly throughout Irish-America’s institutions and news media. It is pleasant to report that people I’ve never met, some from Cashel, Co. Tipperary, distributed copies of my “Mass Graves of Ireland; 1845-1850” pamphlet to all attendees at that 1997 Millstreet event. “Ireland’s“ government promoted the event. It is horrifying to report that the event’s internationally-advertised logo was two jiving skeletons, and it invited the public to “lay the ghosts of the ‘famine’.” That indicates the depth of the squalor of “Ireland’s“ government. While Britain has the main motivation to conceal its historic crime in Ireland, it has managed to get others to perform its concealment. Thus the main agents of cover-up are the following. The “Irish” Government


For the reason stated above, it is on that date, November 3rd, that the Holocaust and its murdered millions have been commemorated in Ireland and throughout the Diaspora for the past twenty-five years. True to form, a decade later “Ireland’s” government set up and began heavily promoting a competing “potato famine commemoration” on some meaningless date in May. Some background information about “Ireland’s” policies: After the island-wide election of 1918, a landslide win by Sinn Fein (73 seats of a total of 105), the will of the people was clear. Based on that mandate Ireland’s government, Dáil Ēireann, was established on January 21, 1919. Many of its deputies were in British prisons and, despite the election results, the British army was trying to murder the rest. Britain declared the new, duly-elected, Irish government an “illegal assembly.” Despite the mortal danger, that First Dáil, those not imprisoned, sat regularly from January, 1919 to May, 1921. In contravention of the voted will of the Irish people King George V, abetted by Irish traitors, partitioned Ireland and imposed Britishcontrolled governments on both sides of the border. The current Oireachtas (Royal Dáil) of Ireland was imposed by George V. While the birthday of Ireland’s government of, by, and for, the people, is January 21, 1919 (based upon the landslide, islandwide election of 1918), the birthday of Ireland’s Royal Dáil of George V is December 6, 1921. Britain’s reassertion of its rule over Ireland was largely by means of its army and its Black and Tans.201 By 1923, defeated by the IRA but with Ireland’s government firmly controlled by Britain, the British army departed from twenty-six of Ireland’s thirty-two counties. By then the English landlords of Ireland were practically all bought off and gone. The land of Ireland was in Irish hands (subject to annual payments of rent until the 1970s); but the landlords’ relatives continued to own and operate Ireland’s banks,202 insurance companies, flour mills, brokerages, news media,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” advertising, and other commercial enterprises, that partly continues, to Ireland’s detriment, to this day. Ireland is unique among the nations of the world in that, despite its apparent sovereignty, all branches of its government cover up the 1845-1850 genocide of its own people; as do all entities they control. Its schools give passing grades in history only to those who ignore their local lore and mass graves and regurgitate their teachers’ lies onto test sheets. Thus, it is obvious that Ireland’s teachers of history today are those who advanced themselves academically by playing along with the lies. The Marist Brothers’ school I attended in Castlerea, Co. Roscommon, like all schools including in the US, covered up for the Brits. During visits to my aging father in the 1990s I’d meet with school buddies and encourage them, almost beg them, to form a committee to be the local faces for a memorial that my wife and I would purchase for at least one of Castlerea’s three or four Holocaust mass graves. One, Shopkeeper T, became increasingly fearful and sought an excuse to avoid involvement. He took my pamphlet to Brother Enda, our deeply conscientious teacher, then retired in Strokestown, to find errors in it. Two weeks later he returned to Enda only to hear Enda say; “So far as I know, the pamphlet is accurate in all details.”203 Shopkeeper T, with a cheek unheard of in my youth there, countered; “But Brother, how can you say it is accurate when it contradicts everything you taught us about the famine.” To that otherwise exemplary Marist Brother’s eternal shame, as well as that of the gov’t, he replied; “I had no choice. I had to teach the curriculum as provided to me by the government.” The “Irish” government is directly involved in the promotion and installing of most, if not all, “famine” memorials” in the U.S. Every single one of them conceals the direct cause of the mass deaths, the Food Removal. To give the false impression of breaking with the lie, they supplant “famine” with its similarly deceptive Irish equivalent, “An Gorta Mór.” “Trust us,” they imply, “because we speak Irish and we don’t say ‘famine’.” Never mind that they adamantly cover up the


food removal.204 As recently as winter/spring, 2018 the “Irish” government conducted a series of highly publicized “potato famine commemorations.” (How does one commemorate the conversion of a genocide into a famine?) At two earlier Big Lie events, in Drogheda and Kilrush, it stooped to having the representatives of thirty-two nations hang “commemorative” wreaths on pegs on a battery of wooden horses in the middle of the street, to be cleared within the hour instead of, in Kilrush’s case, at one of its ignored and abandoned Holocaust mass graves to slowly wither away in due time. Each year, starting about a decade ago the “Irish” gov’t repeats its cover-up, at the “Famine Museum” in Strokestown. In Chicago, Irish Consul Sheridan gave a talk at one event where he talked only about peasants, potatoes, blight and emigrations. He abruptly cut short his Q and A session upon my asking him if he knows anything about the food removal, and if so why he doesn’t mention it. That event was a benefit for Concern, represented by a Siobhan Walsh who had flown in from New York for it. We took her aside and asked why Concern would be involved in covering up Ireland’s Holocaust. Her shocking revelations about Concern are beyond the scope of this book. During “Irish” Senator Avril Doyle’s visit to the U.S. she was given abundant press coverage and air time for her cover-up efforts. She also spoke at the main auditorium at Notre Dame Univ. in South Bend, Indiana. A few of us distributed my Mass Graves of Ireland pamphlet to all arriving attendees. Two officials requested, and we gave them, copies of the pamphlet which they took to Doyle’s room. The audience were still reading the pamphlet when, fifteen minutes late, Doyle entered onto the stage. The audience looked up as she spoke. She opened with; “Ladies and gentlemen; the British army had nothing whatever to do with the starvation of Ireland.” Watching the audience from the side, I observed them drop their gazes down from Doyle to the map in their hands (which identified each of the sixtyseven Food Removal regiments located in the districts they were


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” assigned to strip of foods) and back up to Doyle in obvious astonishment, many with their mouths agape at what she had just said. The previously-mentioned rock concert weekend at a castle in Millstreet, Co Cork, to “lay the ghosts of the famine” was an Irish government promotion with its official logo of two jiving skeletons. People I’ve never seen (from Cashel and elsewhere) made and distributed 15,000 photocopies of my “Mass Graves…” pamphlets during the three days of the concert. The “Irish’ government promoted the construction of the Jeannie Johnston sailing ship as a “famine” teaching tool. Its traveling docents twisted that Holocaust of millions into a triumphant emigration. To the disgust of those docents, visitors boarding it in East Coast ports from Boston to Miami received copies of my ”Mass Graves of Ireland” pamphlet. Elsewhere schools taught “famine” regarding 1845-50 Ireland until about 1997 when some second and third-level schools in the U.S., Ireland, Canada, and Australia began to use my material and to impart the results of their own independent research. “Irish” Consuls General “Irish” Consuls General actively opposed efforts to free Joe Doherty whom the Feds imprisoned for eight years without charge or trial. They likewise publicly opposed, in State and municipal legislatures across the U.S., the successful enactment of the MacBride Principles. Irish-America won; the British and “Irish” governments lost. It was subsequently made a Federal law; requiring US corporate branches operating in Occupied Ireland to not participate in the British policy of denial of jobs to Catholics. Perhaps their most shocking betrayal of Ireland and the truth is their adamant promotion of the “famine” lie. They thus make Ireland the only nation on earth actively covering up a multi-million person genocide of its own people.


At Milwaukee Irishfest of 1997, Mary and I, after paying admission, entered and began handing out to attendees copies of my Mass Graves of Ireland: 1845-1850 pamphlet (now A Mr. Ward said “You can’t do that here.” I handed him one and kept going. Minutes later Mary screamed when an off-duty cop smashed her in the mouth with his brick-like transceiver. She was pouring blood. I called for the police, who promptly arrived, and I pointed out her attacker to them. The police immediately handcuffed me and then knocked me over, backward onto my manacled hands on the concrete sidewalk. I then began calling for law-abiding police. They hustled us to the security shack where Mary observed Irish Consul General Sheridan arriving. She said; “You’re behind this.” Instead of replying “Behind what?” he replied; “No, I’m not.” After a few hours during which a police officer cut my wrists by tightening the cuffs in response to my urgent request to loosen them a bit, they drove us to the hospital for treatment of the injuries they had inflicted. There, a doctor promptly ordered the police to loosen the handcuffs. After our injuries were treated the police drove us to Milwaukee jail where we were locked up until noon the next day. We promptly returned to Irishfest where, instead of entering, we placed our pamphlets under the windshield wipers of hundreds of cars. A few days later we received a letter from the Irishfest-connected local Attorney General or Prosecutor informing us that there would be no court hearing; that the (fabricated) charges had been dropped. Lawyers advised us to just accept that there is no justice when the cops are criminals; especially when a gov’t orders the crimes, and the cover-up of a genocide is at stake. “Ireland’s” News Media. During the Holocaust precisely 101 newspapers operated in Ireland205 of which 99 or 100 were owned by members of the Ascendancy (Anglo-Protestants).They were written for the Ascendancy, the very people on whose behalf British armed forces were robbing the Irish of their vast agricultural production. Thus, excepting a few brief mentions of starvation in those newspapers, nothing untoward was happening while Ireland starved.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” The Irish (Catholic)-owned newspaper was The Cork Examiner, founded in 1841 (now The Irish Examiner). Throughout the Holocaust, and later, it referred to the Holocaust as such, Holocaust. Meanwhile, The Nation, a justice-seeking newspaper established in 1842, published truths including Speranza’s The Stricken Land/The Famine Year poem that referred to British army involvement. Not until the Land Wars of 1878-82 did the indigenous Irish finally became free enough to establish other newspapers;206 but to this day Ireland’s news media remain heavily Ascendancy-oriented.207 The Anglo landlords exited Ireland mostly in 1900-1910 but the rest of the Ascendancy were allowed to stay. They continued to largely own and run Ireland’s commercial life; its chain stores, banks, insurance, Guinness’s Brewery, Jameson’s Whiskey, brokerages, flour mills, and its news media. The latter are probably why Ireland remains unfree to this day. The policies of what is ostensibly Ireland’s State TV/radio company, Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ), are those of an occupying power; disinforming Ireland about its own sovereignty. RTE and the two newspapers in Ireland that reported on Holocaust mass grave monuments proved hostile to them. RTE Radio One’s Joe Duffy was so hostile to the Smarmore, Co. Louth monument (installed in 2016) that he called me “Trump” on air, and had a claque that 1) blamed that monument for the northern violence of 1968-1998; 2) expressed a “professional opinion” that Smarmore Cemetery contained no Ardee Workhouse inmate remains; and 3) a sculptor from whom I was awaiting a sketch of a “more evocative memorial.” I had agreed to pay him €1,000 more than what I was paying for monuments thereto. Instead of forwarding the promised sketch he called me “a conman” on air. Installation of the Mullingar monument prompted hostility from the two local newspaper editors. The Westmeath Examiner called for its removal and accused the County Council of foot-dragging when it chose to leave it in place (upon dozens or scores of letters in favor of the monument). The editor of The Midland Topic newspaper was so


hostile as to falsely report that Mary and I had been collecting money for years, thus planting the notion of a scam operation. (So aware are we of the damage doable by the question; “What happened to all of the money?” that we courteously refuse all offers to donate toward installations, and return any donations mailed to us). Ireland’s Academia. No Irish academician in the past hundred years has published significant truths about the Holocaust. The more plausible and abundant their falsifications the more promoted are their academic careers and the more prolifically they publish. To be effective, promoters of falsehood need to know their subject; but some “famine” writers are so uninformed as to be presumed innocent of intentional cover-up. The following example speaks for itself. Monaghan town’s St. Macartan’s College has produced a book on the “famine” that, like all cover-up efforts, focuses on the potato. Tuberculture is complex but it includes basic nomenclature conventions current in 1845-1850. The two core words are “ridge” and “pit.” A ridge (iomre in Irish) begins as the four-sod-wide earthen sub-matrix into which the potato slits are inserted and from which the potato stalks grow upward through the subsequent earthen mouldings which complete the ridge. After the grain crops are stacked in the haggard the potato harvest begins. The potatoes are dug by spade or graip, thus demolishing the ridges. Traditional smear artists still call ridges “lazy beds.” In reality, ridges were so labor intensive that they have been entirely replaced by “drills.” A pit is an above-ground, earthen-covered storage place for harvested potatoes in the field where they grew. So uninformed are St. Macartan’s author, editor, and publisher that their book refers to ridges as pits and vice versa. It includes a photo of a potato pit that is captioned “A Potato Ridge.” The veritable industry of “famine” literateurs who write to conceal the Food Removal do so by directing their readers’ attention to potato and


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” blight. A truly weird feature of all of them is their lack of basic knowledge. This strange disconnect of writer from subject goes all the way back to the Holocaust itself. Writers, regarding Ireland, of tuberculture or blight (phytophthora infestans) have lacked even a rudimentary knowledge of those subjects. R.F. Foster, after minimizing the “famine’s” death toll, wrote; “But no amount of disagreement can conceal the devastating extent of depopulation or the horrific conditions in which lives were lost. And the question that has preoccupied historians, far more than attempting to arrive at how many died, is: what could the government have done to stop it?”208 (My emphasis) But it was that self-same government that had perpetrated that genocide by blanketing Ireland with its food removal troops. Is it because Foster conceals the Food Removal that he presumes that the reader knows nothing of it? Professor Christine Kinealy is the most prolific “famine” author. As a key member of “The Irish did it to themselves” cabal, she and her books are heavily promoted by the establishment. Kinealy’s career trajectory soared only after her gushing April, 1990 review in Fortnight magazine of fellow Big Lie operative Cormac Ō Gráda’s The Great Irish Famine. Her review begins; “The immediate cause of the famine was the appearance of a strange blight on the potato crop in 1845.” Her fourth sentence: “The government decided to review its relief measures, to force the people to depend on their own resources…” (resources that British soldiers had violently removed; C.F.). She wrote her fear that study of “the famine can be used by nationalists to fit their view of history and most serious historians would not wish to contribute to this interpretation.” After disparaging Woodham-Smith’s The Great Hunger as “populist and simplistic,” Kinealy wrote; “And the failure of historians to address the period seriously has probably contributed more to the prevalence of myths and misunderstandings – stories of ships full of grain leaving Ireland, of overcrowded famine graveyards, of callous landlords and of Queen Victoria contributing £5 to famine relief – which have been passed


glibly from generation to generation.” (My underline) -But not as glib as Kinealy’s mocking denial of the truth of “ships full of grain,” “overcrowded graveyards,” and “callous landlords.” She approvingly quotes Ō Gráda as follows; “The famine was neither inevitable nor contrived. The Irish, he (Ō Gráda) concludes, were unlucky (sic) that it occurred when it did.” These published falsehoods by Kinealy paved her way within the establishment to a well-accepted series of cover-up books making her the most prolific writer of such. However, probably due to pressure from knowledgeable persons, she has slowly abandoned many of her falsehoods. One pressure point must have been her interview at a London promotion where a reporter from The North Star and Political Review could not get a coherent answer from her, and published a series of reports about the differences between her work and my pamphlet. Some years after Kinealy’s infamous book review, wife Mary and I participated in the 1997 Doolough-to-Louisburg “famine” commemoration walk.209 Though we had distributed my Mass Graves of Ireland: 1845-1850 pamphlet to those present, Kinealy210 introduced herself to us to ask if we would help her publisher promote her “famine” book in the States. We: “Of course!” I added; “But it does identify all sixty-seven Food Removal regiments; doesn’t it?” When she replied in the negative, I asked: “But why would you bother adding to the pile of cover-up books?” She was opening her mouth to answer when a voice boomed out; “John; when will you write the book we are all waiting for?” “John” answered: “It’s too soon. The Anglo-American publishing establishment will still kill any book that tells the truth about the starvation of Ireland.” We learned that “John” is John Pilger, the eminent human rights advocate, a few of whose books were already in my home library.

Kinealy embarked on a series of book promotions along East Coast cities where she was met by women distributing my pamphlet that included a map that showed which British regiment starved which Irish district. At one such promotion the women were attacked and 194

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” robbed of their boxes of pamphlets. The man who led the attack upon them became the organizer of the 2013 “Famine Tribunal” in Fordham U. The day after the attack and robbery I contacted one of his cohorts. She, “Padraigín Newell,” claimed to be a mature student at George Mason U. and Provisional Sinn Fein functionary who “justified” the attack and robbery by informing me that it was Gerry Adams who had ordered it. U.S. Academia. In 2020 Chicago’s DePaul U. was still teaching “famine” while pickets outside protested its falsification of history. So far as I know, “famine” is still taught at most 2nd and 3rd level institutions, though there are many exceptions. Four Chicago Ph.D. professors of history once debated me on CAN-TV. Some of them had long partaken of freebie junkets to Ireland each Summer where they learned the latest “famine” line. The four were Lawrence McCaffrey (Loyola, emer.), Emmet Larkin (U. of Chicago), Frank Biletz (Northwestern U.), and Ryan Dye (Ambrose College, Davenport, Iowa). They couldn’t cope with my multicolored, poster-sized map of Ireland showing which British regiment starved which Irish district. Unable to deny the map’s data they resorted to ad hominem smears while the video of the debate shows that the TV camera lingered on the map. They claimed that history is whatever THEY say it is. Ex-Professor Francis Boyle is a highly-credentialed opponent of the truth. He is an ally of Kinealy and the BritIrish government. Like them he refuses to acknowledge the fact of the Food Removal of 1845-1850 perpetrated by more than half of Britain’s army. Despite Irish precedent usage of “Holocaust” starting on May 4, 1846, Boyle calls for surrendering “Holocaust” to exclusive Jewish use though they didn’t adopt it to replace Shoah until the late 1960s.211 Samples of Irish and U.S. Academic History-Fabrications. As part of her officially-lauded career Professor Christine Kinealy also deliberately falsified a crucial utterance by Lord Clarendon, Britain’s Viceroy in Ireland. On July 5, 1847 from his Viceregal


Lodge in Phoenix Park, Dublin, Lord Clarendon wrote to British Prime Minister John Russell a status report on the Food Removal; “Sir Edward Blakeney says that the Country (sic) is tranquil, and if it were not for the harassing duty of escorting provisions the troops would have little to do.” On page 119 of her A Death-Dealing Famine, Kinealy quoted that sentence but omitted its first four words; “Sir Edward Blakeney says…” making the sentence seem to be Clarendon’s mere opinion instead of what it was, Blakeney’s boastful statement. Once one knows that “Sir Edward Blakeney” is General Sir Edward Blakeney, the commander-in-chief of the sixty-seven regiments in Ireland throughout their food removal mission in 1845 through 1850, one understands that Kinealy HAD to falsify that record to “disappear” General Blakeney because his very existence and food-removal mission expose and refute her genocide-concealing career. Famine to Freedom, a film by James Woods, Irish Professor Kevin Whelan, and U.S. Professors Charles Orser of Southern Illinois University (the dig) and Michael Coffey (potatoes). Seemingly scientific and painstaking, Famine to Freedom is among the vilest of the cover-ups. The film features a soil X-ray machine, a hot air balloon for birds-eye views of the ground, and a U. of Illinoissponsored archeological dig over a few summers on the site of onceBallykilcline, Strokestown, Co. Roscommon. Professors Whelan and Orser make it seem scientific. U.S. Senator Teddy Kennedy provides what promoters must have thought was credibility.

Also participating in the film was J.J. Neary. On Sunday, July 2, 2000, J.J. and his wife Dolores had attended the benediction/inauguration of the memorial to the murdered village of Lisnabinnia in Ballyglass, Ballymoe, Co. Galway (see Exhibits A3 through A6). They informed me of the unmarked Holocaust mass grave in Kilglass, Co. Roscommon near their house, and asked if I would consider installing a similar memorial there. Later, while visiting the Nearys, Mary and I walked across a few fields to observe the Ballykilcline dig and distribute my Mass Graves of Ireland pamphlet to Prof. Orser and the 196

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” student diggers. Sometime later I attended Orser’s exposition of excavated artifacts at the Percy French Hotel in Strokestown. All artifacts but one had a printed label alongside that named it. Orser had been strangely unwelcoming of my pamphlet, but he was even more unwelcoming to my presence and my naming of the only unidentified artifact on display, a steel tool. The unidentified steel tool was a reaping hook (sickle), and I so informed Orser and the others present. The film’s focus exclusively on potatoes has exposed its makers’ motives, but it was baffling to me at the time why a tool as common as an old reaping hook had not been labeled as such. A sickle is universally identified due to the USSR’s hammer and sickle symbol. When I left Roscommon in 1953 there was one on every farm there, though almost entirely superseded as a harvest tool by the slightly more wasteful scythe some sixty years earlier. Mystery Resolved! Professor Orser and the other principals of the dig were part of the Famine to Freedom film, and that 45-minute film promoted the false notion that potatoes had been the only crop cultivated in Ballykilcline. No other crop or food was mentioned in that supposed documentary though the reaping hook exhumed in the Ballykilcline dig constituted proof positive that grain crops were part of Ballykilcline life. Thus, this film’s false basic premise, that Ballykilcline depended exclusively on potatoes, is exposed. This film and Professors Whelan and Orser are further refuted by the then-existence (1845) in nearby Grange of a grain mill and a grain kiln, also a tuck mill, a grain kiln in nearby Clooncoface, and another in nearby Drinaun, a livestock pound in nearby Curry, and a grain mill, grain kiln and livestock pound in nearby Gillstown. (See Exhibit D2, Co. Roscommon, Sheet 23.) All of these evidences of non-potato crops, especially the reaping hook that Orser and his students exhumed from Ballykilcline itself, refute the film and expose its producers as frauds who conceal genocide. No legitimate university would knowingly tolerate such history-falsifiers.


Orser’s decision to not label the reaping hook speaks for itself. It exposes his whole mission in Ballykilcline which, as the film reveals, was to perpetuate the “potato famine” lie. Why did the University of Illinois participate in such a cover-up of genocide? Another mystery is resolved. The enthusiasm and initiative of J.J. Neary and wife, Dolores on 2July2000, when seeking a memorial for the Kilglass mass grave near their house beside Ballykilcline, was soon replaced by fear. Why? After a few days they refused to discuss that mass grave, while exhibiting extreme fear of something. With Nearys’ enthusiasm changed to fear, Kilglass’s Holocaust mass grave remains unmarked. Their participation in the above film that impugns the dead and the emigrants while covering for the murderers speaks for itself (see Exhibits B and C). This is a new, negative development. Americans, including the recent immigrants, reinforced by the U.S. Bill of Rights, once possessed a contagious confidence and provided, for example, significant funding for Davitt’s Land League that kept evicted families alive and finally ended landlordism itself. They didn’t forget; but the corruption of Ireland’s academia has finally spread to America, so that instead of the U.S. underpinning basic rights in Ireland it now promotes its own empire’s interests in Ireland to Ireland’s detriment. This Famine to Freedom film never mentioned the Food Removal regiments. Stationed in and around that Pakenham-Mahon estate and stripping its tenants of their food crops during the Holocaust ere the 68th of Foot, 6th Cavalry, and 37th of Foot (see Exhibit A and C2). The food they removed obviously included the livestock and grains indicated by the reaping hook and the grain kilns, grain mills, and livestock pounds around Ballykilcline. Descendants of Ballykilcline: your ancestors’ lives were NOT threatened by their own stupidity, as this film falsely posits, in growing only one failure-prone crop. They were being robbed of their agricultural output by their landlord through Britain’s constabulary and army. I was raised eight miles from that estate and it is only in the


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” past few decades that revisionist historians have dropped the Pakenham portion of its name (the Pakenham-Mahon estate). It was one of those Pakenhams who, as a British army general, was killed while leading the British attack on New Orleans in 1815. Pakenham’s subordinate officer at New Orleans, Edward Blakeney, later, as General Sir Edward Blakeney, was appointed the commander-in-chief of Ireland’s holocaust from its 1845 beginning through 1850. In this film, to drive home its betrayal of the murdered millions and to perpetuate the false “potato famine” scenario, Professor Whelan went so far as to resort to the old, discredited English compound slur against the Irish; “Potatoes, a lazy crop grown in lazy beds by a lazy people.” Quinnipiac University (Connecticut) leads the cover-up campaign in the U.S. The variety of its falsifications of history, largely by manipulation of emotion, is astonishing. For example, one of its expensive newspaper ads is nearly entirely wordless. It consists of a depiction of a small, squatting, old man, sifting soil through his fingers as if seeking to understand something. The purpose of that ad is to mislead; to perpetuate the notion of uneducated victims of failure of their only crop, a failure-prone one. It promotes the Big Lie officially begun by British Lord Heytesbury on November 3, 1845, simultaneous with his start of the Holocaust itself by refusing to stop the food removal. Quinnipiac recently set up “Ireland’s Great Hunger Museum” in Hamden, Connecticut as a key part of its disinformation campaign Quinnipiac’s President Lahey doesn’t respond to my phone calls. No wonder. The Catholic Church. Having been inspired throughout my childhood and to this day by so many exemplary priests, brothers and nuns living out their Faith that it pains me to relate the permanently sordid record in Ireland of the Popes and Catholic hierarchy. The only


clerical truth-tellers about the Holocaust are that minority whose virtue exceeds their career ambitions. Some years ago I tried to get some of my old Castlerea classmates to form a group to front for a gift from my wife and me of a monument to be installed at one of Castlerea’s three or four Holocaust mass graves. The reluctance was shocking. One, the town’s amateur historian, seeking a pretext for his nonparticipation, took my pamphlet to Marist Brother Enda, the wonderfully-committed teacher of all of us, by then retired in Strokestown. He told Brother Enda to search my pamphlet for errors, that he would return a week or two later for the verdict. Upon his return, Enda informed him that the pamphlet was truthful in all important details; to which “Historian” asked; “But Brother, how can you say it is truthful when it contradicts everything you taught us about the famine?” To which Enda replied, tragically for himself as well as for Ireland and the truth itself, “I had no choice. I had to teach the curriculum as provided to me by the government.” (This account was mentioned earlier within the context of government.) Ireland’s Bishops Mary and I once visited Rome when, as luck would have it, all of Ireland’s bishops were there to celebrate a renovation of the crypt of St. Columbanus which is located near that of St. Peter. One day Mary and I walked from the Colosseum up the hill to the Irish College where the bishops were staying. Unable to see any bishop I gave the concierge a sheaf of my pamphlets for distribution to the bishops with my request for a meeting. The following day Killala diocese Bishop Finnegan contacted me. Mary and I took him out to a pleasant lunch. His brother Pat is married to another Finnegan, my second cousin (once removed) on my mother’s side. Bishop Finnegan informed me that he was completing a book on the famine and exhibited no interest in my pamphlet. He was distinctly disinterested in learning anything about the British army’s involvement in the “famine.” No other bishop contacted me.

Among the attendees at the 2000 consecration/inauguration of the Lisnabinnia memorial were individuals each of whom requested an 200

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” installation of a similar memorial. They informed me of four other Holocaust mass graves of which three are unmarked and one untruthfully marked. An unmarked one was in nearby Kilbegnet; located outside of the cemetery wall. It is hard to understand why, but the 1845-1850 starvelings, though baptized Catholics, were routinely denied Christian burial.212 This was done even before the sheer numbers overwhelmed all, requiring perfunctory burials en masse. Those who informed me of two of the mass graves soon became fearful and broke off communication. Before I could conclude details with my informants of the Kilbegnet mass grave there was a full-page article about it in the 15Sept2000 Roscommon Champion. The local priest had evidently become privy and had notified his Bishop, Christopher Jones, of that diocese of Elphin. Though the baptized starvelings’ mass grave had been outside consecrated ground and unmarked for 150 years, the bishop acted now, just as the locals were planning a memorial to mark the starvelings’ resting place. The memorial would have raised embarrassing questions; Why outside the cemetery wall? Problem solved (and Bishop Jones’ canonization ensured by his two miracles?). According to the newspaper interview Bishop Jones (miraculously) converted the baptized starvelings into unbaptized babies and, without interfering with the starvelings’ remains they were suddenly IN consecrated ground WITHIN Kilbegnet Cemetery. Part of the cemetery wall was relocated to incorporate some of the mass grave area into consecrated ground. Jones’s short sermon as reported in the Roscommon Champion included the words “baby” or “babies” forty-three times, “infants” twice, child” or “little children” nine times, “birth” and “little white coffins” once each. Omitted were “Britain,” “genocide,” “starvation,” “hunger,” and “food removal.” He uttered “famine” four times without any mention of the concerns brought to me by his parishioners in the first place - the baptized starvelings in unmarked pits outside the consecrated ground of Kilbegnet cemetery for the previous 150 years. (See Exhibit A10)


In November, 2013, through a friendly go-between in Castlerea, Co Roscommon, I offered its parish priest a €1,000 donation to Castlerea’s needy through its St. Vincent de Paul Society if he would allow me to install a truth-telling memorial (like the one in nearby Ballyglass, Ballymoe) over one of Castlerea’s three or four Holocaust mass graves. The go-between informed me that he did not discuss the matter with the priest, but in March, 2015, after nearly two decades of delays, the local monument maker installed our memorial over the Kilkeevin Holocaust mass grave that is still outside the wall of Kilkeevin cemetery’s consecrated ground, but is now honestly marked. (See Exhibit A7) The Church in Chicago To provide false legitimacy the organized cover-up in Chicago was labeled “An Gorta Mór” (the Irish equivalent of “famine”) but omitted all mention of the Food Removal. Its organizers’ elaborate ad book showed the “Irish” Consul and much of Illinois’ political establishment as titled members and sponsors. A proposed “famine memorial” in the form of a stylized sailboat sculpture some 40’ high was widely promoted as a symbol, not of any deaths or the actual starvation, but as a triumphant event. The scam, including constant solicitations for money, culminated in a huge, concelebrated Mass at Holy Name Cathedral. A group of us distributed my pamphlet on the sidewalk to people arriving. Yet, we entered for the Mass, and were stunned to see its altar used to smear the memories of the murdered millions by covering up for the murderers. The Chicago Sun-Times drove home the full lie the following day in its news report headlined Potato Famine Commemoration Mass. Soon thereafter, the main speaker on the altar of that Mass and lead organizer of Chicago’s Gorta Mór campaign, a Chicago police officer, was convicted of planting drugs on the alienated wife of his patrol partner as part of a criminal plan to imprison her, divorce her, and deprive her of her share of the marital property. We fought that Big Lie and its grossly inappropriate sailboat/ “memorial.” It took organization while we were recovering from the


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” MI5/FBI crimes against us, but we first got the mayor to withdraw the City’s offer of prominent lake-front Olive Park as a site for that sculpture. Next, Holy Name announced that it would be installed beside the cathedral. When we forced withdrawal of that site, Old St. Patrick church announced that it would be welcome there. Chicagoans eventually shamed those priests, too. The “ship” sculptor is now dead, and so far as we know Irish-Chicago is now too knowledgeable to tolerate such disrespect for the murdered millions and for truth itself. Recent events suggests that Irish-Chicago, at least its Irish American News (IAN) is not so enlightened. The owner of the IAN asked all regulars to dedicate their March, 2017 columns to “famine vs. genocide.” The owner and four regular columnists, including me, did so. He did not mention that he was giving many pages to a noncolumnist, an Englishwoman (Maddocks) who promotes “Irish famine.” The result was six articles of which, tragic to say, five promoted “famine.” They totaled 14,160 words promoting the lie of “famine” contradicting my 900 words of truthful journalism. Within a day or two of publication the owner eMailed me; “Your column is no longer needed.” Thus ended 21 years of truth in the IAN. Chicago’s two Catholic universities, Loyola and DePaul continue to adamantly teach “potatoes” and “famine,” but at least one City Colleges professor teaches the truth of it. So does (or did) a Teaching Asst. at Univ. of Chicago, as did Instructor Myles Goddard at Holy Cross high school until he retired. Cecil Woodham-Smith (W-S), again. It is because W-S’s “The Great Hunger” is the most truthful of all non-fiction “famine” books written in my lifetime that I choose to reveal some of its falsehoods here and to correct them. All other academic “famine” historiographers I’ve read are blatant falsifiers. One result of her book, which would have proven genocide if her truths were left uncontaminated, was to encourage further falsehoods


and to convert the Holocaust into a sort of racist “comedy” involving Irish stupidity. Thus were born the “potato people,” a sort of missing link humanoid; something between a potato and an Irishman, who had supposedly improved the world’s gene pool by “falling into a lethal trap of its own making,” dying off, of “terminal stupidity.” But W-S’s otherwise hugely informative work disinformed its readers by means of egregious omissions and whole-cloth falsehoods; some as follows: W-S’s historic omission was in failing to make clear that, aside from the “rent” paid to the landlords, the “cesses,” rates, poor rates, hearth roll taxes, and two taxes to the Anglican church of their oppressors, were generally paid by seizures of crops and livestock by carbinetoting constables and units of militia and the British army. The latter two taxes were; 1) a building maintenance tax, and 2) a tithe (tenth of) the gross output of each Irish family with tillage, but not from graziers. In addition to these exactions, the crops produced by the Irish were claimed by the landlords on “whose” land it was grown, and exported mostly to England at gunpoint. Had W-S organized her food removal data and revealed its extent, the fact that it was British policy would have been unavoidable. Her readers would have thus known it was genocide and would have abandoned the false notion of “famine” in which “the dead fell into a lethal trap of their own making.” Among W-S’s many cover-ups of the Food Removal are the following: 1) On her page 71: “…four times as much wheat came into Ireland as was exported.” (Refuted by Exhibit B) 2) Same page: “Suppose, however, the grain and other produce had been kept in the country, it is doubtful that the starving would have benefited substantially.” (Export volumes in Exhibit B completely refute this falsehood.)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 3) Same page: “Donegal, Mayo, Clare, west Cork produced little but potatoes.” (To learn how grossly false this is see Exhibits D, D1, and especially D2 for those counties) 4) Same page: “Food from other districts would have had to be brought in and distributed. Grains would have had to be milled; which, as the British government had discovered, was a difficult problem.” (Refuted by the islandwide ubiquity of grain-kilns and -mills shown in the D Exhibits.) 5) Page 88) “The whole face of the country was changed. From the Giant’s Causeway to Cape Clear, from Limerick to Dublin, not a green field was to be seen.” (She thus falsely indicates that Ireland’s agriculture, including its grass, had died. If she was positing that Ireland was monoculture potatoes, the Irish would, indeed, have fallen into a trap of their own making; but it is false. Her lie of “no green field from the Giant’s Causeway to Cape Clear…” is demolished by Exhibits D. Also, what was being removed at gun-point? 6) Page 132: “It was some perversity, some dishonesty, which caused the Irish to turn their backs on their own home-grown wheat, barley, bacon, eggs, butter and meat, and besiege the depots for Indian corn.” (This is a particularly ghoulish falsehood. These foods of their own production existed in abundance; but W-S blames, not the Food Removal reg’ts, some of whom she accurately names elsewhere, but “Irish character defects” for the fact that they and their children starved to death, robbed of the abundance produced by themselves). 7) Page 134: “Sligo was not a grain-growing country.” (Grossly false. See Co. Sligo in Exhibits D to refute this.) 8) End of page 137: “It seemed that Nature herself was now enrolled among the enemies of unhappy Ireland,” (She thus falsely posits


that, despite the Food Removal, the starvation was caused by a “natural event.”) 9) Page 138: “The people became bewildered. No attempt was made to explain the catastrophe to the people.” (She is refuted by her own brief reports of the Food Removal. Just how could the Food Removal be “explained” other than what it was, the removal of Ireland’s food?) 10) Page 139, regarding the winter of ’47-’48 when half of the doomed were already dead W-S wrote without comment: ’’There is an undefined notion that something very terrible is going to take place soon,’ wrote Colonel Jones to Trevelyan.” (So the on-going Holocaust was a non-event which could have become “something very terrible” had the people successfully resisted the Food Removal? Shame on W-S for her neutrality to genocide.) 11) Page 141: “The Irish were hopelessly improvident, therefore they closed their eyes to the terrible fate which must await them if next year’s harvest were lost.” (Genocide victims are improvident? WS knew very well that only one crop had failed. What did she think those Food Removal regiments were removing? See Exhibit C and my “smoking gun” map to learn which British reg’t starved which Irish district.) 12) On page 149 she wrote without comment: “…the works at Clare Abbey remained closed, and on December 19 Captain Wynne reported that the people at Clare Abbey were starving, ‘but as yet peaceably.’” (So according to British army Capt. Wynne and WS; though half of the doomed are already dead there is no problem so far.) Perhaps W-S’ most egregious falsehood occurred as follows: after acknowledging that the partial recount of the 1841 census showed that that census total was too low by one-third, she nevertheless used the figure she knew to be false, thus falsely reducing the death toll to “…some 2.5 million” (to get published, I am credibly informed).


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” There you have it; the falsehoods by which Cecil Woodham-Smith contradicted the truthful parts of her otherwise brilliant The Great Hunger. What we don’t know is the nature and extent of the pressures imposed on her by government, academia and her publisher; but they must have been formidable. Despite her falsehoods which provided a template for all of the subsequent “famine” books, she was slurred due to her revelations about the Food Removal, and that much ground-breaking truth-telling merits our respect. John Pilger knew whereof he spoke at the 1997 Doolough-to-Louisburg “Famine walk;” that “the publishing industry will still kill any book that tells the truth about the starvation of Ireland.” Please remember this about Cecil Woodham-Smith: despite her twelve crucially misleading falsehoods that are refuted here by means of unimpeachable Ordnance Survey map data, she was, morally speaking, a giant among pygmies. As author of her The Great Hunger…, she was the first non-fiction writer to name some of the British army regiments that removed Ireland’s food, for which honesty she paid a huge price. She remains the only such non-fiction writer, excepting my “Mass Graves…” pamphlet and, and this book. Sad to say, though I had read her “Great Hunger…” prior to visiting Britain’s then-Public Record Office seeking information on my grandfather Fogarty, it is what I found there that opened my eyes about 1845-1850 Ireland; not Woodham-Smith’s work. She had reported key facts, but in the selfsame book she falsely contradicted them. Irish-America’s News Media

Excepting the Irish American News publisher of my monthly column, the Irish-American news media are not only controlled by Holocaust cover-up activists in the “Irish” government, one can see the media owners quickly adopting the latest treasonous lines from them. Elected Irish government officials are not allowed on Chicago Irish radio if they oppose the sell-out of the Six Counties to Britain (if they 207

are members of Republican Sinn Fein). Joe O’Neill, Donegal Urban Councilor, was prohibited from Saturday radio to greet Chicagoans from Donegal. The reason he was banned; “He might say something inflammatory.” But Holocaust cover-up artist Avril Doyle was fawningly given unlimited air time by the same radio shows to cover up for the perpetrators of Ireland’s Holocaust. Update: After twenty-one years, my column in the Irish American News (IAN) was canceled. Soon after my March, 2017 column was published in it. Cliff, its owner/publisher eMailed me; “Your column will no longer be necessary.” In early February Cliff had notified IAN columnists to make the “famine” the subject of our March columns. The March IAN’s six articles totaled 14,160 words on that subject. All drove home the lie of “famine” except my 900 words that proved genocide. Soon thereafter I received Cliff’s one-sentence dismissal. Thus, Irish-America, for centuries the proud, confident supporter of basic rights in Ireland against the British empire, are now enforcing an anti-American censorship to conceal Britain’s genocide of the Irish. Electronic Media Blogs: My (copyrighted) has existed for some twenty years and receives “hits” from all countries. The hits, in descending order, are typically from the U.S., Ireland, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, France, Russia, Germany, Greece, Italy, India, Sweden, etc. into smaller numbers. It has been re-posted in countless other sites. Its map has been used, with my approval, in scores if not hundreds of locations and has been painted as a mural on the two-storey gable of a Belfast building. From about 1989 it had been in pamphlet form; The Mass Graves of Ireland: 1845-1850. Though densely printed, it was circulated throughout Anglophone countries where some schools used it as


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” course material. I know this only from the number of teachers/ professors who sought my permission to use it. This book supersedes my earlier work by providing far more data on all significant aspects; also by correcting the number of British army regiments that removed Ireland’s food.

A Fine Holocaust Blog. Irish Holocaust – Push to Educate the Facts has, for years, maintained high standards of ethics, compositional coherence and, above all, historical veracity. Great credit is due to its owner/manager Mary Lou McKeone who was the subject of smears and on-line attacks for years, including by a “famine” blog. It thus is a credit to its managers and honors the murdered millions. Long life to Irish Holocaust – Push to Educate the Facts! Its strong defense of truth continues to inspire. “IrishCentral,” the Smurfit/Kehoe/Niall O’Dowd’s Internet “news” blog presents skewed notions of Ireland and its history and recirculates old stereotypes. It sensationalizes negative Irish events, such as a case of incest, in Ireland - as if written by British Intel to cause Irish-America to turn away in disgust from the people of Ireland. It now attacks those who interviewed, taped and archived in Boston College ex-combatants of “the troubles.”


The Adrian Flannelly show advertises its alliance with the bearers of false witness against the Holocaust victims. His advertisers are mostly branches of the “Irish” government. “Irish Famine” Writers The major falsification of Ireland’s history of 1845-1850 dates from the passing away, largely in the 1970s (my father in 2000), of the generation whose parents survived the Holocaust and imparted to them eyewitness accounts of it. Their departures in the 1970s cleared the way for the liars, many so gross as to not only cover up genocide, but to accuse its victims of such savage stupidity as to have played key parts in their own destruction. We can readily dismiss the fraudulent “famine” writers of our era, especially when honest records exist to refute them. Among the most effective of the falsifiers are those claiming to be “breaking the silence,” and who profess sympathy for those they betray. But let us, instead, defend the memories of the murdered millions by refuting the lies that impugn them. Chapters 12 and 13 will help.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


CHAPTER 12: “SPERANZA” VS. SIR WILLIAM WILDE No two individuals had more permanent impact upon public perceptions of the Holocaust than Sir William Wills Wilde and his wife Lady Jane Francesca “Speranza” Wilde, née Elgee, parents of Oscar. Speranza’s poem, The Stricken Land/The Famine Year, written in 1847, accurately defined that event as a vast crime perpetrated by British government forces against Ireland’s population. She specifically denounced the role of the British army in starving Ireland. She also, till the end of her days, called for Ireland’s freedom from British rule. Meanwhile, her husband William Wilde so assiduously concealed the means and methods of that genocide and minimized its death toll so elaborately and plausibly that the British Crown awarded him a knighthood; making him Sir William Wilde. Thus, the chief life-work and basis for the fame of each is for works that directly contradict each other. British Viceroy Lord Heytesbury had shocked the twenty-two man delegation visiting him at the Vice-Regal Lodge in Dublin’s Phoenix Park on November 3, 1845, when he did two things: he 1) officially started Ireland’s Holocaust by rejecting their urgent requests to stop removing and exporting Ireland’s foods, while 2) he started the “potato famine” lie by reading to his visitors a diversionary paper about potatoes and blight before dismissing them.

Lord Heytesbury’s actions have consequences today. Many, like Speranza, side with the visiting delegation and denounce the officially-ordered genocide. Others side with Heytesbury by ignoring the food removal and by use of false labels that cunningly slur the murdered millions. It is a measure of the accuracy of the label “Royal (British) Dáil” that the “Irish” 212

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” government to this day conceals a genocide of their own people by promoting the labels of “famine,” and “Great Hunger/Gorta Mór.” “Speranza” (Jane Francesca Elgee) was born in Wexford about the year 1826. She was of a strictly Protestant and Conservative family and had no sympathy with national aspirations until inspired by Thomas Davis upon his death in 1845. For the rest of her life she supported all of the public virtues. Eventually, destitute in London, and predeceased by her husband and children except Oscar, then imprisoned, Speranza died at 147 Oakley Street, Chelsea on 3rd February, 1896, and was buried in Kensal Green. Fees unpaid, after seven years her remains were removed, untraceably, to its Potters Field section. The following is extracted from “The Young Irelanders” by T.F. O’Sullivan. Published by The Kerryman Ltd., 1944. “No voice that was raised in the cause of the poor and oppressed,” Martin MacDermot wrote, “none that denounced political wrongdoing in Ireland was more eagerly listened to than that of the graceful and accomplished woman known in literature as ‘Speranza’ and in society as Lady Wilde.” ”’Speranza,’ wrote not only rousing, patriotic verse but revolutionary prose for ‘The Nation.’ Her article, ‘Jacta Alea Est’ (The Die is Cast), printed in the suppressed number of the paper for the 29th July, 1848, urged armed revolt in the cause of Irish freedom and showed that she had become a wholehearted disciple of John Mitchel, who was then in the hands of the enemy. The article was used as evidence against Gavan Duffy, who was in prison when it was written and never saw it.” ”’Speranza’ boldly avowed the authorship from the gallery of the Courthouse in which she was sitting on the 21st February 1849 when the article was referred to by the Solicitor-General in the trial of Duffy. As a member of the Ascendancy, Jane Elgee thus, with impunity, proclaimed her authorship of an article that was nevertheless used as evidence to convict another.” (That is similar to the non-prosecution of the Church of Ireland’s


Jonathan Swift for his deathless A Modest Proposal for which his printer was imprisoned.)

During the Land League days (1880s and 1890s), Lady Wilde was a warm, admirer of Parnell, who was then leading a united people. She said to one of her friends; ”Parnell is the man of destiny. He will strike off the chains of Ireland.” William Wilde’s background. William supported empire and its genocide in Ireland to the extent of leaving no written record of the British army’s removal of Ireland’s food crops, and for elaborately construing a false reduction of the resultant starvation toll.213 “His (Wm. Wilde’s) grandfather, Durham, England-born Ralph Wilde, was land agent to Landlord family Wills whose estate centered on Kilkeevin, Co. Roscommon.”214 An indication of the extent of the Wills estate is shown by the distance between the townlands of Willsgrove and Willsbrook. The additions of “Lord” and “Mount” to Landlord Henry Wills-Sandford’s name were parts of the Crown’s bribe to him for his 1800 parliamentary vote for the 1801 union of Ireland and Britain.215 Ireland’s parliament had been comprised exclusively of “the Ascendancy” (Anglo-Protestants). Until about 1790 none of Ireland’s indigenes, Catholics, were permitted to vote, and until 1828 were not permitted to hold political office. Because Landlord Wills-Sandford, like all other English landlords in Ireland, had the power to usurp essentially all produced by others on “his” 24,410 acres,216 his vast spending power diverted activity away from Kilkeevin, killing it, and directed some of it to commerce that caused a new town, Castlerea, to sprout around his demesne gates. Castlerea eclipsed adjacent Kilkeevin which no longer exists except as the name of Castlerea’s Catholic parish and its old cemetery. Some confirmation written in 1837: This place (Castlerea) appears to have arisen under the protection of the proprietor’s castle, the site of which is now occupied by the seat of Lord Mount-Sandford, into whose demesne a gate opens directly from the market place.217 Few native Irish had survived on the Wills-Sandford estate lands on which the earlier Wilde had been the immediate extractor of rents, orderer of


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” evictions, and extractor of tithes from Catholics to the (Anglican) Church of Ireland. Those who best served the landlord’s interests survived; as agricultural laborers, herds, grooms, stable hands, gardeners, kennelkeepers, gate-house occupants, estate tradesmen, etc. Of our four nearest rural neighbors in Carrowmore, Castlerea, two were farmers who had been herds, one was a farmer who had been a kennel-keeper, and one was a gatehouse family who were kept landless. Their yearround work on the landlord’s estate218 had been paid for by the grass of a few cows and a few acres for their house and personal crops. The rest of our farm neighbors east of Castlerea had, upon repatriation to England of Ireland’s landlords about 1913, come from the denselypopulated, poorer land west of Castlerea. This poorer land included the estate of the O Conor Don,219 the Catholic descendant of Ireland’s last High King. These O Conors were one of the five Irish septs in Ireland not stripped of their legal personhood under British rule; all other Irish were, for centuries, subject to being murdered with impunity220 until legal personhood was restored. Most of the remaining disabilities were removed in 1829.221 The law mandating that Catholics tithe to the (Anglican) Church of Ireland was abolished in 1869 to take effect on January 1, 1871.222 Given the long memory of Castlerea locals223 about the genocidal Wills-Sandford family, William Wilde revealed his politics and perhaps his character by adopting the hated Wills name for himself and adding it to his sons’ other given names. The Holocaust of 1845-1850 was not entirely ended when “… in 1857 he (William Wilde) took a prominent part in welcoming the British Association to Dublin…”224 This deed speaks for itself. “On the publication of the Census Report of 1861 he received the honour of knighthood, ‘not so much,’ as Lord Carlisle said at the time, ‘in recognition of your high professional reputation, which is European, and has been recognized by many countries in Europe —


but to mark my sense of the service you have rendered to statistical science, especially in connexion with the Irish census.’"225 Sir William Wilde died in 1876 and is buried in Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin. THE CHASM BETWEEN SPERANZA AND HER HUSBAND WILLIAM WILDE. The Work on which Speranza’s Fame Rests: 1) Her witness to, and denunciation of, genocide in 1845-1850 Ireland

THE STRICKEN LAND (THE FAMINE YEAR) Weary men, what reap ye?—Golden corn for the stranger. What sow ye? — Human corpses that await the avenger. Fainting forms, hunger–stricken, what see you in the offing? Stately ships to bear our food away, amid the stranger’s scoffing. There’s a proud array of soldiers — what do they round your door? They guard our masters’ granaries from the thin hands of the poor. Pale mothers, wherefore weeping — Would to God that we were dead; Our children swoon before us, and we cannot give them bread. Little children, tears are strange upon your infant faces, God meant you but to smile within your mother’s soft embraces. Oh! We know not what is smiling, and we know not what is dying; We’re hungry, very hungry, and we cannot stop our crying. And some of us grow cold and white — we know not what it means; But, as they lie beside us, we tremble in our dreams. There’s a gaunt crowd on the highway — are ye come to pray to man, With hollow eyes that cannot weep, and for words your faces wan? No; the blood is dead within our veins — we care not now for life; Let us die hid in the ditches, far from children and from wife; We cannot stay and listen to their raving, famished cries— Bread! Bread! Bread! And none to still their agonies. We left our infants playing with their dead mother’s hand: We left our maidens maddened by the fever’s scorching brand: Better, maiden, thou were strangled in thy own dark–twisted tresses— Better, infant, thou wert smothered in thy mother’s first caresses.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” We are fainting in our misery, but God will hear our groan: Yet, if fellow–men desert us, will He hearken from His Throne? Accursed are we in our own land, yet toil we still and toil; But the stranger reaps our harvest— the alien owns our soil. O Christ! How have we sinned, that on our native plains We perish houseless, naked, starved, with branded brow, like Cain’s? Dying, dying wearily, with a torture sure and slow — Dying, as a dog would die, by the wayside as we go. One by one they’re falling round us, their pale faces to the sky; We’ve no strength left to dig them graves— there let them lie. The wild bird, if he’s stricken, is mourned by the others, But we— we die in a Christian land—we die amid our brothers, In the land which God has given, like a wild beast in his cave, Without a tear, a prayer, a shroud, a coffin or a grave. Ha! But think ye the contortions on each livid face ye see, Will not be read on judgment–day by eyes of Deity? We are wretches, famished, scorned, human tools to build your pride, But God will take vengeance for the souls for whom Christ died. Now is your hour of pleasure— bask ye in the world’s caresses; But our whitening bones against ye will rise as witnesses, From the cabins and the ditches, in their charred, uncoffin’d masses, For the Angel of the Trumpet will know them as he passes. A ghastly, spectral army, before the great God we’ll stand, And arraign ye as our murderers, the spoilers of our land.

2) JACTA ALEA EST; Speranza’s immortal summons to Ireland to free itself.226

3) THE AMERICAN IRISH; Speranza’s call to Irish-America to free Ireland227 She wrote it late in life, as in it she refers to Thomas C. Amory’s THE TRANSFER OF ERIN. Philadelphia; Lippincott & Co. 1877. This date refutes assertions that she had “moved on” from her youthful years with The Nation.

William Wilde’s Concealment of the Genocide that his Wife Exposed and Denounced


1841 Census. William Wilde was its Assistant Commissioner. It totaled some 578 pages. 1851 Census. Part III and Part V, Vols. I and II alone of Wilde’s 1851 census work total 2,467 pages.228 Its headings and text constitute a prime example of “Blind ’em with brilliance, baffle ’em with bulls**t.” Wilde paid special attention to the Holocaust of 1845-1850 – you will notice the bizarre lengths to which he went to conceal, “normalize,” obfuscate, misattribute, understate, and “justify” the mass death. It is no surprise that it won him a British knighthood as its purpose is obvious. The reader cannot avoid noticing that the 1851 census document had little to do with census, but everything to do with concealment, elaborate obfuscation, and minimization. Examples are: 1) In the 1851 Census’s Tables of Deaths, Vol. 1, Report on Tables of Deaths, Page 1, instead of straightforwardly reporting the 1841-1851 deaths, he re-reports the 1831-1841 deaths (at 1,187,374). 2) Op. Cit., Page 2: Wilde wrote: “… and the crowding together in of large masses of people in workhouses produced a fatal susceptibility to epidemics of Fever, Scurvy, Dysentery, Diarrhoea, Ophthalmia, and other pestilential disorders, which follow in rapid succession upon the track of famine; and which, notwithstanding, the great efforts made by the State, by private benevolence, and by aid from foreign countries, to provide food, shelter, and medical relief, carried off, during the years 1846, ’47, ’48, ’49, and ’50, so many thousands of persons over and above the ordinary rate of mortality recorded in years of health and plenty. An invasion of Asiatic cholera succeeded in 1848-9, when the kingdom was just becoming comparatively free from the previous pestilences of Fever and dysentery (…) An epizootic of Pleuro-pneumonia also seized upon the stock, and destroyed many thousand


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” horned head in particular, previous to, and during the prevalence of the human epidemic.” Wilde lists deadly epidemics of bovine and porcine diseases including “an epizootic of Pleuro-pneumonia that also seized upon the stock during 1845-1850” indicating a stark scarcity of meats. Such scarcity of meat is refuted by the increased landings in London and other English ports of Irish livestock, meats, and butter.229 To “contextualize” the mass deaths Wilde cites eclipses that occurred in 495 and 511 A.D! While a torrent of Irish food is being removed at gunpoint, starving the people, Wilde cites a “fatal susceptibility to epidemics of Fever, Scurvy, Dysentery, Diarrhoea, Ophthalmia, and other pestilential disorders, which followed in rapid succession upon the track of famine, and which notwithstanding the great efforts made by the State, by private benevolence, and by aid from foreign countries, to provide food, shelter, and medical relief… An invasion of Asiatic Cholera succeeded in 1848-9, when the kingdom was just becoming comparatively free from the previous pestilences of Fever and Dysentery. Among his few comments on lack of food he asserts “…before they die from absolute want of food, for not only does the body become blackened, but the mind likewise becomes darkened.”230 (Starvation blackens the body?) His published 1851 census work also includes: 1) Table of Contents (TC) conceals the Food Removal and its murder toll. In ostensible pursuit of “scientific truth,” his TC’s Section 1 shows that pages 2 through 40 are dedicated to normalizing and obfuscating the 1845-1850 genocide by placing it within the context of “The History of Epidemic Pestilences in Ireland.” It includes a chapter headed Giraldus Cambrensis and Other English Writers (page 51). His citing of the infamous Giraldus Cambrensis is revealing. “American historian Ned Lebow has traced how British historians from as early as the twelfth century defamed the Irish, justifying colonialization in the process. Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald


de Barry), an archdeacon who accompanied Prince John to Ireland in 1185, was the earliest of these historians and exerted an influence on British perceptions that was to span almost seven centuries.”231 2) TC Section 1, Table of Cosmic Phenomena, Epizootics, Epiphitics (sic), Famines and Pestilences in Ireland, pages 41 through 211, includes “The First Small Pox,” p. 52; “The Murrain,” p. 54; “The First Influenza,” p. 82; “The Barking Mania,” p. 85; “The King’s Game,” p. 88; “The Sweating Sickness,” p. 96-100) 3) In Tables of Deaths, Vol. 1, Report on Tables of Death, page 1 of Tables of Deaths for the 1851 census Wilde, instead of reporting the 1841-1851 deaths, reports the 1831-1841 deaths (at 1,187,374). 4) Doesn’t record starvation deaths until page 253. 5) Establishes the official starvation death toll in Ireland as “… 516 in 1845; 2,041 in 1846, 6,051 in 1847, 9395 total in 1848/1849; more than in 1846 (2,041) in 1850, and during the first quarter of 1852 as many as 652 deaths attributed to starvation were recorded. The total deaths returned to us under the head of STARVATION amounted to 21,770, the sexes being in the proportion of 70.0 females to 100 males. As many as 333 of these occurred in workhouses…” This was no minor contribution to empire, reducing to 21,770 its genocide toll of some 5.2 million. (Even the cover-up artists now admit “upwards of a million and a half.”) 6) He went so far as to blame the starvelings for being agents of their own deaths due to their “dirty habits.” The latter slur is ironic in that William, himself, was notoriously unclean. A popular jibe against him at the time was; “Why are Sir William’s fingernails so black?” Ans.: “He scratches himself.”


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Author Harry Furniss wrote: “He resembled a monkey, a miserable-looking little creature, who, apparently unshorn and unkempt, looked as if he had been rolling in the dust.”232 7) He falsely reduced the “famine” death toll by systematically excluding from his count the deaths of a) the vast numbers of deaths not officially recorded, b) entire families if all had died, c) persons exhibiting symptoms of diseases other than pure starvation, and, d) more justifiably, the tens of thousands who died at sea or upon landing in Canada or Liverpool. “Extinct families and deaths outside the country – and there were probably many – could not be reckoned in the analysis.”233

Thus, among the uncounted are the many thousands of families found dead of hunger or malnutrition-induced illness, who were cremated by their neighbors who torched the dead family’s roof thatch rather than risk contagion. For example: the village of Parkgarve in Knockogonnell townland, Ballymoe, Co. Galway and that of nearby Lisnabinnia in Ballyglass townland, Ballymoe show eight and seventeen homes, respectively, on that district’s 1840 Ordnance Survey Maps, but by the 1851 census there was nobody alive in either village. Of Lisnabinnia only a mass grave remains. This lengthier sample of Wilde’s work provides a glimpse of his questionable scientific capabilities. Fever. Fever, the great element of destruction for hundreds of years, which has not ceased to exist among us as the chief endemial or leaguer of sickness of Ireland – either as the Tamh or Teidhm of very ancient times, or the Teascha of mediaeval ages – lurking in holes and corners of the island, but ever ready like an evil spirit to break out upon the slightest provocation, and which, it is said, appertains to its


inhabitants even when under a different degree of latitude, had already, as may be seen by the foregoing entries, begun slowly and insidiously to increase in the number of cases and the malignancy of its type, so far back as the year 1840; thus marking by its epidemic advent the origin of that pestilential period to which we have already adverted, and of which the potato disease and the epizootics formed but constituents. (Also note his baseless claim here of Irish susceptibility to “fever” in all climes.) Wilde attributed most of the 1845-1850 starvation deaths to diseases without mentioning that they were starvation-induced. In doing so he had to conceal the facts that this book presents. Genocide is the ultimate crime. William Wilde won his knighthood and continuing fame by concealing genocide; his wife won immortality by exposing and denouncing the same genocide. They had three children (six including his natural children). Have any children other than those of William and Jane Wilde ever been raised by parents so diametrically opposed on such a transcendent issue? To this day the truth presented by Speranza benefits humanity, while her husband’s work continues to encourage potential genocidists. A Brief Summary of their Events 1841: William Wilde is appointed Medical Commissioner to the 1841 census. 1845: Jane Elgee is inspired by Thomas Davis upon his death at 32. 1846: Elgee begins writing pseudonymously denouncing the Holocaust and the system behind it. 1847: Elgee’s poem The Stricken Land is published in The Nation. In later reprints it is named The Famine Year. 1851, 2: William Wilde conceals genocide by falsifying 1851 census data. 1857: William Wilde takes a prominent part in welcoming the British Association to Dublin 1864: William Wilde knighted on January 28, especially for his work on the 1851 census. 1864: Poems by Speranza (eleven on “famine,” sixteen urging Ireland’s sons to fight for freedom) 1869: Speranza poem lauding Fenian prisoners is published in The Nation. 1871: Poems by Speranza 2nd Edition 1874: Speranza hosts Irish revolutionary John Mitchel at her Dublin home. 1876: Sir William Wilde dies (born 1815) Buried in Mt. Jerome Cemetery, Dublin 1876-1891: Speranza promotes the Land League and Parnell against landlordism.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 1891: Oscar publishes a collectivist manifesto, “The Soul of Man Under Socialism.” 1892(?): Speranza publishes 34-page The American Irish calling for closer ties between Ireland and Irish-Americans. 1893: Social Studies by Speranza includes a hagiographic chapter on “Irish Leaders and Martyrs,” 1896: Speranza dies in London; is buried in its Kensal Green cemetery; is later reburied, fees unpaid, in its Potters Field. 1900: Oscar dies in Paris; is buried there. 1900-1920: The Crown buys out essentially all of Ireland’s landlords. Those not already domiciled abroad now depart for England (excepting a few: e.g., Lord Sligo, of Westport House; The Duke of Devonshire retained his castle in Lismore).


CHAPTER 13: HOW TO REFUTE THE HISTORY FALSIFIERS. (To learn the truth avoid academia for now; and review the Exhibits.) Let us examine the cover-up lies individually (The refutations are crucial in defense of the murdered millions and of truth itself. Please allow my best responses though some repeat what was written elsewhere in this book): LIE 1: “’POTATO’ Famine.” This is the original lie. It was begun by Lord Heytesbury, Britain’s Viceroy in Ireland, on November 3, 1845 in his response to a group of twenty-two Irish leaders who had pleaded with him to stop the food removal. Heytesbury responded by ignoring the food removal and reading to them about potato blight that affected only one crop. “Famine” is taught in all schools (at least in those I attended in Chicago and Ireland). I observed not merely the lie of “Famine” but the more elaborate lie of “Potato Famine” promoted at Ireland’s “Famine Museum” in Strokestown, Co. Roscommon by means of murals on its lobby wall that depicted what seemed to be China due to the conical “coolie” hats of its field workers. It listed Ireland as one of few nations that had ever committed national suicide by “growing only one failure-prone crop.” The lie is essentially that the Irish “fell into a lethal trap of their own making by growing, from sea to sea, that one crop; potatoes.” That lie was at its most pervasive about 1995 when the Big Lie operatives conjured “the potato people;” a sort of potato/humanoid species, who, by dying of terminal stupidity, had improved the human gene pool. For the past few years Quinnipiac University has led the charge in the U.S. to resurrect that old, discredited lie by, for example, purchasing large ads depicting a shabby little man, squatting, sadly examining soil, idly sifting it through his fingers, while the accompanying text suggests starvation due only to crop failure. REFUTATIONS OF LIE 1; “POTATO FAMINE.”


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Had potatoes constituted Ireland’s sole agricultural output and they had failed, what was it that the British government had those sixty-seven regiments removing at gunpoint to Ireland’s ports for export, thus causing that genocide? Of what, from 1845 through 1850, was General Sir Edward Blakeney the commander-in-chief? What would be in the merchant ships that were defended by British warships as they sailed, laden, from Irish ports? Was The Times lying about the landings in England of massive amounts of Irish food crops? See Exhibit A; my map that identifies all of the British army regiments that removed Ireland’s food. Also see detailed in Exhibit D; the Abundant Non-Potato Edibles Routinely Processed in Ireland at that time, by County; also D2, the irrefutable details of Exhibit D’s totals, of all of the non-potato food crops then grown in Ireland. Thus refuted is the “potato” portion of the “Potato Famine.” LIE 2: “FAMINE.” This is the secondary lie employed to cover for the perpetrators of that genocide. “Famine” is what we were taught in school (though the oldsters in Ireland told us the truth of it). “Famine” is the word that does most damage to the truth of this matter. “Famine” is still promoted by the “Irish” government throughout its schools. See the excuse given by my otherwise wonderfully committed teacher, Marist Brother Enda, for knowingly lying to his students about it throughout his career; “I had no choice. I had to teach the curriculum as provided to me by the government.” The Strokestown “famine museum” also distributed leaflets on which then-Ireland’s President Mary Robinson took an additional step into national betrayal and deception by referring to the Holocaust as “famine” and, to further cover for the mass murderers, as “Ireland’s greatest natural catastrophe.”


REFUTATION OF LIE 2; THAT OF “FAMINE.” “Famine” is defined as the absence, or extreme scarcity, of food. You have seen the Exhibits. Thus “famine” constitutes false witness against the murdered millions; it dishonors both its utterer and the Dead. One cannot effectively advocate for the murdered millions while using the cover-up word, “famine.” Those of us of Irish background have “famine” on “the tips of our tongues” making it exceedingly difficult to excise it from our vocabularies re Ireland. It took me months. You, too, dear reader, are about to be forced by your own integrity to excise “famine” forever from your vocabulary regarding Ireland. Having studied the Exhibits you now know there was no famine; no “natural absence or scarcity of food” in Ireland – no famine. LIE 3: “NO FOOD LEFT IRELAND WHILE THE PEOPLE STARVED” An example of this lie is recorded in the April, 1990 issue of Fortnight magazine, page 24, headed THERE’S A SHORTAGE OF RESEARCH, TOO. It is by Christine Kinealy in her gushingly laudatory review of fellow cover-up artist Cormac Ō Gráda’s book; THE GREAT IRISH FAMINE. Despite Britain’s at-gunpoint removal of Ireland’s food (which she fails to mention), Kinealy wrote of Britain’s “relief measures;” “The government decided to review its relief measures, to force the people to depend on their own resources (the crops must have been magically self-cultivating and selfharvesting), and this became the cornerstone of policy adhered to with ferocious conviction.” Kinealy then refers to Woodham-Smith’s 1962 book; The Great Hunger, as “…populist and simplistic to academics…” Kinealy continues, writing sneeringly of “the myths and misunderstandings - stories of ships full of grain leaving Ireland, of overcrowded famine graveyards, of callous landlords, and of Queen Victoria contributing £5 to famine relief – which have been passed glibly from generation to generation.”


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Refutation of Lie 3, that “NO FOOD LEFT IRELAND WHILE THE PEOPLE STARVED” is amply achieved by Exhibit B: SAMPLE NEWS REPORTS OF FOOD LEAVING IRELAND AND ARRIVING IN ENGLAND. “For refutation of Kinealy’s claim that “overcrowded famine graveyards” are a “glib myth,” see locations of hundreds of such mass graves on the Exhibit A map, followed by Exhibit A2; Other Mass Graves. As to Kinealy’s “myth” of “callous landlords” see Exhibits E through E5. It is gratifying to acknowledge that the increasingly knowledgeable public are forcing Kinealy away from her falsehoods. At promotions of her “famine” book along East Coast cities years ago my Mass Graves of Ireland… pamphlet was distributed by people I had never met but who were offended by Kinealy’s cover up of the Food Removal. Soon thereafter Kinealy was interviewed by the Northern Star & Irish Political Review at a London promotion of the same book. That interview was published as a series. In it Kinealy was asked about her failure to write about the cause of the starvation; the food removal. She couldn’t, or at least didn’t, explain why she was covering it up; she stonewalled the key questions. LIE 4: “THE BRITISH ARMY HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH IT” was uttered by then-Senator Avril Doyle who, in or about 1998, came from Ireland to keep the old lie alive, speaking in an auditorium at University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana (also by Irish Consul General Sheridan in Chicago days earlier). At Notre Dame we had distributed my Mass Graves of Ireland; 1845-1850 pamphlets upon arrival. Once attendees in the auditorium were reading it, two men with Sen. Doyle asked for and received two pamphlets from us and took them to her room. Some fifteen minutes later when she mounted the stage the few hundred attendees were still reading the pamphlet on the front page of which was the map shown herein as Exhibit A. I was watching from the side, and when she opened with; “The British army


had nothing whatever to do with the famine,” the audience, almost en masse, looked down at the map in their hands, and then back up to her, in amazement, some with mouths agape. Refutation of LIE 4, that “THE BRITISH ARMY HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH IT.” For proof that the British army was the decisive force in starving Ireland, see Exhibit C: THE FOOD REMOVAL ARMY REGIMENTS AND THEIR PROVENANCES. Also see Exhibit C2: THE FOOD REMOVAL REGIMENTS (BY YEAR, 1845-1850). Ditto Lord Clarendon’s “cat-out-of-the-bag” statement; “Sir Edward Blakeney says that the Country is tranquil and if it were not for the harassing duty of escorting provisions the troops would have little to do.” (Kinealy uses this sentence by Clarendon but deletes from it “Sir Edward Blakeney says” thus concealing the main perpetrator [Commander-in-Chief] of the genocide.234) To defend against those who might plausibly argue (as some have done to me) that the quantity of regiments I show comprise too large a part of Britain’s then-empire army to be true, please see Exhibit C.1.b, for the number and identity of each and all of Britain’s army regiments that did NOT participate in that genocide. I emphasize the army as the main culprit because it was the decisive force executing government policy. They were summoned only when the food-removing constabulary and militia were meeting major resistance, which was much of the time. LIE 5: “IT WAS THE RICH IRISH STARVING THE POOR IRISH.” This is a new lie. It was never uttered until my pamphlet and web site began to expose 1) the volume of food being exported at gunpoint while its growers starved, and 2) the “one-crop” lie and the notion of “famine” itself. Thus, “the rich Irish starving the poor Irish” is becoming the official fallback lie. (Though the lies about no exports of Irish food, about “one crop” and “famine” are now fully exposed,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” the “famine” promoters still tell them to audiences they deem uninformed.) As to the ethnicity of Ireland’s landlords (on whose behalf the food was removed) judge for yourself. To learn how unIrish they were, see all of the E Exhibits. Refutation of Lie 5, that “IT WAS THE RICH IRISH STARVING THE POOR IRISH” is EXHIBIT E2; THE LANDLORDS NAMES, and E3, and as a single example see E5. If the Englishness of the landlord’s names and their titles are not clear to you, please be aware that they are long gone, that mostly between 1900 and 1920, the British government bought out its landlords in Ireland upon which the Ireland-domiciled ones returned to England. It then “striped” those vast estates into typically 28-acre holdings which were allocated to actual tillers of the soil who were thenceforth legally forced to amortize, by means of annual rent payments (in addition to semi-annual rates [taxes] to maintain roads, etc.) what Britain had paid to the landlords. My father and all of his neighbors in Co. Roscommon were still paying those “rents” into the 1970s. For them, the old system continued, with obligatory annual rents, though it consumed a smaller part of their agricultural production than during the confiscatory era of the militarily-enforced landlord. Ireland’s prosperity began only when that massive drain of Ireland’s agricultural wealth ended about 1970. In the late 1930s DeValera refused to forward the rent to the British government (Britain retaliated by embargoing Irish cattle until WW2 approached), but the “Irish” government continued to extract that rent from the farmers. LIE 6: “MOST LANDLORDS WERE CATHOLIC.” No evidence is offered to bolster this lie.


LIE 6 REFUTED: Upon the 1828 end of many of the Penal Laws that had stripped Catholics of their legal personhood and thus their property, Catholics began to slowly acquire land. It is intentionally misleading to assert that “most landlords were Catholic” when Catholic landlords would tend to have a few hundred acres and, perhaps four tenants while each English landlord typically possessed thousands or tens of thousands of acres of Irish land which could accommodate many hundreds of tenants. While there were some Catholic landlords, practically all of Ireland paid rent to English landlords. For evidence that in most of Ireland the landlords were nearly exclusively Church of Ireland (the English State Church) see Exhibits E through E4. It was to maintain the landlords’ churches and Reverends that the Irish (Catholics) were forced to tithe. That’s what the Tithe War that peaked in 1800 -1804 was about; the maintenance of the landlords’ C. of I. churches. Given the aforementioned indisputable evidence the following sentence is superfluous; but here it is: “The Moores of Moore Hall in Co. Mayo belonged to a very small, socially marginal minority of landowning Catholics.”235 (My emphasis)

The O Conor Don, the direct descendant of the last High King of All Ireland, and one of the five septs that retained their legal personhood during the long night of Liz I, Cromwell, and the Penal Laws, held on to Clonalis Estate, outside Castlerea, Co. Roscommon. Hundreds of families survived on his estate of spotty land; so he evidently was not an evictor. The vast area of rich land east of Castlerea was owned by English landlords Sandford and Wills and was essentially depeopled excepting herds and servants. Another Catholic landlord, but of relatively small extent, was McDermot of Springfield, landlord of my 230

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” g.grandfather and grandfather Finnegan. McDermot had evicted, at least during the Land War of 1879-80 but not en masse. His estate, though small, was, like that of the O Conor Don, a relative refuge. Lie 7: “THE IRISH STARVED DESPITE, NOT BECAUSE OF, THE LAW.” The Irish were merely “unlucky.”236 LIE 7 REFUTED: You are almost certainly reading the following for the first time as it isn’t included in my England’s landlords of Ireland, as Lords and Members of England’s Parliament, were the self-same legislators who enacted the laws that assigned essentially all of Ireland’s output to themselves. Regarding the “impartiality” of the House of Lords as to Irish Land, British Member of Parliament and Author J.A. Fox wrote; “Upon this assertion I took the trouble to look carefully through the return ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on August 10, 1876, of Owners of Land in Ireland. The result of my investigation shows that, so far from being a disinterested tribunal, no more flagrant instance of a set of men being judges in their own cause was ever known. Taking into consideration only holdings above 2,000 acres in extent, I find that 121 members of the House of Lords own land in Ireland; which is valued, according to the Poor Law Valuation, at £1,842,631 per annum. These 121 include nearly the whole of the Peers representing Ireland and a considerable proportion of the real, effective working body of the House of Lords. In addition to these there are 71 Peers and other titled persons connected by blood, marriage, or the ties and traditions of their order, with the House of Lords, who own land in Ireland valued at £404,109 (in annual rental income). These facts are utterly unknown to the great mass of both Liberal and Tory electors.”237


Dear reader; may I suggest that these few sentences by Mr. Fox are among history’s most revealing as to the actual British/Irish landlord identity, as well as to the centuries-long inability of the Irish to achieve agrarian justice while under British rule. Mr. Fox also observed: When Lord Inchiquin (with 20,321 acres around his Dromoland Castle) asked the government, as he did a short time since from his place in the House of Lords, “to maintain law and order at all hazards” was he not, in effect, asking for the maintenance of unjust land laws which secured him a rent-roll of £14,839 per annum? Fox also pointed out that Lord Hartington had 6,450 acres in Waterford, 3,379 in Offaly, and 3,694 in Galway, and Lord Rossmore had 14,839 acres in Monaghan. Many had additional estates in England. These, the British legislators and judges deciding Irish issues, were themselves, as Ireland’s predatory landlords, Ireland’s core problem. The above discovery by Mr. Fox constitutes yet another “smoking gun” of that genocide. Though it is the most crucial information about the genocide it is written here for the first time since Mr. Fox himself wrote of his discovery. It must be clear to you, dear reader, why “famine” writers have kept it covered up. For the identities of these landlord/legislators see EXHIBIT E3 and the titled landlords in EXHIBIT E4. Remember that under international pressure, the British government bought them out, repatriated them to England, nearly all between 1900 and 1920, and after centuries of enslavement, returned the land of Ireland to the Irish provided that they, the recipients, amortized with annual rent payments the above-market sums paid to the departing landlords as if the latters’ land titles were valid.

These D and E Exhibits demolish the notion of “potato famine,” and provide crucial refutations of the falsehoods of the comparatively truthful Cecil Woodham-Smith. Ireland’s death struggle was not the crazed-animal sort of obscenity one might expect. Autopsies of men who had starved to death on public works and elsewhere typically reported that the stomach contained naught but a cabbage leaf, or that he had eaten nothing for the previous four days. Also typically in such reports, his wife and children were still alive. So physical strength was not the deciding factor as to who survived and who died.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” In contemplating the fates of the evictees as they wandered away from their razed homes, it always seemed likely to me that they would tend to head toward the seat of power, the ultimate source in Ireland of whatever official justice was available - Dublin Castle - and possibly across the Irish sea to England to where their food was being shipped. The odds were exceedingly poor for the evicted families of reaching Dublin on foot, begging for food along the way and sleeping in the open. The sides of the roads to Dublin and the Royal and Grand Canal tow-paths must each be the final resting place of multitudes who died of hunger and exposure, also “fever,” along the way. The only record I have of the death-walk of an evicted family is that of a butcher, Regan, who was refused admittance to Limerick workhouse after losing his job, walked with his seven children to the Galway City workhouse where they were again refused admission; upon which they begged along the roads to Crossmolina in northwestern Co. Mayo. We know of this only from a newspaper report of the death in Crossmolina of one of the boys, Bernard. Having read thus far and seen the Exhibits you are now burdened with the painful knowledge of one of history’s greatest crimes. My sincere congratulations and condolences! Perhaps here is a good place to impart information on further effects of the genocide. Scientific tests demonstrate that severe, long-term trauma tends to harm descendants of the victims. Its short-term effect was labeled Stockholm Syndrome due to a hostage situation there in 1973. Ireland-born Tomás Mac Síomóin, Ph.D (in biology) has studied this subject for years. His book, The Broken Harp, (available at Amazon) is the obvious follow-up book to the one in your hand. It has convinced me that epigenetics is real, and that the damage is longer-term than merely psychological. Dr. Mac Síomóin points out a few manifestations of such damage; a key one being alcoholism. Another is the fact that subsequent to the 2007,8


international bubble-burst, the Irish accepted being saddled with 47 times as much debt per capita as the average of the rest of Europe (Euro 8980 vs. Euro 191). Another is Ireland's refusal to prosecute the British State perpetrators of massacres in Ireland. Studies indicate that the Irish are the most severely damaged group on Earth, thus his SCIS; Super-Colonized Irish Syndrome. Also, strange to say, Ireland is unique on Earth in having a government that conceals genocide against its own people. Official Ireland is hostile in the extreme toward anyone who honestly marks Holocaust mass graves. Is their hostility a manifestation of Super-Colonized Irish Syndrome? What else can explain it? 8July2021 Addition. Ireland’s centuries-long enslavement is made clear throughout this book; including by the eye-witness reports of Arthur Young in his A Tour in Ireland, 1776-1779 (1887). For Young’s citings of the days of unpaid labor per year by the Irish (tenantry), please review pages 46 and 47. Also see page 196. Ditto 398 regarding Carey, Henry C. The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign (1853) Chapter 13 How Slavery Grows in Ireland and Scotland. Legal personhood of the (Catholic) Irish had been reestablished in 1828 and education was decriminalized in 1878. Some Irish, due to their affiliation to an English landlord, had been exempted from the Penal Laws. An example of such exemption was Daniel “The Liberator” O’Connell whose parents, lieges to Lord Shelbourne/Lansdowne, were allowed to educate Daniel. Earlier, as non-persons, the Irish had been shipped as slaves to pre-1776 North America. “Indentured” status came later, upon reestablishment of Legal Personhood of the Irish. As late as the 1770s English Lord Chancellor Bowes wrote: “The law does not suppose any such person to exist as an Irish Roman Catholic.” For centuries, salt beef from Ireland was the main diet of the slaves on English and French plantations in the West Indies. Google Bertie Rosenblatt’s Irish Salt Beef and Caribbean Slavery. Rosenblatt seems unaware that the Irish producers of that salt beef were slaves, themselves; and that all of the profit from that slave-feeding business went to Ireland’s English landlords. Cobbett wrote (see pages 96,7) that the Irish produced vast amounts of meat but were not permitted to eat any; that the slaves in the Caribbean were fed Irish foods. Cobbett, Beaumont, Balch, Mitchel, et al. provide much detail of the form of enslavement of its Irish producers; but for details of the trade at its consuming end during the 17th and 18th centuries see Dr. Bertie Mandelblatt’s A Transatlantic Commodity: Irish Salt Beef in the French Atlantic World. Oxford University Press 2007. Published in History Workshop Journal Issue 63. Irish salt beef’s centrality to the slave colony system is thoroughly documented by Dr. Mandelblatt.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


Spread the Truth!

Excise “famine” from our vocabularies regarding Ireland. It offends truth, dishonors the utterer, disadvantages Irishsurnamed students, and constitutes false witness against the murdered millions. Adopt An t-Ár Mór (“un thawr more”), Irish for Holocaust/Nakba/Holodomor.

Politely but promptly correct all, including news media, who continue to refer to Irish “famine” (or “potato famine” or their Irish synonyms).

Boycott institutions that teach Irish “famine.” Block proposed “memorials” that don’t name the perpetrating regiment(s).

Install a reverent, truth-telling memorial over the Holocaust mass grave nearest to your ancestral home. Join with relatives and friends to do this. See Exhibits A and A2. On those memorials do not fail to name the regiment(s) that starved that district.

Visit some of the Mass Graves and ponder the crimes.

Observe November 3rd; Irish Holocaust Commemoration Day annually with appropriate solemnity and respect. Remember that that date commemorates two official events; 1) the beginning of An t-Ár Mór; and 2) the beginning of the Big Lie “famine”/”Gorta Mór”/”Great Hunger” campaign.

Locate and keep a register of all mass graves of Ireland’s Holocaust. There is some evidence that in areas of fertile soil, thus of denser populations, the mass graves are roughly a mile or two apart. Thus there are probably more than 3,000 of what can be considered mass graves in Ireland. For now, contact me


([emailprotected]) with their precise addresses for registration. Means must be developed to ensure accuracy. Work to permanently preclude government policies of genocide. This will be partly accomplished by ending the cover-up of Ireland’s Holocaust of 1845-1850.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

EXHIBITS SECTION _______________________________________________________


EXHIBIT A1, See my “Smoking Gun” map, in Glossary at end of book.

HOW TO READ THE MAP EXPLANATIONS OF SYMBOLS. See lower right-hand corner of map. WORDS ON MAP There are but three categories of words. Words in allcapitals are COUNTY names only; thirty-two of them. All other placenames are locations of Holocaust* mass graves. All other words are names of Food Removal regiments (which total sixty-seven). * referred to as "Holocaust" in the Cork Examiner in 1846, in Michael Davitt's works published a century ago, and by others of Ireland's conscience. People of intellect and integrity reject the "famine" lie. PRECISION OF LOCATIONS ON MAP Many mass graves, especially those at workhouses, are in garrison towns, and neither the town name nor the cross indicating a mass grave nor the symbol indicating a regiment’s presence along with its name, would be legible if superimposed upon one another, so they had to be separated. Thus, the precision of location is prioritized as follows: 1st, the cross (mass grave location); 2nd, the mass grave’s place-name; and 3rd, the regiments. (The regiments’ symbols and names are placed as near to their barracks as map space allows.) MASS GRAVES on map are mostly at workhouses. A few at workhouses built and inhabited after 1850 are included, as the killing had not entirely ceased by then. For a list of Holocaust mass graves known to me other than those shown on the map see Exhibit A2. REGIMENTS’ NAMES All infantry regiments “regiments of foot” are designated only by their regimental numbers (alongside the symbol). All cavalry (dragoon) regiments are shown with “Dragoon” usually abbreviated. Dragoon regiments include sub-categories, e.g., Dragoon Guards, Dragoons per se, Dragoon (Hussars), and Dragoon (Lancers). Like all Guard regiments, Dragoon Guards were the more heavily-armed, elite dragoons. The other regiments were categorized as Dragoons, Dragoons (Hussar), and Dragoons (Lancer). “Guard,” “Hussar,” and “Lancer” are shown as (G), (H), and (L), respectively. As mentioned elsewhere, the mostly Irish-speaking victims of the Dragoons called them “goons,” a word the survivors brought to labor struggles in U.S. mines, railroads, factories, and construction sites.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


REGIMENTS’ LOCATIONS Each regiment was stationed near where it is located on the map for durations shown in Exhibit C2. Detachments of those regiments frequently collected cesses and escorted crops and livestock from communities up to forty miles away. They also reinforced the constables and landlords’ militias evicting communities and protected the gangs of house


“tumblers.” The most mobile regiment by far was the 68th of Foot whose many brigades operated simultaneously in locations across the island. MILITIA REGIMENTS; not shown on map. Their data are in Exhibit C3. CONSTABULARY; (and Revenue Police and Castle Police), are not shown on map. Their data and roles are in Exhibit C4, C4.a; C4.b COAST GUARD STATIONS ALONG IRELAND’S COASTS; Exhibit C5. ROYAL NAVY AND ITS SHIPS Chief naval bases in Ireland were Cork (Cobh), Dublin, and Belfast. FOOD EXPORT PORTS. In addition to the main commercial ports and landlords’ waterside storehouses, vessel-loading facilities operated on navigable mouths of rivers such as the Fergus, and the Deel, and on the Royal Canal near Keenagh, Lanesborough, Co Longford beside the Shannon, some seventy miles inland from its Dublin seaport, and at Ballynacarrigy (west of Mullingar), Co. Westmeath. Similar exportgrain facilities loaded barges on the Grand Canal as far inland as its terminus in Ballinasloe, Co. Galway, some ninety miles inland from Dublin seaport (see Exhibit D2, Co. Galway survey sheet No. 88). The Grand Canal crossed the Shannon north of Banagher and ran south and west of the River Suck to Ballinasloe.



Co. Antrim Antrim Coast Road near Cushendun. A roadside “commemoration” carved into cliff on what was then the summer estate of Lady Londonderry (Winston Churchill’s grandmother). Also its cast brass commemoration of “British generosity during Ireland’s potato famine.” The exact location of their mass grave? Belfast, Clifton St. Cemetery. Belfast. Milltown cemetery on the Falls Road wasn’t established until 1869. The city cemetery across the road was begun a few years earlier, but it is probable that “famine” dead are buried all across Bog Meadows (adjacent to Milltown cemetery); as its location, infertile nature, and unconsecrated state would have made it a likely location for such use. Belfast. A “famine” pit in Friars' Bush Cemetery. Stranmillis Road. Belfast workhouse. It had a second cemetery. The first, 'Dead Man's Hill' is located where the hospital boiler house now stands. Its second cemetery comprises three acres upon which the Donegal Road was built later. People who live in the area know that their houses are built atop the cemetery as they have reported human remains exposed while working their gardens! The Royal Hospital was originally a mental institution and would also have had its own burial ground which could have extended into the Bog Meadows. (Thanks to Toni Maguire B.Sc., M.A. for providing the foregoing Belfast Holocaust mass grave data other than that of the Clifton St. cemetery.) Crockatinney, Ballycastle. On same property as a guesthouse whose Catholic owner advertises this mass grave as a tourist attraction, but will not permit a truthful, reverent monument to be installed over it. Co. Clare: Shanakyle, outside Kilrush. Here lie some of landlord Vandeleur’s thousands of victims; of whom was written: Sad, sad is my fate in this dreary exile; dark, dark is the night cloud o’er lone Shanakyle Where the dead sleep silently, pile upon pile, in the coffinless graves of poor Erin.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Abbey, at west edge of Bantry Bay (Across road from Bantry House) “Carr’s Hole” on Carr’s Hill on the Cork to Carrigaline road. Marked. 30,000 bodies publicly-acknowledged (on 8/27/2017). 30,000? Cork City, St. Joseph’s Cemetery “

“ , Off Douglas Street, behind Loafer’s Pub

“ , Curraghkipane, City’s Northside (on the map as “North Cork”)

Carrigastyra, Clondrohid. Marked Skibbereen. Abbeystrewry cemetery. Marked. Up to 10,000 buried here. In 1847/8: 22,241 died in Skibbereen and 997 emigrated (irishhungercomm) Co. Fermanagh: Enniskillen, Cornastrade graveyard, from the workhouse. Marked Co. Galway: Ballyglass, Ballymoe (two memorials were installed, one in 2000 on roadside adjacent to murdered village of Lisnabinnia; the other in 2002 at the mass grave of its inhabitants, on the edge of the bog in Flanagan’s far field (now Connaughton’s). The latter monument is beside the mouth of the grassy lane, on the mering wall that separates Ballyglass and Kilcooley townlands. See local map (Exhibit A3) and photos of both memorials (Exhibit A4), also my “

: Oorid, Rosmuc. Unmarked. In a field owned by Billy McGuire.

: Carrowpeter, Tuam, off Upper Dublin road. Marked

: Ballymote, Tuam, out the Dunmore road. Marked

Co. Kerry: Curraghatoosane, Listowel. Overflow from Listowel workhouse grounds “

“ : Dingle Workhouse grounds – Where?

Tralee: Aside from workhouse grounds; “God’s Acre” outside Tralee where cartloads of workhouse corpses were dumped into pits.

Kenmare “Famine Plot.” near Sheen Falls hotel. Another in workhouse


Co. Cork: In a field in Ahildotia, Keelkill, Bantry. Marked

Murderer Vandeleur had “owned” 17,000 acres during the Holocaust, but he expanded. In 1881 his son, Hector Stewart Vandeleur; born 1836, had 20,206 acres. The 2000-2001 Phone Directory for Co. Clare didn’t list a Vandeleur.

grounds? Co. Kilkenny: Kilkenny City; now a garden in the McDonough Junction Complex. In late 1845 Masters of workhouses were ordered to bury in their workhouse grounds, in 12’ deep pits. 1/10/1845 through 1850 is 273 weeks Excavations in 2006 of 63 mass burials on those grounds found a total of at least 970 individuals. Coinciding with the banning of pauper burials at the local cemeteries of St. Patrick’s and St. Maud’s, the workhouse authorities had no choice other than to look within their own walls. Comparing the numbers in each grave with the mortality rate recorded in the surviving workhouse minute books suggests that each mass grave held approximately a week’s worth of the dead.238 At 15.4 deaths per week, Kilkenny city workhouse was one of Ireland’s less lethal workhouses. However, 273 weeks (273 pits) at 15.4 deaths/week = approximately 4,204 bodies buried in the grounds of Kilkenny workhouse. Co. Laois: Mountrath. Co. Limerick: Ballingarry; hundreds from nearby Knockfierna said to be buried here. The infertile hill of Knockfierna had become a community of evictees from estates elsewhere. Kilteely Town. Paupers’ Graveyard, now St. Brigid’s. Recently marked with a tall timber cross. Bard of Thom*ond Michael Hogan, who grew up next to this graveyard, in his memoirs wrote: "I have a fearful recollection of those dreadful years of devastation. I remember seeing the famine and plague pits open in the fields of Kilteely where thousands of coffinless corpses were flung in heaps over each other." – Irish Examiner, Sept. 12, 2010. “

Killila Old Churchyard, Glenduff, between Broadford and Ashford in SW Co. Limerick. Approximately 1,500 died in the parish during those years of whom probably more than 500 were buried in this churchyard. –per Séamus ŌSũilleabháin.

Newcastle West.

Co. Louth: Smarmore cemetery. No fewer than four corpses per cartload hauled from Ardee Workhouse (per historian Malachy Towey whose wife Bridget was born on Bridge St., Ardee. In keeping with the Ardee custom, they would visit the Smarmore “famine” grave to pray for the Souls of its workhouse dead). See A8 photo. In Killally Cemetery. (Memorial blocked by Parish priest.) “Famine” plot in Blackrock Cemetery


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Co. Mayo: Achill Island, several. One at Kildavnet Church. “

Kildownet Cemetery, Achill (per Dominic Kennedy/Annette Maloney)

: Killala beach

: Louisburgh beach

In center of Termoncarragh Cemetery. Unmarked other than by rubble. Memorial blocked by Belmullet Parish Priest.

Scattered around central Co. Mayo. Mass graves of Lord Lucan’s thousands of victims. Lord Lucan (George Bingham) was born in 1800. In 1881 he still lived on his English estate in Chertsey while collecting rents from 60,570 Mayo acres from which he had evicted thousands. In the 1960s Lucan’s heir became a permanent fugitive after murdering his children’s nanny. Decades later his son assumed the title of Lord Lucan and attempted to get the people of Mayo to resume paying him rent as their landlord. The Western People newspaper reported favorably about it, and quoted locals respectfully willing to “fulfill their lawful obligations” to resume their ancestors’ status as landlord’s tenants-at-will.

Co. Meath: Near Lloyd’s Spire outside An Uaimh (Kells) on the Virginia road. Co. Offaly: Kilcruttin, Tullamore. Co. Roscommon: Elphin (adjacent to road a half mile south of town). Unmarked. “

: Kilglass (adjacent to road) Unmarked

: Castlerea, Kilkeevin cemetery (outside the cemetery wall). Its memorial was installed on March 16, 2015. See photo.

: Kilbegnet’s old cemetery, Creggs, Co. Galway, (outside the cemetery wall). The cemetery wall was moved in September, 2000. It now includes the Holocaust victims who had been denied burial in sanctified ground. This wall relocation was done with the diocesan bishop’s involvement after the June, 2000 consecration/inauguration of the nearby Lisnabinnia commemoration. Individuals from Kibegnet had attended and asked me to install a similar memorial to the Holocaust victims buried outside Kilbegnet cemetery. (See page 227 & Exhibit A10.)


In Kilwirra Cemetery, Templeton.

Co. Tipperary: Galbally workhouse grounds “

: Kilsheelan, in a field alongside the Carrick-Clonmel road. Marked only with a cross.

: Paupers’ Cemetery at the Reidh, includes overflow from Clogheen workhouse grounds.

: Portlaw “famine” mass grave from the fever hospital satellite of the Carrick-on-Suir workhouse.

: St. John’s Graveyard, burials include overflow from Tipperary workhouse grounds.

: Scart “Famine” Memorial Garden. Includes many from the Roscrea workhouse. Marked.

: Shanrahan “the Heap.” Holocaust mass grave, including overflow from the nearby Clogheen workhouse grounds. Unmarked.

Thanks to Tomás Ryan for these Tipperary data.

Co. Tyrone: Dungannon. The workhouse mass grave was again desecrated by construction in 2018. Co. Waterford: Kilbarry, near Waterford City. “

Kilcrossanty, near Comeraghs (marked) per Annette Maloney

: Pulla, south of Dungarvan (per Seán O’Regan)

: Dungarvan (outside of) Reilig na tSléibhe (The Mountain Graveyard) for the dead from the town's workhouse after its buryable spaces were full.

Co. Westmeath: Robinstown, Mullingar (south of workhouse at Royal Canal. On canal’s north bank, west of road.) Some 7,000 were buried here; per Westmeath Examiner of 7/7/2010. Marker says “hundreds.” Finally, a respectful, truth telling memorial was installed by my wife and me on 9Sept2017. Local persons were indispensable; they also installed the memorial’s concrete base. Fearing reprisals from “famine” perpetuators they request anonymity. “

: Kilpatrick/Killea, some four miles west of Mullingar. (Per Peter Rogers)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Co. Wexford: New Ross. Co. Wicklow: Ballycoog, Ballintemple, Woodenbridge. In a field of John Hurley’s. (Per Helen Harte, Seattle). A great many more mass graves (usually multiple pits) exist than shown in this book. For example each workhouse generated vast numbers of corpses which were thrown in piles into pits. Workhouses existed as follows: Connacht: 28; Leinster 40; Munster 49; Ulster 46.239 A few workhouses were built post-1850, but their corpses ought to be included, as the murders did not end completely until the landlords repatriated to England. Hundreds more Irish Holocaust mass graves (other than workhouse ones) are identified by locals. Please inform me of any in your district so that they can be properly registered; Chris Fogarty, 900 N. Lake Shore Dr.; #1507, Chicago, IL 60611 or by eMail to [emailprotected]. The resting places of the thousands buried at sea shall remain forever unknown. According to the limited information from the Lisnabinnia and Kilbegnet mass grave attendees it is likely that Ireland’s mass graves, in areas of fertile land, are a double-carry (or two miles) apart. In that case there are at least 3,000 Holocaust mass graves in Ireland. USA: Massachusetts: Cohasset Central Cemetery, from the brig St. John en route from Galway to Boston. On October 6, 1849 it wrecked off Cohasset. Of its 120 persons aboard, 109 were lost, of whom 45 were recovered and buried here. The AOH marked the mass grave with a 19-foot Celtic Cross in 1914. “

: Deer Island, Boston Harbor. (Many thousands here, as it was a quarantine station.)

New York: Staten Island (data from Lynn Rogers, Exec. Dir. of Friends of Abandoned Cemeteries, Inc. 158 Myrtle Avenue, SI, N.Y. 10310. 917-545-3309 or [emailprotected] as to these three): 1) Under the Silver Lake golf course; Victory Blvd at Clove Road. The original and largest of the Marine Hospital Quarantine Cemeteries (1799-1858), estimated to hold the remains of thousands of Irish immigrants. A commemorative marker was placed in an area which is locally known as the 19th hole and is situated to the left of the club house. 2) Hyatt St. between St. Mark’s Place and Central Avenue. The cemetery was located on the grounds of the Marine Hospital Quarantine Facility (1799-1858). All ships entering New York


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Harbor during this time were held for inspection of infectious disease. Immigrants arriving sick were taken off the ships while their families awaited the outcome of their loved ones on Staten Island. Located at the frontage area or "Memorial Garden" of the New York State Supreme Court House complex facing Hyatt Street. The remains must be in somebody’s way. The Irish Echo (April 23-29, 2014) reported; “This Sunday, April 27 at 12:30 p.m. Friends of Abandoned Cemeteries will conduct a funeral service and reinterment in a recreated cemetery on the grounds of the new courthouse.”) 3) Staten Island Cemetery, a rear area of the cemetery, in close proximity to an earlier Irish shanty-town. For children under two. Marked today by a commemorative monument donated by the Sisters of Charity. CANADA: Prov. of New Brunswick: Partridge Island, St. John. A tall Celtic Cross erected in 1927 commemorates those buried there from typhus in 1847 when as many as 2,500 Irish were being simultaneously treated there shelterless. Saint Andrews Island mass grave. Marked by a Celtic Cross on the adjacent mainland. Middle Island, Miramichi (Quarantine Station) Marked Prov. of Ontario: Toronto: Many thousands died during 1845-50, especially in 1847, in a tent city behind St. Paul’s (83 Power St.), a basilica built by an earlier Irish generation close to the disembarkation point. The dead were buried in trenches adjacent to their tents. Unmarked. Now covered by St. Paul Catholic School, parking lot & playground, also by a City of Toronto off-leash dog toilet named Orphans Greenspace. It was reported (Toronto Star; August 5, 2011) that that burial ground is also covered by the Don Valley Parkway overpass and probably extends south to Adelaide Street. A dog toilet? Is the Orange Order that strong in Toronto? Are the Irish there that weak? This is reminiscent of the docent at Edinburgh Castle some twenty years ago who, while pointing out the chapel of some Scottish Queen/Saint (Margaret?) told us all with obvious relish, that that royal, being a Catholic, was buried in the animal cemetery with the royal dogs, cats, and a donkey.


Toronto: A “Protestant Irish Famine Mass Grave.” Marked. (Location?) Kingston, 1,500 in a marked mass grave (“Skeleton” Cemetery?). More at St. Mary Cemetery? Prov. of Quebec: Cap-des-Rosiers, on tip of Gaspé Peninsula. A large granite monument erected in 1890 is engraved: SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF 187 IRISH IMMIGRANTS FROM SLIGO WRECKED HERE ON APRIL 28th, 1847. SHIP CARRICKS OF WHITEHAVEN. 87 ARE BURIED HERE. Pray for their souls. Erected by parishioners of St. Patrick’s Parish, Montreal. Rev. J. Quinlivan P.P.

On Dec. 29, 2014 Montreal’s Globe and Mail reported the discovery three years earlier of partial skeletons of children on a stony beach on Quebec’s Gaspé Peninsula just forty yards from the above memorial. “Officials have determined that they are the bones of three European children, two aged between 7 and 9, the other 11 or 12. A curve in one bone pointed to malnutrition consistent with rickets, a condition caused by vitamin D deficiency. Unilingual francophone Georges Kavanagh, a Gaspé resident and descendant of a survivor of that wreck, intends to see to a respectful burial of the children’s remains.” The report went on to repeat the usual gross understatement of the Holocaust’s murder toll. Quebec City: The final resting places of the thousands who died here are not known to me. Grosse Ile, (in the St. Lawrence River downstream of Quebec City.) Marked. Thousands. Montreal; Irish workers on the Victoria Bridge abutment discovered a mass grave containing 6,000 Irish who had died in 1847-48 in nearby Windmill Point and marked it with a massive black boulder engraved: To Preserve from desecration the remains of 6,000 immigrants who died of ship fever A.D. 1847-8 this stone is erected by the workmen of Messrs. Peto, Brassey & Betts employed on the construction of the Victoria Bridge A.D. 1859 This monument was later relocated to St. Patrick Square (thus negating its Irish workers’ noble purpose; “To Preserve from desecration the remains of 6,000 immigrants...”). ENGLAND


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Liverpool. At Hardman Street. Marked. In 1847 alone, more than 7,000 paupers were buried in it. “

Scotland Road area; various locations, unmarked, (per Mick Collins, Liverpool).

Islington, London (Britain’s Home Office exhumed and cremated thousands of its remains in the 1970s.) SCOTLAND Carfin; outside of Glasgow. Marked. Note: “Marked,” especially in Ireland, doesn’t suggest truthfully marked. To my knowledge, Ireland’s only truthful (inculpatory) Holocaust mass grave memorials are the two in Ballyglass, Co. Galway, one of which marks the site of the murdered village of Lisnabinnia, the other at its mass grave; one at the Holocaust mass grave outside the old cemetery of Kilkeevin Parish (Castlerea, Co. Roscommon), and, as of early spring, 2016, the northern half of Smarmore cemetery southwest of Ardee, Co. Louth, and in SeptemberOctober, 2017, one on the north bank of the Royal Canal in Robinstown, Mullingar, Co. Westmeath, and one in Kilbegnet cemetery, Creggs, Co. Roscommon. As I write this on July 1, 2019 the parish priests of Belmullet, Co. Mayo, and Killally, Co. Louth have not ended their prohibitions of installations of monuments over Holocaust mass graves in their parishes. Two decades or so ago a new marble plaque marking the Killala Holocaust mass grave was affixed to the Killala/Ballina roadside wall within which existed the mass grave, but some months later a Mayo Co. Council work crew demolished it and hauled the debris away to advance the landowner’s permit application to build a housing development atop that mass grave. Similarly, a housing development covers most of the Castlerea, Co. Roscommon workhouse mass graves. When that desecration was exposed during excavation the number of planned houses was reduced. Its children’s bodies had been thrown in piles into pits.240 My decades of efforts to have these mass graves marked were unavailing. Finally, in 2011, the town installed atop a mass grave a memorial more to the workhouse than to the thousands buried within its grounds. The memorial’s inscribed data are also fallacious.


EXHIBIT A3: MAP OF LISNABINNIA See facing page. Printer: Map of Lisnabinnia size must be 8.5" x 11" folded once to fit into book. Bound into book.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT A4: Photos of Memorials of Lisnabinnia Village and its Mass Grave



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT A5: Kathleen Flanagan Kerlin’s Affidavit


EXHIBIT A6: CONSECRATION/INAUGURATION OF LISNABINNIA HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL Ballyglass, Ballymoe, County Galway 2PM, Sunday, July 2, 2000 Father Conway; Parish Priest, Ballymoe: Officiant Gratitude to Fr. Conway (and any other clergy present) and to Tom Egan and Family. Today, finally, 150 years after the fact, we assemble here to provide truthful witness to Ireland's Holocaust* of 1845-1850. We affirm the dignity and humanity of the martyrs buried here and repudiate those who disposed of them as sub-human. We affirm the existence of Lisnabinnia here before us and that of nearby Parkgarve and note that, by 1851, nothing remained of either village but a mass grave. On April 28, 1999, Tom Egan of Ballyglass stopped me to ask if I authored the "Mass Graves of Ireland: 1845-1850" pamphlet. Upon my confirming it, he said, "Then there is something I'd like to show you." It turned out to be the Lisnabinnia mass grave. We thus celebrate Tom's integrity. He possesses the character to be troubled by the mass murder once perpetrated here and to remember for life what his equally humane father, Martin (RIP), confided to him. Locating the Mass Grave. Father had informed son that, about 1906 when this land was being returned to the people, he and his "ditch"-building gang dug into a mass grave. Rather than offset the "ditch" (sod fence), the ganger decided to continue it across the grave, but dug the sods elsewhere to avoid further uncovering the Dead. Tom doesn't remember the precise spot that his father pointed out, but believes it to be located where shown on the map, alongside one of the two bohers off the junction at the karstic pit that drains Killsallagh bog. It was there, "back of beyond" that we intended to erect this memorial. A few days later, as suggested by Glenamaddy Prof. Tom Fahy, I visited the Ordnance Survey offices in Phoenix Park and reviewed the 1840 map


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” of this area. It was a shock to find that an entire village, Lisnabinnia, had existed and was gone by 1851. Because Kilcroan graveyard was less than a half-mile from Lisnabinnia by road, it seemed likely to me that its mass grave would be located within Lisnabinnia and that the only reason for such unconsecrated burial was that the half-mile carry to Kilcroan was too much for the near-dying. Also, during those years thousands of families were cremated in their houses by neighbors who, upon finding them dead would torch the house (the roof-thatch) rather than risk disease. It is possible that the mass grave was such a partly-cremated family, and would thus be at one of Lisnabinnia's houses shown on the map. In any event the weakened villagers would not willingly carry their dead to unconsecrated ground as distant as, but across fences and in opposite direction to, Kilcroan graveyard. Also, the horror of Tom Egan's knowledge could confine itself to a remote corner of memory, suggesting to him a geographically remote mass grave. For these reasons we located the memorial near the houses. Since the installation of the memorial additional horrifying information has become available, as follows: The Garranlahan Parish historical record and other sources assert that priests routinely denied Christian burial to Holocaust victims. In 1845, the British gov't enacted a law (per McKee?) providing food rations to all of Ireland's Catholic clergy from what its army would seize from the crops of Ireland's Catholics. Thus, Ireland’s priests, though well-fed, mostly preached "God's Will" to their parishioners targeted for extinction. In refusing to provide the starvelings with Extreme Unction or Christian burial even before mass death swamped all ritual, Ireland's hierarchy backed Britain's contention that the Irish were sub-human. The Lisnabinnia mass grave will be found, perhaps under one of the ditches under Lisnabinnia. (It is found.) But if Tom Egan's contention proves accurate, the bodies will have been (were) carried with difficulty nearly as far to unholy ground as to Kilcroan graveyard. If that occurred it will prove conclusively that Christian burial was denied to them. We pray that the mourners were spared such cruelty


(they weren’t). These were the blood relatives of many of us and we affirm today that they were murderable because they were landless and were landless because Britain had robbed them of it. Prof. Cormac O'Grada's book, “Black ’47...” quotes "an anonymous Ballymoe source" asserting that, "the famine barely affected Ballymoe parish." By using such a "source" O'Grada spreads the lie that the Holocaust was mild. But for Tom Egan, O'Grada's lie would have prevailed. Today in the heart of Ballymoe parish, on behalf of the murdered of Lisnabinnia and Parkgarve, we denounce O'Grada and his cover-up cabal. His The Great Irish Famine was lauded by Prof. Christine Kinealy in Fortnight magazine of June 1990. She gushed, "O'Grada's book essentially demolishes the myth of food leaving Ireland during the famine." Today, this memorial names the two British regiments that starved this district. Yet, the Big Lie reigns supreme in Irish and British academia. Meanwhile, Bishop Jones of Elphin has erected a cover-up "famine" memorial in Roscommon town and he and Bishop Finnegan of Killala have both sponsored books that cover up the truths that we affirm here today. Why? Is it still too soon to tell the truth? After 150 years? In the names of the starvelings of Lisnabinnia and Parkgarve whose deaths are marked by this Holocaust memorial unique in its truthfulness, let us go and erect like memorials to the innocents in all three hundred (and counting) known mass graves across Ireland. Among attendees at the above consecration/inauguration were three groups who informed me of other mass graves, and I consented to their suggestions that Mary and I install similar memorials over them if they would form local committees fronting for them. The three mass graves were 1) in nearby Kilbegnet, 2) in Kilglass, Co. Roscommon, and 3) in Ahildotia, Keelkill, Bantry, Co. Cork. Those who informed me of the mass graves in Kilglass and Ahildotia soon became fearful, made so by their “betters,” and broke further communications with me. Those of Kilbegnet evidently made the mistake of mentioning it to their local priest, as Bishop Christopher


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Jones of that diocese [Elphin] co-opted that mass grave that had been unmarked and outside the wall of Kilbegnet cemetery for the previous 150 years. The good bishop magically transformed that Holocaust mass grave into a “burial ground of unbaptized babies” and made a big show of relocating part of the cemetery wall to “include those babies.” Left unaddressed and further blatantly ignored by Bishop Jones was that Christian burial had been denied to baptized Catholics who had been murdered; a scandal he exacerbated by yet more evasion and deception.

A7: Kilkeevin memorial over mass grave of An t-Ár Mór, outside Kilkeevin cemetery, the old cemetery of Castlerea, Co. Roscommon.


Smarmore memorial over the mass grave of An t-Ár Mór, in Smarmore, a few miles SW of Ardee, Co. Louth. Neither of these two mass graves were previously marked.

A9: Robinstown/Mullingar, Co. Westmeath memorial over mass grave of An t-Ár Mór. On north bank of the Royal Canal. Includes remains from nearby workhouse grounds overflow.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

A10: Memorial over mass grave of An t-Ár Mór. Until 2000 the mass grave was outside the wall of Kilbegnet Cemetery, Donamon, Co. Roscommon. It is now within the cemetery.

Kilkeevin (Castlerea) Holocaust Mass Grave Memorial. Here, outside the wall that encloses Kilkeevin Cemetery’s sanctified ground are anonymously buried many of this parish’s non-workhouse starvelings. Though burial in consecrated ground was routinely denied to wanderers and the local poor, these starvelings were not necessarily denied Christian burial, as by 1847 the mass deaths overwhelmed all ritual. Untold numbers were buried by family or friends in the nearest soft ground, or as here, outside the local cemetery wall. In the mid-1990s some of my old Castlerea school pals agreed to form a committee to care for a memorial to be installed at one of Castlerea’s Holocaust mass graves, of which there had been probably five separate ones in the workhouse grounds and this one outside of the walls of the old cemetery. Why they became too fearful to fulfill their agreement I do not know, but it did happen. Years later the town’s “betters” installed a “memorial” over one of the workhouse mass graves, but it was a memorial more to the workhouse than to the actual starvelings.


Smarmore Holocaust Mass Grave Monument. My friends Malachy

(ex-Ballaghaderreen, Co. Roscommon) and wife Bea Towey née Mooney (ex-Bridge Street, Ardee, Co. Louth) informed me of the large, unmarked “famine” grave in Smarmore Cemetery, a few miles SW of Ardee. Malachy still relates how when he and Bea would visit her Ardee homeplace, they would occasionally join the Mooney family and other Ardeeans in visiting Smarmore Cemetery to say a few prayers for the Souls of those who filled its “famine” grave. The complete absence of markers in the cemetery’s north half confirms that it comprises the Holocaust mass grave. Malachy had learned from a neighbor in Ardee that its workhouse dead were conveyed to Smarmore in horsecart loads of no fewer than four bodies. In late 1845 deaths began to overwhelm attempts at ritual. Workhouse procedure adjusted to the mass deaths by establishing system-wide standards; 12’ deep pits into which to dump the bodies in piles. The remains of a stone structure in the center of Smarmore Cemetery indicate its monastic origin. The cemetery’s groomed condition is a credit to Paddy McKenna and the Louth County Council. Mr. McKenna has a personal reason for his dedication to the nearly abandoned cemetery a few fields in from his house. Malachy Towey tells me that the memorial gratifies his Ardee contacts. The day after installation a photo of the memorial already showed a floral wreath at its base. The mass grave’s unmarked state had evidently not bothered official Ireland; but the reverent, truthful monument does. Show Host Joe Duffy of Ireland’s State news media; Radió Telefís Ēireann (RTĒ) Radio 1, contacted me. A few days later, by telephone, he interviewed me in abusive fashion. He referred to me on air as “Trump,” a man that Duffy introduced as a spokesperson for the County Louth Archeological and Historical Society expressed zero knowledge of the “famine” grave inside Smarmore Cemetery or that any British regiment had removed local food crops. Another Duffy accomplice called me a “con-man,” a female accomplice attempted to link this memorial installed in 2016 to the 1968-1994 violence in the Six Counties, and Irish Holocaust denier Christine Kinealy was courteously given plenty of time to claim that “Holocaust” has a legal definition which renders it an inappropriate label for what she insists was a “famine.”

Mullingar (Robinstown) Workhouse overflow mass grave is on the north bank of the Royal Canal in town. Thirty years ago cattle grazed its extensive area. It is now effectively fenced. I no longer remember those who first brought me to it seeking a decent memorial over it, but


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” it is deeply appreciated by locals. They covertly installed the monument’s concrete base and aided my installer. Kilbegnet Cemetery, Creggs, Co. Roscommon. The “famine” grave was outside the cemetery wall. Kilbegnet people attended the July 2, 2000 consecration/inauguration of the Lisnabinnia memorial on the roadside overlooking the murdered village of Lisnabinnia. They sought a similar one for Kilbegnet “famine” grave and took me to it. Someone must have informed the local priest as, while we were still discussing it, Bishop Jones got the County Council to remove part of the cemetery wall and relocate it to include a token portion of the mass grave. The following September 10, the Kilbegnet Holocaust mass grave, after 155 years in unmarked state in unconsecrated ground, was finally marked but in a ceremony that was all about unbaptized babies. Bishop Christopher Jones is definitely destined for canonization, having performed the two indispensable miracles. 1) The Holocaust bodies that had lain in unmarked, unconsecrated ground outside the cemetery wall were, without moving the remains, now within the wall, and 2) The good bishop miraculously transformed that unmarked mass grave’s uncounted numbers of baptized Catholics of all ages into unbaptized babies. To drive home his lies his homily as reported in The Roscommon Champion of September 15, 2000 referred to the ceremony as being ”…held in remembrance of babies who died, before, during, or shortly after birth.” Despite deceptive, genocide-friendly Bishop Jones and his sycophants the sincere wishes of the Kilbegnet people for honest recognition of their Holocaust Dead were finally realized. In October, 2017, more than seventeen years later, a reverent and honest monument that honors the Starvelings was installed over their Holocaust mass grave. Killally Cemetery, Co. Louth. Within its consecrated ground is a “famine” grave. The local monument-maker could use the work but the parish priest has effectively blocked it.


Dunshaughlin Workhouse Mass Grave. Essentially abandoned. A miserable genocidist-friendly marker. Someone has stopped my monument-maker from installing an appropriate memorial here. Termoncarragh Cemetery, Belmullet, Co. Mayo. Its “famine” grave is at its center, rubble-strewn. So far, PP Kevin Hegarty has blocked an appropriate memorial; there is currently none. Reader: Please contact me for any information you might need to install a memorial over any of the hundreds or thousands of unmarked (or deceptively marked) Holocaust mass graves in Ireland. To bear honest witness (and thus refute the still-prevalent “famine” lie) each memorial must name the regiment(s) that removed its local food crops. See this book’s copyright page for my contact data.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT B: SAMPLE REPORTS OF FOOD DEPARTING IRELAND AND ARRIVING IN ENGLAND On July 28, 1848, when perhaps half of the Holocaust victims had already expired, the Limerick Shipping Intelligence, a reporter of shipping news, recorded a typical day's food shipments from only the following four ports: from Limerick: the ANN, JOHN GUISE and MESSENGER for London; the PELTON CLINTON for Liverpool; and the CITY OF LIMERICK, BRITISH QUEEN, and CAMBRIAN MAID for Glasgow. This one-day removal of Limerick food was of 863 firkins of butter; 212 firkins, 1,198 casks and 200 kegs of lard, 87 casks of ham; 267 bales of bacon; 52 barrels of pork; 45 tons and 628 barrels of flour; 4,975 barrels of oats and 1,000 barrels of barley. From Kilrush: the ELLEN for Bristol; the CHARLES G. FRYER and MARY ELLIOTT for London. This one-day removal was of 550 tons of County Clare oats and 15 tons of its barley. From Tralee: the JOHN ST. BARBE, CLAUDIA and QUEEN for London; the SPOKESMAN for Liverpool. This one-day removal was of 711 tons of Kerry oats and 118 tons of its barley. From Galway: the MARY, VICTORIA, and DILIGENCE for London; the SWAN and UNION for Limerick (probably for transshipment to England). This one-day removal was of 60 sacks of Co. Galway flour, 30 sacks and 292 tons of its oatmeal, 294 tons of its oats, and 140 tons of its miscellaneous provisions (edibles). British soldiers forcibly removed it from its starving Limerick, Clare, Kerry and Galway producers. On Nov. 5, 1846, while Ireland’s Catholics starved, THE TIMES reported; Irish Produce – The importation of provisions from the Irish ports into the port of Liverpool during the week from the 16th to the 22nd ultimo inclusively, comprised the following list of articles, - viz., 14,106 firkins, 285 halffirkins, 1,512 baskets and casks, and 258 boxes of butter; 8,665 barrels, 571 sacks, and 225 quarters of wheat; 1,960 sacks of flour, 61 tons weight and 700 quarters of oats, 922 sacks and 735 other packages of oatmeal, 262 bags of meal, 80 sacks and 209 quarters of barley,275 barrels of bacon, 25 casks of hams, 61 bales and other packages, and 465 boxes and tierces of linens and cottons, 56 casks of whiskey, 10 firkins and 5 kegs of tongues, 258 packages of lard, 245 barrels and 33 kegs of pork, 79 casks of general provisions; 19 barrels, 6 kegs, and 10 tierces of beef, with other articles. The arrivals at the port of Bristol, in the same period, comprised 629 barrels of wheat, 252 sacks and 2,976 barrels of oats, 1,528 firkins of butter, 320 sacks and 1,629 barrels of barley, 7 casks and 15 puncheons of whiskey, several packages of linens and of malt, 82 kegs of lard, 74 barrels of bacon, some packages of pork, and other articles which do not require particular mention. We have recently noticed the arrivals from the Irish ports which


took place at the port of London in one day at the commencement of the past week; and although it was at the time, and is still, very readily admitted that the list of arrivals on that day was of an unusually extensive nature, the supplies during the week from Ireland to the British metropolis were by no means confined thereto, as will be seen from the following compendium of the importations here during the period from the 22nd to the 30th ultimo inclusively, viz.- 18,763 quarters, 140 sacks, and 5,205 barrels of oats; 3,701 hampers and bales of bacon; 83,710 firkins, boxes, and other packages of butter; 755 packages of lard, 905 barrels of pork; 35 packages of linens; 63 bales of hams; 618 casks and other packages of general provisions; 143 bales of paper, several of whiskey and of oatmeal; 769 boxes and other packages of eggs; 234 casks of porter; 218 pigs (alive); 30 head of horned cattle; 4 boxes of fowls; 12 packages of salmon and a variety of other articles both of food of lesser importance and of general merchandise, which do not require to be more specifically mentioned. In giving this list of arrivals during the past week at the port of London from Ireland, the produce of the sister country, we unhesitatingly pronounce them to be of a very extensive character, and the supply of butter, in particular, almost, if not entirely, unprecedented. Subsequent arrivals at the port of Bristol have included, among other articles, 110 cwt. and 14 sacks of oatmeal, 4,271 barrels and 300 sacks of oats, 175 bales of bacon, 1,624 firkins of butter, 24 sacks of pollard, 137 packages of lard, 64 casks and 72 other packages of barley, and 66 barrels of pork. To complete this extensive list up to the latest possible period, we subjoin the importation of provision from Ireland into the port of Liverpool during the past week also, being from the 28rd (or 23rd) to the 29th ult. Inclusively, viz., - 3,915 firkins, 241 halffirkins, 1,977 baskets, casks, &c, and 79 boxes of butter; 832 sacks and 1,255 barrels of wheat, 2,133 sacks of flour, 177 sacks and 3,702 barrels of oats, 120 sacks and 292 other packages of oatmeal, 46 sacks of malt, 601 boxes and tierces and 43 other packages of linens and cottons; 56 bags of feathers, 20 barrels of barley, 12 casks and 342 bales of bacon and hams, 93 casks of whiskey, 13 tierces of beef, 17 firkins of tongues, 71 barrels and casks of general provisions;147 sacks of farina flour; 302 packages of lard;101 sacks, 91 hogsheads, and 81 barrels of seeds, 40 bags of meal, and 19 kegs, 11 tierces, 97 half-tierces, and 263 barrels of pork; the whole the produce of Ireland. On Saturday, July 24, 1847, during the depths of “Black ’47,” THE TIMES reported: Importations from Ireland – The arrivals of grain and provisions from Ireland have been of an extensive character. The following is a compendious statement of those which took place at the port of Liverpool from the Irish ports during the week comprising from 25th ult. to the 8th inst. inclusive: - 13,380 firkins, 550 half-firkins, 312 boxes, and 2,610 other packages of butter, 345 tons weight, 631 sacks, and 325 barrels of wheat;2,381 sacks 2,004 barrels, and 20 other packages of flour; 148 tons


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” weight, 108 quarters, and 46 bags of oats; 43 tons weight, 1,154 bags, and 298 other packages of oatmeal; 876 bags of barley, 394 sacks of malt, 54 tons weight and 30 bags of peas, 1,632 packages of linens and cotton, 22 casks and 178 bales of hams and bacon, 73 casks of whiskey, 41 kegs and 147 casks of lard, 5 tierces, 40 barrels, and 5 kegs of beef; 165 barrels of pork, 45 bales, 72 sacks, 65 hogsheads, and 219 other packages of seed, 494 bags of meal, 61 bags and 6 packages of feathers, several of farina flour, 10 tons weight of beans, and 782 barrels of Indian corn meal. Of these the large arrivals of butter and of wheat are particularly conspicuous. Those at the port of Bristol on the 5th and 8th inst. included 939 casks of butter, some packages of lard, whiskey, and feathers, 127 sacks of barley, 830 sacks of beans, 41 sacks of pea-meal, 230 sacks, and 862 barrels of flour, 155 bales of bacon, 16 sacks of Indian corn, 8 of meal, and 56 tons weight of wheat. The latest returns of the arrivals at the port of Liverpool from the same quarter – viz., from the 9th to the 15th inst. inclusive – comprised the following: - 4,961 firkins, 293 half-firkins, 182 boxes, and 979 other packages of butter; 197 sacks, 320 tons weight, and 476 quarters of wheat; 559 sacks, 20 tons weight, and 1,942 barrels of flour; 100 tons weight and 210 quarters of oats, 31 tons weight, 259 bags, and 18 other packages of oatmeal; 103 tons weight and 180 bags of meal, 23 tons weight, and 50 bags of other kind of meal, 23 tons weight and 50 bags of barley, 61 casks of whiskey, 761 packages of linens, 14 tierces, 10 barrels, and 140 kegs of lard, 62 hogsheads of seed, 30 sacks and 16 cwt. of beans, 11 casks, 169 bales, 14 cwt., and 383 boxes of hams and bacon; 29 sacks of farina flour, 118 sacks of malt, and some packages of pork, beef, and other articles. The arrivals at Bristol on the 12th and 15th included 570 firkins of butter, 66 sacks and 508 barrels of oats, 13 casks of whiskey, 90 barrels and 5 sacks of flour, 11 packages of beans, 77 bales of bacon, 38 sacks of malt, some of hams, lard, linens, &c. The subjoined is a compendious list of the arrivals from the sister island at this port during the past ten days, including up to the 19th inst. viz.- 321 bales and hampers of ham, 1,435 packages of bacon, 12 of seeds, 27 of linens, 701 casks of porter, 11,921 packages of butter, 842 of malt, 626 of paper, 25 of whiskey, 159 of feathers, 1,477 boxes and other packages of eggs, 505 casks of pork, 258 barrels of lard, 19 of beef, 7 of tongues, 40 of waste, 241 barrels, 100 sacks, and 187 bags of flour, 2,118 quarters and 350 barrels of wheat, 400 quarters of barley, 750 quarters of beans, 800 quarters of oats, 251 oxen, 152 calves, 40 tierces of general provisions, 17 packages of hops, 357 packages of salmon, and 16 of Indian corn. Who knew of the removal of Ireland’s food while its people starved? All of officialdom, at least, knew it. The Times was Britain’s newspaper of record.


Also, who but official England had ordered its army to remove Ireland’s food to its ports? The following is evidence of official knowledge of the 1845 potato crop failure, and of the importance of potatoes to England’s working people; The Sept. 30, 1845 report in THE TIMES: The Potato Disease. - The disease with which potatoes are visited this year, not only in England, but in many other countries of Europe, threatens serious consequences to the poor, for whom the potato, rather than bread, constitutes “the staff of life.” In many parts of England potatoes make up two meals of the labouring man’s day. This threat of English hunger may have comprised a rationale, other than the profits of Ireland’s politically-powerful English landlords, for the militarilyenforced removal of Ireland’s abundant edibles. However, Trevelyan, after wiping out millions of Ireland’s land-robbed poorest, accepted British awards for reducing poverty in Ireland. That the removal of Irish foods predated the Holocaust can be seen in this extract from the Feb. 9, 1829 issue of THE TIMES: Liverpool, Saturday. – The supplies both of Irish and Foreign grain during the week have again been very large, but particularly of the former. There have also been heavy imports of flour and oatmeal, which, in the absence of our usual demand, have tended further to increase the dullness and depression in prices. Since this day se’nnight, the value of wheat is reduced 2d to 3d, and that of oats 1d to 2d per bushel: barley is also rather cheaper; flour is 1s. to 2s. better terms; beans and peas sustain previous rates, but Indian corn is again cheaper. Thus, the removal of Ireland’s edibles was a regular event that occurred prior to, during, and subsequent to, the Holocaust. What made it different during the Holocaust is that, to wrest the food away from its producers who were starving as a direct result, Britain’s police, army, militias, navy and coast guard, routinely employed lethal force.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBITS C: THE IMMEDIATE PERPETRATORS OF THE HOLOCAUST “Sir Edward Blakeney says that the Country (sic) is tranquil and if it were not for the harassing duty of escorting of provisions (foodstuff; especially barreled meat) the army in Ireland would have little to do.” Viceroy Lord Clarendon by July 5, 1847 letter to Prime Minister Russell.241

Edward Blakeney (26 March 1778 -2 August 1868) was born in Newcastleupon-Tyne, England, a son of W. Blakeney. Prior to the 1801 dissolution of Ireland’s Protestant-only parliament Blakeney pére had been its Member for Athenry. Edward’s uncle John had been England’s High Sheriff of County Galway. An earlier Blakeney had been the English lord of Castleblakeney, near Mountbellew, Co. Galway. Blakeney had led British troops against America at the January, 1815 Battle of New Orleans where his superior officer General Edward Pakenham was killed. Months earlier General Ross had attacked Washington, D.C. and was killed soon after while attacking Baltimore, Maryland (which battle Francis Scott Key rendered into the lyrics of America’s National Anthem). Pakenham was a son or nephew of English Lord Longford of Tullynally Castle, Co. Westmeath and a relative of the Pakenhams of the Pakenham-Mahon estate of Strokestown, Co. Roscommon whose Big House is now Ireland’s “Famine Museum.” The Ross estate was around Rostrevor, Co. Down, where a huge obelisk memorializes General Ross whose most notable deed was the burning of the White House.

Blakeney, having participated in many of England’s colonial usurpations, arrived in Ireland in 1828. On 20 September 1832 he received the colonelcy of his old regiment, the 7th Foot. He was appointed a Lord Justice of Ireland on 7 May 1836 on which date he was “sworn of” the Privy Council of Ireland. Also that 1836 Spring he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Ireland. On 26 August 1836 he was promoted to the local rank of lieutenant-general, and to the substantive rank of lieutenantgeneral on 28 June 1838. He was advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Bath on 7 May 1849 and, having been promoted to full general on 20 June 1854, retired from active service in 1855. This ended his twenty years as Commander-in-Chief, Ireland. He was advanced to a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath on 7 May 1849. His general's commission dates from 20 June 1854 and in December he was exchanged as colonel of the 1st Foot which appointment he retained to his death in 1865. Blakeney resigned his position as commander in 1855 and returned to England. He became lieutenant-governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea on 6 February, and on 25 September 1856 the Governor of that establishment. A field-marshallship was conferred on him 9 November 1862 and he was also made colonel-in-chief of the Rifle Brigade on 28 August 1865. Genocide Rewarded.


All of the above Blakeney data are Googleable. Let us examine them. Why does Google omit mention of Blakeney’s vast, successful mission in Ireland in 1845-1850 that had to be the basis of the award of the Order of the Bath? The main function of Britain’s military in Ireland was to loot it by enforcing the removal of its agricultural produce to its ports and to “maintain order” (suppress the robbed population). Life in Ireland under British rule was already described as dire by Beaumont, Tocqueville, Cobbett, et alii as shown in Chapter 5 of this book. Blakeney intensified the crimes of his forerunners. As a member of Britain’s Privy Council in Ireland and implementer of orders from it and from London he was the chief perpetrator of An t-Ár Mór, thus one of the worst monsters of all time. Blakeney enforced Britain’s island-wide robbery of Ireland’s food despite the failure of the potato crop. For his deployment of troops during his genocide see the next C Exhibits. It speaks for itself that in 1849, nearing Blakeney’s successful completion of An t-Ár Mór, the genocide of approximately one-half of Ireland’s population and the exile of approximately 100,000 in 1847 alone (of whom some 60,000 were still alive one month after landing in Canada or the U.S.) Blakeney was “honoured” for his services to the British Empire. A similar British “honour” was conferred on William Wilde for his work on the 1841 and 1851 Irish censuses in which he “established” that the total number of starvation deaths was 21,770. (See 1851 Census in Chapter 12.) Thus Wilde was knighted for concealing the genocide for which Blakeney was knighted. Other than the hundreds of mass graves that Blakeney’s troops filled across Ireland, the only remaining Blakeney landmark in Ireland is the village of Castleblakeney near Mountbellew, Co. Galway. By 1911 there were some

1,900 persons in Castleblakeney, Co. Galway, but no Blakeneys. No wonder. Its inhabitants must not know the significance of the name. If Ireland’s government and academia are not allied with the Holocaust perpetrators why have they concealed HolocaustPerpetrator General Sir General Blakeney; written him out of Irish history? (The only Blakeney I have ever known was a smiley, curly-red-haired Englishaccented Danny Blakeney in a younger class in Castlerea’s Marist School in 1948. He is present in a 1948 school photo in my possession. He was probably a descendant.)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C1: THE BRITISH ARMY REGIMENTS THAT REMOVED THE FOOD; THEIR PROVENANCES. Name

Recruited from, or formed from 242


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th

Mainly London Area London, Yorkshire Worc., Oxford, Bedford n/a Chester, Bristol, et al. n/a n/a


8. 9. 10.

1st 2nd 4th

All England Scotland All England

(There is no 5th listed in official record of 1845-1850. Irish-formed; it was disbanded earlier.)

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

6th 7th (H) 8th “ th 10 “ th 11 “ 12th (L) 13th “ 17th “

Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh Scotland Ireland Hertford & Adj. Essex & Adj. Berks., Bucks., Hants. Midlands n/a




Berwick, Scotland


2nd 3rd 5th 6th 9th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 24th 26th 30th 31st 32nd 34th 35th 36th 40th 41th 43rd 44th 47th 48th 49th 54th 55th 57th 59th 60th

West Surrey East Kent Northumberland Ireland, Warwickshire E. Norfolk, Norfolk Buckinghamshire Kent & Yorkshire E. Riding, Yorkshire Bedford & Herts. London Wales, Warwick. Scotland Cambridge, Eng. Hunts., Surrey Cornwall, Devon Cumberland, border Sussex, Dorset Hereford, Worc. Somerset, London Wales Monmouthshire Essex Lancashire Northants., Rutland Hertfordshire West Norfolk Westmoreland Middlesex Nottinghamshire America

50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

61st 62nd 64th 65th 66th 67th

Gloucestershire America, Wilts., Berks. Staffordshire Yorkshire Berks., Herts. Hampshire 270

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66.

68th 69th 70th 71st 73rd 74th 75th 81st 83rd 85th 89th



Durham Lincolnshire Surrey, Glasgow Glasgow Perthshire, Scotland Highlands, Scotland Stirlingshire, Scotland Lincoln, Lanc. Dublin Buckinghamshire Uncertain. Prob. of Co. Monaghan Orangemen, as it was led against the Irish rebels of 1798 by English Lord Blayney of Castleblayney, Co. Monaghan. Highlands, Scotland.

The above sixty-seven regiments were the decisive forces that implemented Ireland’s Holocaust.



BRITISH ARMY REG’TS DURING 1845-1850: 1. 5th “Royal Irish” Lancers was disbanded in 1799. Though it had been part of William of Orange’s army at the Boyne in 1690 it was disbanded in 1799 on suspicion of infiltration by Irishmen (when it refused orders to fire on Irish rebels in 1798). It seems to have been reestablished subsequently as it is listed in Belfast in 1822, Ballinrobe in 1824, in Cahir in 1842, in Dublin in 1843 & 1852, in Dundalk in 1844, and in Ballincollig in 1854.243 2. 6th “The Skillingers” Dragoons: Largely Orangemen. In Ireland from 7/1846 onward. 3. 8th “King’s Royal Irish” Hussars. Ascendancy. In Ireland 1845 through 5/1850. Escorted Queen Victoria in 1849 Dublin. 4. 18th “Royal Irish” Reg’t of Foot: In China and Bengal throughout 1845-1850. 5. 27th “Inniskilling” Reg’t of Foot: In Cape of Good Hope throughout, until to Chatham, Eng. in 1848. Glasgow in 1849, to Belfast in 12/1850. 6. 83rd “Co. Dublin” Reg’t of Foot: In Ireland throughout 1845-1850. 7. 86th “Royal Co. Down” In Bombay the entire time. 8. 87th “Royal Irish Fusiliers” Reg’t of Foot: In Scotland, to England, to Bengal during 1845-1850. 9. 88th “Connaught Rangers” Reg’t of Foot. Genetically Irish. In Malta throughout 1845 & 1846, to Barbados 1/14/47 to 2/28/48; to Trinidad 4/14/48 to 12/25/49, to Barbados 1/1/50 to 5/1/50, and to Nova Scotia 5/21/50 to year’s end and beyond.244 The other genetically Irish regiment of the British army, the Royal Munster Fusiliers also played no part in the food removal


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” of 1845-1850, having not existed until 1881. Other data suggesting that Irish-born soldiers were not reliable killers of their own people is the 2nd Battn. of the 6th Reg’t of Foot which the above record shows, was formed partly of Athlone locals while the 6th was stationed there in 1846. That Irish portion of the 6th reg’t was disbanded in Fermoy in March, 1850. Though there were many Irishmen in most British regiments,245 the Irelandformed regiments were to some degree composed of Orangemen, especially the two Enniskillen regiments, and the 8th Hussars and 83rd of Foot. Thus, no genetically Irish regiment of the British army participated in the Holocaust. For those who contend that the sixty-seven Holocaust-implementing regiments comprise too large a portion of the total British army to be true, the following list is of all of the nonparticipating regiments.


NOT PARTICIPATE IN THE FOOD REMOVAL Qty. Regiments Life Guards 1. 1st

(guarding Queen Victoria et al; & ceremonial, when not in the field)

2. 2nd

(guarding Queen Victoria et al; & ceremonial, when not in the field)

CAVALRY REGIMENTS Horse Guards 3. The Horse Guards reg’t (largely ceremonial) Dragoon Guards 5th (DID participate. Thanks to reader Jim Doyle for spotting this erroneous inclusion in previous editions. Dragoons (No Dragoons reg’t was listed as 5th) 4. 9th 5. 14th 6. 15th 7. 16th INFANTRY Foot Guards



8. Grenadiers, Mostly at Portman Street Barracks, Winchester, and Wellington Barracks 9. Coldstreams, Mostly at Tower of London, and St. George’s Bks. 10. Scots Fusiliers, Mostly at Windsor, and St. John’s Woods Bks. Line Regiments 11 through

58: the 7th; 8th; 10th, 11th; 12th; 18th, 19th; 20th; 21st; 22nd; 23rd; 25th; 27th; 28th; 29th; 33rd; 37th; 38th; 42nd; 45th; 46th, 50th; 51st; 52nd; 53rd; 56th; 58th; 63rd; 72nd; 76th; 77th; 78th; 79th; 80th; 82nd, 84th; 86th; 87th; 88th; 90th; 91st; 93rd; 94th; 95th; 96th; 97th; 98th; and 99th. During 1845-1850 these 58 regiments enforced the empire in locations other than Ireland. Rifle Brigades of Colonials (not regiments!) 1st West India Reg’t. 2nd

“ .



Unnumbered Corps of Colonials •

Ceylon Rifle Reg’t.

Cape Mounted Riflemen.

Royal Canadian Rifle Reg’t.

St. Helena Reg’t.

Royal Newfoundland Companies.

Royal Malta Fencible Reg’t.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Thus, of Britain’s then-125 total regular (numbered) army regiments, those perpetrating the Holocaust totaled 67 regiments and the nonperpetrating ones totaled 58. EXHIBIT C2 (1845): THE BRITISH ARMY REGIMENTS THAT REMOVED IRELAND’S FOOD; 1845. (From more-legible photocopies of National Archives records; Sept 2010). Regiments were stationed for the entire year where shown unless shown as moved elsewhere. For example, the first regiment shown below, the 2nd Dragoon Guards, was in Longford from 1/1 to 9/16, and in Dublin for the rest of the year. CAVALRY REGIMENTS Dragoon Guards



Longford; to Dublin 9/16.






Cahir until emb’d from Dundalk 5/21 (for Glasgow).




Dublin, to Dundalk 9/18.



Glasgow (Scotland); to Dundalk 6/7; to Dublin 9/18.





Newbridge; Emb’d from Dublin 5/8 (for York).



Dundalk; to Newbridge 5/30; to Dublin 6/16; to Newbridge 10/15.



(Light) Hussars


Dublin; to Longford 8/19.

Exeter (Eng.); to Cahir 6/13.


10. 5th

Belfast; to Enniskillen 6/16.

11. 6th

Dublin; to Mullingar 8/22.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 12. 15th

Limerick; to Cork 7/7 until Emb’d 9/8 (to Ceylon).

13. 16th

Cork; to Buttevant 6/18; to Cork 10/31

14. 24th

Kilkenny; to Limerick 4/23; to Cork 12/24.

15. 26th

Manchester (Eng.) to Belfast 6/12.

16. 30th

Limerick; to Castlebar 4/26.

17. 32nd

Dublin; to Mullingar 6/10; to Athlone 6/17.

18. 34th

Athlone; to Fermoy 10/1;

19. 36th

Newry; emb’d 4/26 (to Newcastle-on-Tyne, Eng.).

20. 41st

Brecon (Eng.); to Dublin 6/19.

21. 44th

Devonport (Eng.); to Dublin 4/22

22. 49th

Winchester (Eng.); to Dublin 9/1 & 9/26; to Athlone 10/6

23. 54th

Mullingar; to Fermoy 9/9; to Cork 9/24; emb’d 10/17 & 11/12 (for Gibraltar).

24. 60th

Fermoy; to Cork 6/20; emb’d 7/2,3,5 & 11 (for Bombay).

(1st Battn)

25. 61st

Buttevant; to Cork 5/1; emb’d 6/27 & 30 (for Bengal).

26. 64th

Northampton (Eng.); to Dublin 7/26.

27. 65th

Castlebar; to Dublin 4/26; emb’d 7/23 for Eng. (for convict guard duty).

28. 66th

Dublin; to Birr 4/10; to Cork 7/4; Emb’d 7/10 (for Gibraltar).

29. 67th


30. 69th

Templemore; to Dublin 4/16; emb’d 4/25 (for Canterbury, Eng.).


31. 70th

Manchester (Eng.); to Newry 4/23 & 5/1; to Dublin 10/3.

32. 73rd

Dublin; to Kilkenny 4/23; to Fermoy 6/19; to Cork 8/2; emb’d 9/29 (Montevideo)

33. 75th

Newport (Eng.); to Waterford 9/11; to Birr 9/19.

34. 83rd

Leeds (Eng.); to Dublin 7/23; to Limerick 8/5. (This ends 1845) A total of 34 reg’ts.

(The above yields a net of 23.04 reg’t-years deployed exclusively in Ireland in 1845.)




Dublin; to Newbridge 10/12.



Ballincollig; to Fethard 4/20/; to Dundalk 5/15; to Belfast; 6/11; emb’d 6/25 (UK)



Norwich (Eng.); to Dublin 10/31.




Dundalk; to Cork 5/28.



Dublin; to Newbridge 9/23; to Fethard 10/15; to Clonmel 10/26.





Hounslow (Eng.); to Dublin 9/25.


Birmingham (Eng.); to Newbridge 4/29; to Longford 5/8.




Hounslow (Eng.); to Dublin 10/13; to

(Light) Hussars

Athlone 10/20. 9.


10. 11th

Longford; to Cahir 5/16.

Newbridge; to Dublin 4/25; Emb’d 4/29 (to Coventry, Eng.).

11. 13th

(Light) Lancers

Cahir; to Newbridge 5/23; to Dublin 6/4.

12. 17th

Nottingham (Eng.); to Dundalk 6/23.


13. 3rd

Portsmouth (Eng.); to Dublin 10/17.

14. 5th

Enniskillen; to Templemore 4/1; to Fermoy

(1st Battn of)

8/27; to Cork 8/29; emb’d 9/8 (UK) “


Formed at Enniskillen 4/1; to Templemore


4/30; emb’d Cork 8/29 (to England) 15. 6th

Mullingar; to Athlone 3/18; to Cork 7/2;

(1st Battn of)

Emb’d 8/28 (for Cape of Good Hope). 6th

Formed at Athlone 4/1. Units to Cork 7/2;

(2nd Battn of)

to Buttevant 9/16. (“…” Elements of) Emb’d

from Cork 7/25 (for Hudson’s Bay).

16. 16th

Cork; emb’d 1/18 (for Gibraltar).

17. 24th

Cork; emb’d 5/7 (for Calcutta).

18. 26th

Belfast; to Enniskillen 4/20; to Dublin 8/25.

19. 30th

Castlebar; to Dublin 4/22; emb’d 8/21 (for Newcastle-on-Tyne; Eng.)

20. 32nd

Athlone; to Fermoy 3/28; to Cork 5/8; emb’d 5/10 (for Calcutta).


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Dublin; to Mullingar 3/24.

22. 44th “

(1st Battn)

Dublin; to Newry 4/2; to Belfast 8/19.

(2nd “ )

Formed at Dublin 4/1; to Newry & Belfast with rest of regiment.

23. 47th

Chester (Eng.); to Dublin 3/18; emb’d for Cork 9/29; to Fermoy 10/6.

24. 49th

Athlone; to Castlebar 4/18; to Galway 8/15.

25. 55th

Devonport (Eng.); to Cork 9/13; to Buttevant 10/16; to Limerick 11/11.

26. 59th

Leeds (Eng.); to Dublin 1/28; to Limerick 10/7.

27. 64th

Dublin; to Kilkenny 4/1.

28. 67th “

(1st Battn)

Dublin; to Limerick 2/2; to Cork 5/18.

(2nd “ )

Formed at Limerick 4/1; “

“ .

29. 68th

Chester (Eng.); to Dublin 8/18.

30. 70th

Dublin; to Templemore 8/22.

31. 75th

Birr; to Athlone 6/19.

32. 83rd

Limerick; to Dublin 10/3.

33. 85th

Barbados; to Cork & Buttevant 5/4; to Limerick 5/18; to Birr 11/13.

34. 92th

Edinburgh Castle; to Belfast 4/11; to Enniskillen 8/25. (This ends 1846 list.)

A total of 34 regular army reg’ts. (The above yields a net of 23.73 reg’t-years deployed exclusively in Ireland in 1846)


21. 41st

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C2 (1847): THE BRITISH ARMY REGIMENTS THAT REMOVED IRELAND’S FOOD; 1847. CAVALRY REGIMENTS Dragoon Guards






Dublin; to Dundalk 4/22.




Cork; to Cahir 9/18.



Clonmel; to Athlone 10/2.







(Light) Hussars

Athlone; to Dublin 10/7.



(Light) Hussars

Cahir; to Ballincollig 9/22.





Longford; to Newbridge 10/16.

10. 17th

Dublin; to Longford 10/11.

(Light) Lancers

Dundalk; to Dublin 4/24.


11. 1st

Bury (Eng.); to Newry 12/17.

(2nd Battn)

12. 2nd

Gosport; to Dublin 7/16; to Athlone 7/20.

13. 3rd

Dublin; to Naas 7/10; to Dublin 10/25; to Belfast 12/15.

14. 6th

(2nd Battn Elements of);

Buttevant; to Cork 7/16; to Charles Fort 7/24; to Fermoy 9/28.

15. 13th

Portsmouth (Eng.); to Dublin 1/16; to Birr 9/28.


16. 26th

Dublin; emb’d to Cork 7/9; to Buttevant 7/12

17. 40th

Liverpool to Dublin 10/5; to Galway 10/8

18. 41st

Mullingar; to Limerick 10/19; to Clare Castle 12/4

19. 44th

Belfast; to Newry 4/2; to Fermoy 12/29.

20. 47th

Cork; to Clonmel 11/5

21. 48th

Jamaica; to Belfast 4/6; to Enniskillen 6/19.

22. 49th

Galway; to Dublin 10/4.

23. 55th

Limerick; to Templemore 9/18.

24. 59th

Limerick; to Templemore 10/21.

25. 64th

Kilkenny; to Templemore 5/22; to Limerick 9/21.

26. 67th


27. 68th

Dublin; to Mullingar 10/15.

28. 70th

Templemore; to Fermoy 10/23; to Cork 11/24.

29. 74th

Glasgow; to Belfast 7/4 & 9; to Dublin 12/16.

30. 75th

Athlone; to Dublin 7/23.

31. 83rd

Dublin; to Kilkenny 5/22.

32. 85th

Birr; to Dublin 9/29.

33. 92nd

Enniskillen; to Dublin 6/2; to Limerick 12/8.

(This ends 1847 list.) A total of 33 regular army regiments.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” (The above yields a net of 29.91 reg’t-years deployed exclusively in Ireland in 1847.)


EXHIBIT C2 (1848): THE BRITISH ARMY REGIMENTS THAT REMOVED IRELAND’S FOOD; 1848. From more-legible photocopies of NA records; Sept 2010 CAVALRY REGIMENTS Dragoon Guards



Birmingham; to Dublin 6/6; to Cahir 6/16.



Newbridge; to Belfast 5/17; emb’d 5/22 (for Glasgow).



Dundalk; to Dublin 10/12.




Cahir; to Newbridge 6/10; to Dublin emb’d 6/13 (for York, Eng.).





Athlone; to Longford 10/14. Dublin; to Newbridge 3/9; to Athlone


10/14. 7.






Newbridge; to Dublin 3/9. (Light) Hussars “

10. 12th

Dublin; to Newbridge 10/12. Ballincollig; to Newbridge 7/28.

(Light) Lancers

Hounslow, Eng.; to Dublin 7/4; to Cork 7/18.

11. 13th


Longford; to Dundalk 10/19.

12. 17th

(Light) Lancers



13. 1st

Newry; to Birr 5/4; to Dublin 10/21.

(2nd Battn of)

Athlone; to Dublin 7/11. 284

14. 2nd

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 15. 3rd

Belfast; to Waterford 7/28; Pilltown camp 7/29; to Limerick 9/14.

16. 6th

(2nd Battn of)

(Units of it)

Fermoy; to Youghal 4/27; to

Fermoy 9/12. 17. 9th

Manchester camp (Eng.); to Dublin 7/29; to Newry 9/11.

18. 13th

Birr; to Newry 4/28; to Belfast 7/28.

19. 26th

Buttevant; to Cork 4/12; to Ballincollig 12/20.

20. 31st

Manchester (Eng.); to Dublin; to Athlone 7/8.

21. 35th

Plymouth (Eng.); to Dublin 7/21; to Mullingar 9/7.

22. 40th

Galway; to Dublin 9/20.

23. 41st

Clare Castle; to Buttevant 4/22.

24. 43rd

Newport (Eng.); to Templemore 3/24.

25. 44th

Fermoy; to Cork 2/18; 1st Battn emb’d 4/21, and 2nd Battn 6/20 (for Malta).

26. 47th

Clonmel; to Limerick 9/13.

27. 48th

Enniskillen; to Dublin 4/18.

28. 49th

Dublin; to Templemore 10/19.

29. 55th

Templemore; to Dublin 3/13.

30. 57th

Hull (Eng.); to Dublin 3/31; to Enniskillen 4/17.

31. 59th

Templemore; to Birr 10/20.


32. 60th

Bury (Eng.); to Dublin 7/25

33. 64th

Limerick; to Clonmel 9/12; to Cork 12/26.

34. 67th

Cork; both battns emb’d 1/18 & 1/20 (for Gibraltar).

35. 68th

Mullingar; to Galway 9/13.

36. 70th


37. 71st

Edinburgh Castle; to Naas 5/20.

(1st Battn of)

38. 74th

Dublin; to Thurles (field services) 7/29; to Dublin 9/5; to Limerick 12/19.

39. 75th

Dublin; to Kilkenny 7/31; to Thurles 8/7; to camp in Ballingarry 8/24; Kilk. 9/12.

40. 83rd

Kilkenny; to Fermoy 9/18.

41. 85th

Dublin; to Templemore 7/30; to Waterford 9/9.

42. 89th

Ashton-under-Lyne (Eng.); to Dublin to Birr 7/26, 7/27.

43. 92nd

Limerick; to Clonmel 12/21. (This ends 1848 list.)

A total of 43 regular army regiments. (The above yields a net of 35.40 reg’t-years deployed exclusively in Ireland in 1848)


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C2 (1849): THE BRITISH ARMY REGIMENTS THAT REMOVED IRELAND’S FOOD; 1849. From more-legible photocopies of NA records; Sept 2010 CAVALRY REGIMENTS Dragoon Guards















(Light) Hussars




(Light) Hussars




(Light) Lancers








(Light) Lancers





10. 1st


(2nd Battn)

11. 2nd

“ .

12. 3rd


13. 6th

(2nd Battn)

(Units of it)


14. 9th


15. 13th


16. 26th

Ballincollig; to Cork 1/20.

17. 31st



18. 35th


19. 40th


20. 41st

Buttevant; to Cork 3/22; to Charles Fort 4/21; to Cork 7/28.

21. 43rd

Templemore; to Kilkenny 3/31.

22. 47th

Limerick; to Buttevant 3/21.

23. 48th


24. 49th


25. 55th


26. 57th


27. 59th

Birr; to Fermoy 4/23; to Cork emb’d 5/15 (for China).

28. 60th


(2nd Battn)

29. 64th

Cork; emb’d 1/9 (for Bombay).

30. 68th


31. 70th

Cork; emb’d 1/19 (for Bengal).

32. 71st


(1st Battn)

33. 74th


34. 75th

Kilkenny; to Fermoy 4/4; to Cork 4/21; emb’d 5/7 (for Bengal).

35. 83rd

Fermoy; to Cork 1/9; emb’d 1/11 (for Bombay).

36. 85th


37. 89th


38. 92nd

Clonmel. (This ends 1849 list.) A total of 38 regular army regiments.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” (The above yields a net of 31.83 reg’t-years deployed exclusively in Ireland in 1849)


EXHIBIT C2 (1850): THE BRITISH ARMY REGIMENTS THAT REMOVED IRELAND’S FOOD; 1850. From more-legible photocopies of NA records; Sept 2010 CAVALRY REGIMENTS Dragoon Guards



Cahir; to Dublin 4/19



Birmingham (Eng.); to Longford 5/10.



Dublin; to Cahir 4/12.



Brighton (Eng.); to Dublin 4/24; to Newbridge 4/26.





Athlone; to Dublin 5/15.



Dublin; to Dundalk 4/12.







(Light) Hussars “

Newbridge; to Cork 4/11.

; to Brighton (Eng.) 5/16.

(Light) Lancers

Cork; to Dublin 5/23.

10. 13th


Dundalk; to Edinburgh (Scot.) 4/13.

11. 17th

(Light) Lancers



12. 1st

Dublin; to Limerick 4/2.

(2nd Battn of)

13. 2nd

14. 3rd

; to Clonmel 11/14.

Limerick; to Galway 5/19; to Birr 10/26.

15. 6th

(2nd Battn of)

(Units of it)

Fermoy; Disbanded 3/31. (It had

been Athlone-raised.)

Newry; to Dublin 4/2. 290

16. 9th

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 17. 13th

Belfast; to Glasgow (Scot.) 4/26.

18. 14th

Preston (Eng.); to Athlone 5/27.

19. 17th

Weedon (Eng.); to Dublin 6/7; to Castlebar 6/15; to Galway 10/24.

20. 26th

Cork; emb’d 3/5 (for Gibraltar).

21. 31st

Athlone; to Dublin 4/5.

22. 35th

Mullingar; to Enniskillen 4/17.

23. 39th

Preston (Eng.); to Belfast 4/28; to Newry 11/13

24. 40th

Dublin; to Cork 10/8.

25. 41st


26. 43rd

Kilkenny; to Dublin 4/4.

27. 47th


28. 48th

Dublin; to Athlone 4/4; to Mullingar 4/29; to Liverpool (Eng.) 6/5.

29. 49th

Templemore; to Fermoy 4/19.

30. 55th

Dublin; to Waterford 4/12.

31. 57th

Enniskillen; to Dublin 4/17.

32. 60th

(2nd Battn of)

Dublin; to Templemore 4/16.

33. 62nd

Bury (Eng.); to Dublin to Mullingar 6/11.

34. 68th

Galway; to Limerick 4/17.

35. 71st

(1st Battn of)

Naas; to Dublin 4/16.

36. 74th

Limerick; to Clonmel 4/3; to Fermoy 11/16.

37. 81st

Berwick-upon-Tweed (Eng.); to Templemore via Dublin 11/14.


38. 85th

Waterford; to Mullingar 4/18; to Preston (Eng.) 5/25.

39. 89th

Birr; to Dublin 10/19.

40. 92nd

Clonmel; to Kilkenny 4/15. (This ends 1850 list.)

A total of 40 regular army reg’ts. (The above yields a net of 30.0 reg’t-years deployed exclusively in Ireland in 1850.) Summary of army rank-and-file in Ireland for each year (from Chapter 2 and the above years). 1843 (14,476); 1844 (21,251); 1845 (34,000); 1846 (34,000); 1847 (33,000); 1848 (43,000); 1849 (38,000); 1850 (40,000). Why the increase in 1844? These figures reveal increased firepower in response to people’s desperation that peaked in conjunction with the homicide rate in late “Black ‘47”).


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C3: THE COUNTY (LANDLORDS’) MILITIAS From the time of their invasion of Ireland, the warlords cum landlords, though supported by the British army, maintained their own private “muscle.” As they further secured their own interests they enacted laws that made the Irish pay most of the costs of those private armies. Thus, in 1715 the exclusively Protestant parliament of Ireland enacted 2 George 1 capitula 9 of which Section 1-3 mandated that “The inhabitants of each county must fund its militia.”246 Sec. 4 of the same law mandated; “Papists to pay double the sum paid by Protestants for the militias.” Cap. 10, Sec. 1 of the same law mandated “No Catholic permitted to be constable.” Cap. 10, Sec. 3 mandated; “Catholics to pay up to £10 toward office of high constable, and no more than £4 toward petty constables, all constables to be Protestant. The sums to be collected by and paid to Protestant constables from papists.” Cap. 10, Sec 7 mandated; “In times of danger watchmen shall be Protestants only. When the turn of a Catholic comes he must pay 12 pence per night or have his goods sold for said purpose.” Militia membership was restricted to Protestants between the ages of 16 and 60. Much earlier the “Irish” parliament had stripped the Irish of legal personhood, so the latter could neither stand for office nor vote. This was eventually codified by 2 George 1, cap. 19, Sec. 7 that mandated: “Papists are prohibited from voting. If a papist votes he shall forfeit £100; one-half to His Majesty, and onehalf to the informer.” Being non-persons, the murder of any Catholic man, woman or child violated no law. The law could be used to punish the Irish; but never to defend them. In 1793, during the Napoleonic Wars Ireland’s militias were reorganized to form thirtyseven county and city regiments. In the Rising of 1798, some of the worst atrocities were not perpetrated by the British army, but by the landlord’s county militias. In County Wexford that year the crimes (pitch-capping and roasting to death) perpetrated by the North Cork militia surpassed all others. While officers of the reorganized force remained Protestant, membership of the other ranks was opened to members of all


denominations. By the time of the Holocaust approximately 75% of the members of militias were Catholic tenants of its commander or of one of his neighboring landlords; but the officers remained Protestant. As you will see below, the militia commander typically had a British title (Lord, Marquis, Baronet, Earl, etc.), attended English schools, was also one of the county’s main English landlords, while some were British M.P.s and others were Reverends of the (Anglican) Church of Ireland. Landlords either appointed, or were themselves, district judges, grand jurors, Resident Magistrates, and Justices of the Peace. Some kept a gallows on their estates, and saw to its use, so that “Gallows Hill” and its Irish equivalent, “Knockcroghery,” can be found on the Ordnance Survey Map of Ireland.



DISEMBODIED (reserve) MILITIA REGIMENT DISEMBODIED MILITIA. Permanent Branch of the Roscommon Regiment. Col.: Lt. Gen. Viscount Lorton, Boyle. Caleb Robertson, Paymaster. Period 25 June – 24 Sept., 1823. (From Britain’s National Archives, Record WO13/3214.) Officers:

16 (none with an Irish name)



Asst. Surgeons:


Staff Offers & Others:


Serjeants (sic):

21 (perhaps two Irish-named)


21 (perhaps five Irish-named)

Drummers & Fifers:

12 (perhaps two Irish-named)

Subtotal: 84 (This was the regiment’s permanent, paid


The rest were on reserve, unpaid.)

Same as above for the years 1824 through 1842 (except 1832, ‘37, ‘39, ‘40, ‘41 which are missing). Privates: None named; but the WO13/3214 record shows 520; thus 520 + 84 = 624 total count of Roscommon militia. As all County militias’ manpower figures are notably constant and as the records we researched showed only quantities of privates, each militia’s total manpower count shown below was determined by multiplying its number of privates by 1.16 (604/520), the ratio of officers (+ NCOs) to privates in Roscommon.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


REGIMENTS OF IRELAND IN 1845-1850; (including their HQs, Leaders, and manpower totals during sample quarter-years and years at that time) Data from War Office records of The National Archives, Kew, England Britain’s carbine-toting “Irish” constabulary (12,600 men) led the food removal. When encountering difficulty, they summoned the local militias. Only when combined police/militia forces couldn’t cope was additional reinforcement summoned from the nearest British army garrison. The militias were a formidable force assembled by and for Ireland’s English landlords. Some 95% of Ireland’s land was “owned” by English (and mostly England-domiciled) landlords, but international revulsion toward the Holocaust and, later, the 1870s/1880s Land Wars forced Britain to begin removing its landlords from Ireland in the 1890s and had largely completed it by 1923. Throughout the Holocaust some of the food removal was being perpetrated by 37 local militia regiments totaling 21,059 officers and men. Each county had one militia regiment, but Cork had three, and Limerick, Mayo and Dublin had two each. Essentially all officers’ and NCOs’ names were nonGaelic. Privates’ names aren’t recorded. The militias tended to be headed by some of the chief Irish-domiciled English landlords. Today, their Englishness overwhelms as you will see in the following list of all militias. Antrim: During the first quarter of 1847 Co. Antrim’s 604-strong (520 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Belfast. Its Commander was The Marquis of Donegal residing in London. Its Adjutant was Col. Carrothers. Armagh: During the first quarter of 1847 Co. Armagh’s 604-strong (520 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Markethill. Its commander was The Marquis Acheson residing in Gosford Castle, Markethill. Its Adjutant was Biford Woodhouse. Carlow: During the first quarter of 1847 Co. Carlow’s 453-strong (390 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Carlow town. Its commander was Henry Bruen Esq. M.P. residing in Oak Park, Co. Carlow. Its Adjutant was Wm. Cary Esq. Cavan: During the first quarter of 1847 Co. Cavan’s 453-strong (390 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Cavan town. Its commander was Alex Saunderson residing in Cavan Castle, Kingscourt, Co. Cavan. His Adjutant was ___ Gosselin.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Clare: During the 4th quarter of 1847 Co. Clare’s 453-strong (390 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Ennis. Its commander was C.M. Vandeleur (residence not given). His Adjutant was Charles Gore, Ashline, Ennis. (Was this Vandeleur a relative of [or the selfsame]?) Landlord Vandeleur rendered infamous by photos of his evictions of tenants in the Kilrush district?) Cork City: During the 3rd quarter of 1847 Cork City’s 604-strong (520 Pvts) militia was commanded by Lord Viscount Bernard residing in Castlebernard, Bandon. His adjutant was ___Miller. Cork North: During the 4th quarter of 1847 the North Co. Cork’s 604strong (520 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Fermoy. Its commander was W. Hodders residing in Hoddersfield, Carrigaline, Co. Cork. His adjutant was Augustin Wanson (sp), Coolgunna (sp). Cork South: During the 3rd quarter of 1845 the South Co. Cork’s 597strong (514 Pvts) militia was headquartered in Rathcormac. Its commander was Lord Riverdale residing in Lisnagar Demesne, Rathcormac. In 1850 Lord Riverdale was superseded by The Viscount Doneraile. The Adjutant was __ Lucas. Derry: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 755-strong (650 Pvts) Co. Londonderry militia was headquartered at Londonderry. Its commander was Sir R.A. Ferguson, Bar’t, residing at The Farm, Londonderry, Co. Londonderry. His adjutant was ___ McClintock. Donegal: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 755-strong (650 Pvts) Co. Donegal militia was headquartered at Ballyshannon. Its commander was The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Leitrim, K.P., Killadoon, Celbridge, Co. Kildare. His adjutant was Samuel Searle. Lord Leitrim was killed by his tenants in 1878. Down: During the 1st quarter of 1846 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) The Royal South Downshire militia was headquartered at Hillsborough. Its commander was The Marquis of Downshire residing at Hillsborough. His adjutant was __Hodgson. Dublin City: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (520 Pvts) Royal Dublin City militia was commanded by Sir Rob’t Shaw, Bar’t residing at Bushy Park, Rathfarnham. His adjutant was Capt. I.W. Russell. Dublin County: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. Dublin militia was headquartered in Lucan. Its commander was Samuel White residing at Rithpers (sp), Rathfarnham. His adjutant was W. Kemble. Fermanagh: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. Fermanagh militia was headquartered at Enniskillen. Its commander was the Earl of Enniskillen residing at Florence Court Demesne, Florencecourt, Co. Fermanagh. Its adjutant was Wm. Corry.


Galway: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 755-strong (650 Pvts) Co. Galway militia was headquartered at Ballinasloe. Its commander was The Earl of Clanricarde, K.P. residing at Garbally, Ballinasloe. Its adjutant was Annesley Eyre residing at Eyrescourt, Co. Galway. Kerry: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (520 Pvts) Co. Kerry militia was headquartered at Tralee. Its commander was The Earl of Kenmare residing at Killarney. Its adjutant was D.A. Curtayne. Kildare: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. Kildare militia was headquartered at Naas. Its commander, The Earl of Mayo residing at Palmerstown, Naas. Its adjutant, Hercules Robinson. Kilkenny: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (520 Pvts) Co. Kilkenny militia was headquartered at Kilkenny town. Its commander, Geo. Bryan (address not given), its adjutant, Jas. McIntyre. Laois: During the 3rd quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Royal Queens County militia was headquartered at Mountrath. Its commander, Sir C.W. Coote, Bar’t residing at Ballyfinn House near the post town of Mountrath. Its adjutant, Henry Brereton. Leitrim: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. Leitrim militia was headquartered at Mohill. Its commander, Viscount Clements, M.P. residing at Lough Rynn (sp), Mohill, Its adjutant, Wm. Rose. Limerick City: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Limerick City militia was commanded by Viscount Gort, Loughfooter, Gort, Co. Galway. Its adjutant, Thomas Jervis. Limerick: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (520 Pvts) Royal Limerick County militia was headquartered at Limerick City. Its commander, The Hon. R. Fitzgibbon residing at 64 Eaton Sq., London. Its adjutant, John deBlaquiere. Longford: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Royal Longford militia was headquartered at Newtownforbes. Its commander, Henry White Esq. residing at Colamslin (sp), Edgeworthstown. Its adjutant, Wm. Walker. Louth: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 680-strong (585 Pvts) Co. Louth militia was headquartered at Dunleer. Its commander, Sir Patrick Bellew, Bar’t residing at Barmeath, Dunleer. Its adjutant, Henry Pendleton residing at Loughderry, Co. Meath. Mayo North: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 529-strong north Co. Mayo militia was headquartered at Ballina. Its commander, Chas Knox residing at Bushy, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. Its adjutant, Samuel Strogen. Mayo South: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 529-strong (455 Pvts) south Co. Mayo militia was headquartered at Westport. Its commander, The Earl


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” of Sligo. Signed “Sligo;” address not given. Its adjutant, F. Higgins. It was this militia Commander, the Marquis Sligo, the “owner” of more than 180 sq. miles of surrounding country, that the starvelings of Louisburgh, Co. Mayo had been told had food vouchers for distribution. In extremis they walked the eleven miles to the Lord’s hunting lodge at Delphi near Doolough. Saying he had dinner guests and didn’t want to be disturbed, he sent the starvelings away. Some died on their trek back to Louisburgh. The same monster was still destroying lives some three decades later. The Irishman (Dec. 11, 1875) headline was; Lord Sligo and His Tenants. It reported that a mass gathering was held in the Louisburgh churchyard to voice objections to rent increases of up to 50% and to the many evictions underway. Meath: During the 4th quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (585 Pvts) Royal Meath militia was headquartered at Kells. Its commander, The Marquis of Headfort residing at Headfort House, Kells. Its adjutant, Joshua Clare. Monaghan: During 1st quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (585 Pvts) Co. Monaghan militia was headquartered at Monaghan town. Its commander, Lord Rossmore residing at Camlin (sp) near the post town of Monaghan. Its adjutant, John Rose (sp). Offaly: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (585 Pvts) Kings County militia was headquartered at Parsonstown. Its commander, The Earl of Ross residing at Parsonstown near the post town of Parsonstown. Its adjutant, Thomas Cox, Esq. Roscommon: During the 1st quarter of 1846 the 604-strong (585 Pvts) Co. Roscommon militia was headquartered at Boyle. Its commander, Viscount Lorton residing at Rockingham Estate, Boyle. Its adjutant, __Robertson. Sligo: During the 1st quarter of 1846 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. Sligo militia was headquartered at Sligo town. Its commander, John Irwin residing at Tanarego, Colooney. Its adjutant, Henry Faucett. Tipperary: During the 4th quarter of 1847 the 755-strong (650 Pvts) Co. Tipperary militia was headquartered at Cahir. Its commander, The Earl of Glengall residing at Cahir. Its adjutant, Hugh Daniell. Tyrone: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 755-strong (650 Pvts) Royal Tyrone militia was headquartered at Caledon. Its commander, The Earl of Caledon, signed “Caledon” residing at Caledon, near the post town of Caledon, Co. Tyrone. Its adjutant, William Lundie. Waterford: During the 3rd quarter of 1847 the 604-strong (585 Pvts) Co. Waterford militia was headquartered at Waterford City. Its commander, Lord Stuart deDecies residing at Doomann (sp), Cappoquin, Co. Waterford. Its adjutant, Wm. Ready.


Westmeath: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. West-Meath militia was headquartered at Castletowndelvin. Its commander, The Marquis of Westmeath residing at Rossmead, Castletowndelvin. Its adjutant, Henry Robinson. Wexford: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 755-strong (650 Pvts) Co. Wexford militia was headquartered at Wexford town. Its commander, Lord Carew residing at Castleboro Demesne, Enniscorthy. Its adjutant, David Beatty. Wicklow: During the 1st quarter of 1847 the 453-strong (390 Pvts) Co. Wicklow militia was headquartered at Arklow. Its commander, Sir Ralph Howard residing at Bushy, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. Its adjutant, George Bayly. Total of all militia ranks: 21,059. Genocidists all, but the routine use of Britain’s regular army to enforce the Food Removal indicates that the militia regiments, though numerous and well-armed, were not adequately motivated. Eternal gratitude to the Land Leaguers led by Michael Davitt and Charles Stewart Parnell and to the tens of thousands murdered, or maimed, or imprisoned and the hundreds of thousands who, despite such treatment, stood up against the genocidists or donated funds from the US and elsewhere to provide for evictees. Decades after the Holocaust, in Parnell’s time, Irish immigrants building a railroad through Iowa to the U.S. west settled on nearby land that includes the hamlet they named Parnell.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C4: THE CONSTABULARY; ITS ROLE The Irish constabulary was created to enforce British rule in Ireland. It was a semimilitary force armed with bayonet-tipped carbines and also, during the Food Removal, with revolvers. Its officers were British army veterans who maintained military rigor and aggressiveness. They were housed in approximately 1,600 barracks scattered across Ireland. By 1832 its percentage of Irish Catholics, at the lower levels, had increased to 42 percent. Thus, during the Holocaust its percentage of Irish Catholics must have approached 50 percent of the total force of 12,900247, a sad fact considering the kind of work it was ordered to do. According to the Royal Irish Constabulary’s own web site it “bore the brunt of the Tithe War, the Young Ireland threat, the Fenian Rising and the Land War.” The force acquired the designation 'Royal' from Queen Victoria in 1867 “in recognition of its services in the suppression of the Fenian Rising.” Even the progressive increase in the size of the force during these years (from 9,100 in 1845 to 12,500 in 1850, 1,265 extra constables in 1846 alone) fell short of local expectations. “In January, 1846, a resident magistrate wrote from Galway Town to ask that a warship and marines be sent to Galway Bay.” After describing, with equanimity, the starvation there, he expressed his fear of an “outbreak.” “Within days, cavalry, infantry, and a steamer carrying marines arrived in Galway.”248 Thus marines participated in the Holocaust. In 1812 Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850), while Home Secretary in Lord Liverpool’s Tory cabinet founded Ireland’s Constabulary. In 1829 he created the London Metropolitan Police. Their conduct led to the soubriquets; “Bobby” in England due to their benevolent, unarmed presence; but “Peeler” in Ireland where they were the eyes and ears of the British occupiers and cruel enforcers of unjust laws. In Ireland, with their bayonet-mounted carbines and, if mounted, 45 caliber revolvers, they were “Peelers249;” and founder Robert Peel was “Orange Peel.” Peel twice served as British Prime Minister: from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835 and from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846. Peel, backed by his father and the future Duke of Wellington, had entered politics at 21 as M.P. for the Irish borough of Cashel, Tipperary where, under British law, only 24 persons (all Protestants) were allowed to vote. Then and for centuries before, Ireland’s Catholics, legally non-persons, were prohibited from voting. While Prime Minister, Peel opposed reductions of the infamous Penal Laws and fiercely supported the law that forced Ireland’s Catholics to tithe to the (Anglican) “Church of Ireland.” The Peelers (constabulary) led efforts to collect tithe and maintenance payments to the Anglican Church, as well as the collection of county rates, Poor Law taxes and other cesses. It also led the landlords’ militia and British army in creating the Holocaust by removing Ireland’s food. They were reinforced by Britain’s 75th of Foot in suppressing the Young Irelanders in 1848 (at Ballingarry, Co. Tipperary). Their ruthlessness against the Fenians in 1867 resulted in Queen Victoria adding “Royal” to their title, making them the “Royal Irish Constabulary” (RIC). Eventually, during Ireland’s War of Independence so many RIC had resigned or been killed250 by the IRA by 1920 that the British sent in the infamous “Black and


Tans”251 as replacements. The latter were terrorists, shooting randomly from their lorries as they passed through the countryside. They burned Cork City, Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, and Granard, Co. Longford. In 1922 the IRA defeated the RIC and they were disbanded, with a few moving to the newly-created Six-County entity to be part of its infamous Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). The IRA also defeated the British army, forcing its withdrawal from Ireland in 1923, thus ending Britain’s centuries-long rule in twenty-six of Ireland’s thirty-two counties. The Ordnance Survey Map of Ireland of 1831 to 1845 shows the ubiquity of constabulary barracks during the Holocaust. There were 12,900 constables deployed in some 1,600 barracks across Ireland’s towns and countryside. In addition to these, the maps show a much smaller number of “Revenue Police Barracks” and “Castle Police Stations.” The former must have been special tax enforcers; the latter, spies. Additional Information re the Constabulary (from A Fortnight in Ireland, by Sir Francis B. Head, Bart. 1853 G.P. Putnam & Co., 10 Park Place, NY.) P. 46. Ireland is comprised of 32 counties, 316 baronies, 2,422 parishes, 66,700 townlands. For police purposes 37 counties and ridings (like militia districts) each of which has one inspector. Each of the 37 counties/ridings is divided into districts, averaging 7, each headed by a sub-inspector whose district is divided into 7 sub-districts, each led by a head or other constable. Each sub-district comprises on an average 44 townlands. There are at present in Ireland 1,590 police stations, giving on an average 48 stations to each county, and 8 policemen to each station. The constabulary force of Ireland consists of 7,798 Catholics, and 4,703 Protestants, totaling 12,501. P. 47:

Besides acting as conservators of the public peace, the Irish constabulary direct their exertions to numerous collateral objects of great importance to the country; for instanceThey distribute and collect the voting papers for all of the Poor Law Guardians. They take the census throughout Ireland. They escort all prisoners, excepting in Tipperary and Cork, in which counties the aid of troops is required. They escort all convicts, and discharge the convict accounts. They collect and settle the innumerable accounts of fines and penalties, from sixpence upwards.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” They act as billet-masters throughout the country, and as auctioneers for the sale of distress. They enforce the fishery laws under certain instructions. They assist in various ways the Board of Health. They act (in towns and large villages) as masters of weights and measures. They preserve order in sessional and assize courts. They make up annually for Government certain statistical returns of the quantity and quality of the different kinds of crop, of stock, &c, and are thus competent, at any moment when required, to report simultaneously on the state of any particular crop – the potato, for instance – throughout the whole of Ireland. P. 48: The average annual expense of the clothing of the constabulary is as follows: Infantry, per man …. £1 5s 5.75 d; Cavalry, per man, £1 19s 1d. Constables are not permitted to apply to marry for five years. Once having applied they wait for vacancies in the one-fifth of the force that is permitted to marry. P. 53: Some years ago about one-third of the applicants were Protestants. I ascertained, however, that the number of applicants of that creed has very lately increased (due to the [Holocaust’s] reduction of the Catholic population). P. 54: In the whole of the force there are, per annum, about 1,000 vacancies, caused by resignation, deaths, retirements by pension or gratuity, and dismissals, the latter averaging each year about 200. P. 59; Arms are composed of a short carbine with a spring bayonet. The mounted constabulary carry a brace of pistols in front of their saddles. P. 74; Maynooth Seminary (the “Royal College of St. Patrick”) was founded on Mr. Pitt’s recommendation, by the (exclusively Protestant) Irish parliament in the reign of George III in 1795. P. 96 THE DUBLIN METROPOLITAN POLICE are composed nearly entirely of country people: Sergeants;







20 ___



P. 124: “…more or less a discolouration in its leaf, that but too clearly announced the existence of subterranean disease.” (Sir Francis was not knowledgeable about potatoes and phytophthora infestans. It is a fungus-like accretion that forms entirely above ground, mostly on the underside of the leaves on the potato stalks, before potatoes form on the roots. Only later when the above-ground plant is severely damaged does blight affect the potatoes below them.) P. 125: In Castlebar; Revenue Police Chief Inspector











1000 (The privates are mostly Catholic.)

P. 128 – 129: A grotesque “justification” for genocide. P. 141: In Westport; reports on the constabulary force that, the previous day, had conducted evictions on Clare Island. Mentions difficulties while evicting at Kilmeen. P. 142: Beginning here the author dwells approvingly on numbers of conversions to Protestantism, including on Achill Island. 144 “I must say, however, that I highly approve of this stirabout movement” (of proselytization). Here the author refers to Protestants offering oatmeal porridge (“stirabout”) to starving Catholics if they renounce Catholicism and convert to Protestantism. END



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C4.a: THE REVENUE POLICE Revenue Police barracks locations are shown on the Ordnance Survey Maps, mostly in the West.

EXHIBIT C4.b: CASTLE POLICE Castle Police barracks locations are shown on the Ordnance Survey Maps, mostly in the West.


Source: Ordnance Survey Maps of Ireland, 1830-1845 The field work was done 1830-1842; Maps were completed 1831-1845. The original spellings are maintained here.

The sequence here starts with Co. Dublin and works clockwise county-by-county around Ireland’s coast but each county’s coast is read from north to south. The referenced Sheet numbers are those of the Ordnance Survey maps. Only coastline sheet Nos. are shown. Each sheet maps an area four miles N-S by six miles E-W. They start at the west side of the northernmost area of each county and map that 4mile band eastward to that county’s east end. They then started the next band at the west of the county and again map eastward to the east end of the county and repeat working in four-mile bands southward to the end at the east side of the southernmost area of each county. For examples see Exhibit D1

Dublin Sheet 5: “Water Guard Station” & Pier on Red Island (off Skerries) 8 “ “ “ & Pier in Rush 8 Coast Guard Station (hereinafter “CGS”) & Pier south of Rush 8 CGS in Burrows 9 CGS & Pier on Lambay Island 12 CGS in Martello Tower in Quay townland 12 CGS in Malahide 15 CGS in Baldoyle 23 “Revenue Stores” in Kingston Harbor Dublin totals: six CGS, two WGS, and one R.S. Wicklow

4 CGS South of Bray 19 CGS in Grange North 36 CGS & Pier in Ballynacarrig 40 CGS in Tikrock (north of Arklow) Wicklow: four CGS

7 CGS at Kilmichael Point. 7 GGS in Ballymoney Lower 12 CGS at Pollshone Harbour 17 CGS at Cahore Pt. 306



22 CGS at Morriscastle 33 CGS & Dock at Coolrainey 38 CGS & Wharf at Roslare Pt. 44 “Water Guard Station” at King’s Bay N. of Duncannon Ft. 45 CGS in Bannow Bay 46 CGS in Coolseskin 48 CGS & “Watch House” at Greenore Pt. 48 CGS ¾ mile S. of Greenore at St. Helen’s 49 CGS at Harrylock on E. side of Waterford Harbour Entrance. 50 CGS in Fethard 52 CGS w/ Quay in Crossfarnoge 53 CGS at Carna Wexford: fifteen CGS, one WGS

88 CGS in Cork Harbour at Garranekinefeake 89 CGS at Ballycottin Pt. 99 CGS at Crosshaven 99 CGS at Ringabella 100 CGS w/Boat Ho. at Roche’s Pt. 113 CGS at Robert’s Cove 113 CGS at Narvahal Cove 115 CGS in Castletown Bear Haven 116 CGS at Adrigole Harbour 118 CGS in Bantry Bay 125 CGS in Oyster Haven 307

Cork Vol. 2

67 CGS at Youghal

Cork; Vol. 1

10 “Watch Tower” at Cheek Pt. on River Suir 18 “Revenue Station,” Tower & Garrison at Passage, on river Suir 18 CGS at Woodstown, 2.5 mi. So. of the above 22 CGS in Dunmore Harbour Waterford: two CGS, one WT and one RS


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

2 CGS in Castlequarter 3 CGS on Tarbert Isl. 8 CGS at Clochaneleesh 9 CGS at Cashen River mouth 14 CGS in Ballyheige 26 CGS in Ballyquin 27 CGS in Castlegregory 28 CGS in Kilfenora 46 CGS in Lack 52 CGS in Dunquin 52 CGS in Caheratrant W. of Ventry Harbour 54 CGS w/Boat Ho. At Kilmurry 62 CGS w/Boat Ho. at Kells Bay 79 CGS in Valencia Harbour 87 CGS at Portmagee 97 CGS & Quay in Ballinskelligs Bay opposite Horse Island 98 CGS & “Watch House” in Waterville. Kerry: seventeen CGS, one WH

30 “Coast Guard Watch Ho.” & flag near Freagh 308


None (Its only “coastline” is along the Shannon estuary).



130 CGS in Dunbeacon 136 CGS in Seven Heads Bay 136 CGS in Courtmacsherry 139 CGS in Skull 142 CGS in Squince Harbour 142 CGS in Glandore Harbour 143 CGS in Mill Cove W. of Roscarberry Bay 144 CGS in Dirk Bay 144 CGS at Dunny Cove Pt. 15? CGS on Clear Island 15? CGS on Slievemore Peninsula adj. to Clear Isl. Cork: twenty-three CGS

30 CGS in same townland as above 38 “Watch Ho.” opposite Mutton Island 46 Telegraph Station at Ballard Bay 56 C.G. Flag Staff opposite Kilkee 67 CGS & Revenue Pier nr. Kilrush Clare: two CGS, one CGWH, one WH, TS Galway Vol. 1 10 CGS at Rosroe in Killary Harbour 10 “Coast Guard Watch Ho.” near above 22 CGS at Moorneen on Cleggan Bay 22 CGS & Quay at Knockbrack in Cleggan Bay 22 CGS at Coolacloy at Kingstown Bay 35 CGS atop Drimeen overlooking two bays Galway Vo. 2 78 CGS on Lettermore Island 90 “Ordnance Tower” at Tonacrick on Cashla Bay 90 CGS one mile away from above 92 CGS in Spiddle (sic) 93 CGS in Barna 94 CGS & “Signal Pole” in Claddagh Galway: ten CGS, one CGWH, one OT

1 “Coast Guard Watch Ho.” opposite Hog Island 4 CGS w/Watch Ho. & Boat Ho. & Flag Pole all on Rinroe Pt. in Killgalligan Townland 6 CGS & “Coast Watch Ho.,” at Belderg Harbour 7 CGS & “Watch Ho.” at Killerduff House on Bunatraber Bay 7 CGS at Moyny Lower 8 CGS at Lackan Bay 10 CGS, Boat Ho. and Signal Post at Knocknalina 24 “Glash Signal Tower” at Letterbeg on W. coast of Belmullet Peninsula 24 CGS near Ardelly Pt. on Blacksod Bay 24 CGS, Watch Ho. & Signal Post near Termon on Blacksod Bay 309


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

2 CGS in Mullaghmore at Classybaun Harbour 10 CGS & Flag Staff at Pollinatoran 12 CGS & Flag Staff at Donaghintraine 13 CGS at Marley’s Pt. 16 CGS & “Boat Harbour” at Inishcrone Sligo: five CGS

5 “Coast Guard Watch Ho.” at Portnasantilly 5 “ “ “ “ ½ mile S. at Portaleen 5 “ “ “ “ at Culdaff Glebe 5 “ “ “ “ on Dunmore Head All on Sheet 5 are on W. side of Culdaff Bay toward Foyle River mouth 16 CGS on E. side of Sheep Haven Bay 18 CGS & Boat Ho. at Croaghross on W. side of Lough Swilly 18 “Watch Ho.,” Revenue Barrack & “Harbour” on W. side of Lough Swilly 24 CGS, Boat Ho., & Signal Staff opposite Inishbofin Island 310


None (only 2⅓ miles of coast)



25 CGS & Signal Post near Doolough Pt. on E. side of Blacksod Bay 34 CGS, Watch Ho., Boat Ho., & Signal Post at Doohoma 34 “Water Guard Station” at Tullaghanbaun 42 Signal Tower atop Slievemore 43 CGS, Quay & Flag Staff at Portaghurra Harbour 43 CGS, Boat Ho. & Signal Post on coast near Fahy Lough 54 CGS at Keel on Achill Island 75 CGS on Achill Beg Island 85 CGS on Clare Island 114 CGS on Inishbofin Island Mayo: sixteen CGS, one CGWH, one ST, two WH.

24 CGS, Boat Ho., Wharf & Signal Staff on Ballyness Bay opposite Inishbofin 37 CGS & Flag Staff at Rathmullan on W. side of Lough Swilly. 64 CGS at Dawros Bay 97 “Coast Guard Flag Staff” near St. John’s Pt. N. of Donegal Bay 98 “New Station” on Inver Bay on E. side Donegal: Seven CGS, four CGWH, one WH, one Revenue Barracks “Londonderry” None; though this county has 40+ miles of coast including salt-water Lough Foyle! Antrim:

4 Flag Staff at Ballintoy Port 10 Signal Staff at Torr Head 47 “Preventure Flag Staff” at Antrim’s E-most point With some 70 miles of coast, Antrim had no Coast Guard Stations. None between Donegal and Down! Down


7 CGS in Ballyhaskin 18 CGS & Flag Staff at Ballyhalbert on E. coast 32 CGS at Mullin Bay on E. coast 32 “Coast Guard Flag Staff” opposite Portaferry on Strangford Lough 44 CGS on Dundrum Bay on S. coast 45 Flag Staff at Ringfad on S. coast 54 “Water Guard Station” in Carlingford Lough at Killowen Pt. 54 “Coast Pole” at Rostrevor “ “ “ 57 CGS at Grandfield Pt. on S. coast Down: five CGS, one WGS 7 “Coast Guard Signal” at North Point of Dundalk Harbour 7 CGS & Flag Staff at South Pt. of Dundalk Harbour


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


None (Meath has about six miles of coast) END

Total CGSs: Dublin 6, Wicklow 4, Wexford 15, Waterford 2, Cork 23, Kerry 17, Clare 2, Galway 10, Mayo 16, Sligo 5, Leitrim 0, Donegal 7, “Londonderry” 0, Antrim 0, Down 5, Louth 5, Meath 0. (Notice the concentrations in counties Wexford, Cork, Kerry, Galway, and Mayo.) Total Coast Guard Stations on Ireland’s Coasts, 117 Total Water Guard Stations Dublin 2, Wexford 1, Down 1, Louth 1, Total in Ireland = 4. Total “Coast Guard Watch Houses”: Clare 1, Galway 1, Mayo 1, Donegal 4. Total in Ireland = 7. Totals of “Watch Houses” = 4 (in Kerry, Clare, Mayo, & Donegal), Watch Towers = 1 (in Waterford), (Notice that all eleven of Britain’s “Watch Houses” are on Ireland’s west coast.) Telegraph Towers = 1 (in Clare). End


8 CGS at Maddoxland 8 CGS at Templemore at N. end of Dundalk Bay 9 CGS at Greenore 16 CGS at Dunany Pt. S. of Dundalk Bay 22 “Water Guard Station” at Pt. Oriel, Clogher townland Louth: five CGS, one WGS.


ARMY 67 REGIMENTS @ 1,000 EACH (see Exhibit C, C2)………………………………..67,000 MILITIA 37 REGIMENTS. (See Exhibit C3.b, Listed by County) Total……………………..21,059 CONSTABULARY; (See Exhibit C4) Strength varied from 12,500 to 12,900…………….. 12,900 NAVY (See colored map) Warships Dee, Merlin, Stromboli, and Dragon @ approx. 150 each….600. COAST GUARD (See Exhibit C5; from Ordnance Survey map shows boat-houses and stations along the coasts, say 1,000 EXCISE STEAMERS (See colored map) Warrior, Eliza and Comet @, say, 20 each …………..60 MARINES (reported in Woodham-Smith’s The Great Hunger); my conservative guestimate…...500 REVENUE POLICE (See C4.a) (Ordnance Survey Map shows stations mostly in the West),..…1,174 CASTLE POLICE (See C4.b) (Spies; Ordnance Survey Map shows stations mostly in the West), say.….....100 DUBLIN METROPOLITAN POLICE; 1,099. Say half guarding shipments in/ around port….550 TOTAL: approx. 104,943 Total individuals, w/ 40% replacements documented during that period: 104,943 x 1.4….… = 146,920 REGIMENT-YEARS OF PERMANENTLY PRESENT FOOD REMOVAL FORCES; same as 104,943 above but adjusted for varying figures for army and constabulary, as follows:


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Army (From Exhibit C, C2): 23.04 reg’t-years in 1845; 23.73 reg’t-years in 1846; 29.91 reg’t-years in 1847; 35,40 reg’t-years in 1848; 31.83 reg’t-years in 1849; and 30.00 reg’t-years in 1850. Constabulary (See Exhibit C4): 12,500 in 1845; 12,600 in 1846; 12,800 in 1847; 12,900 in 1848, 1849 & 1850. Thus; the total food removal forces present all year in Ireland by year: 1845: 1846: 1847: 1848: 1849; 1850:

104,943 - 67,000 +23,040 - 12,900+12,500 = 60,583 104,943 - 67,000 +23,730 - 12,900+12,600 = 61,373 104,943 - 67,000 +29,910 - 12,900+12,800 = 67,853 104,943 - 67,000 +35,400 = 73,343 104,943 - 67,000 +31,830 = 69,773 104,943 - 67,000 +30,000 = 67,943

The total number of uniformed and armed removers of Ireland’s agricultural production was roughly the following: Army (67,000 x 1.2) + Militia (21,059 x 1.2) + Constabulary (12,700 x 1.2) + Navy (600 x 1.2) ) + Coast Guard (1,000 x 1.2) + Excise Steamers (60 x 1.2) + Marines (500 x 1.2) + Revenue Police (1,174 x 1.2) + Castle Police (100 x 1.2) Dublin Metropolitan Police 1,099/2 x 1.2) = 125,692 discrete persons.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C7: DEPLOYMENTS OF THE 68th REG’T OF FOOT (“FAITHFUL DURHAMS”) DURING THE FOOD REMOVAL From John M. Kitzmiller’s A Comprehensive Guide to Locating British Regiments and Their Records (1640-WWI) Vol. II. This two-volume set was highly recommended by officials of the Public Record Office, Kew, London. Kitzmiller shows far more deployments by the 68th than those recorded in the original, official Disposition of the Army records; the source of my Exhibits C and C2 1845 through 1850. Though Kitzmiller’s massive work includes significant error I tend to believe that elements of the 68th were stationed where he indicates. (See list by year below.) It is likely that Britain’s official record (which is my source) lists the locations of the regiments’ field HQs only.

1845: (all year) Ballinrobe, 1846: Athy, (all year in Ballinrobe), Dublin, Royal Barracks (Dublin), Dundalk, Kingstown (Dunlaoghre), Maryborough (Portlaoise), Mountmellick, Mullingar, Naas, Navan-Old Castle, Robertstown, 1847: (all year in Ballinrobe), Carrick-on-Shannon, Castlerea, Drogheda, Beggars Bush Barracks (Dublin), Edenderry, Elphin, Kilbeggan, Longford, Moyle (Co. Antrim), Mullingar, Oldcastle, Phillipstown, Tullamore, 1848: Ireland, Ballinrobe, Castlerea, Clonmel, Dunmore, Edenderry, Galway, Granard, Kilbeggan, Longford, Mullingar, Phillipstown, Spiddal, Trim, Tuam, Tullamore, 1849: Galway, Tuam, Westport, 1850: Clare Castle, Cork, Galway, Limerick, Though my figures showed each army reg’t as comprised of 1,000 of all ranks, it is likely that some regiments, especially the 68th, were larger, perhaps much larger, comprised of ten companies instead of the usual five. Exhibit C2 1846 shows the 68th arriving in Ireland in August, 1846; but Kitzmiller’s work shows the 68th in Ballinrobe all of 1845 and all of 1846; so these must have been detached units of brigade size. Thus it is likely that my figures are too conservative; that Food Removal elements of the British army might have been one or even two thousand more than shown in C2 and in C5 above.




Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C8: TYP. CESS SEIZURES BY ARMY REG’TS, Cont’d



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT C8: TYP. CESS SEIZURES BY ARMY REG’TS, Cont’d




Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”





EXHIBIT D: TABLE OF NON-POTATO CROP PROCESSORS EXTANT PRIOR TO THE HOLOCAUST, BY COUNTY © Chris Fogarty 2011 EVIDENCE OF EXISTENCE OF NON-POTATO EDIBLES AS OF 1831-1842 (PRIOR TO THE 1845-1850 HOLOCAUST) corn mill corn kiln flour mill tuck mill brewery distillery thresher pound wool mill windmill mill ANTRIM 56 13 3 3 2 5 1 30 0 0 73 ARMAGH 61 8 14 0 2 5 0 17 0 3 9 CARLOW 32 3 11 4 8 1 5 6 0 0 2 CAVAN 89 43 3 5 3 0 0 16 0 0 1 CLARE 7 14 3 20 1 1 0 16 0 0 11 CORK 59 2 73 68 7 8 17 113 6 0 44 DERRY 32 17 3 4 2 2 0 7 0 0 22 DONEGAL 135 463 3 14 1 3 0 35 0 0 7 DOWN 118 11 22 1 4 5 0 26 1 0 63 DUBLIN 17 0 14 0 1 1 4 4 5 3 15 FERMANAGH 65 99 2 3 1 1 0 21 1 0 7 GALWAY 92 86 14 12 5 1 1 45 0 3 14 KERRY 19 1 2 30 5 1 3 98 1 0 23 KILDARE 45 1 21 2 5 4 2 7 3 0 8 KILKENNY 44 5 49 3 8 3 8 13 4 4 6 LAOIS 28 7 18 3 6 2 3 10 6 0 0 LEITRIM 62 111 1 2 0 0 0 23 0 0 1 LIMERICK 16 0 5 16 9 1 2 29 2 1 19 LONGFORD 56 73 3 3 2 2 0 13 0 1 0 LOUTH 40 7 6 1 2 2 2 17 0 3 9 MAYO 139 404 127 28 6 2 0 127 0 0 8 MEATH 91 9 11 8 1 1 1 15 0 1 12 MONAGHAN 90 20 4 2 4 2 2 15 0 0 17 OFFALY 51 24 31 4 10 8 4 16 1 0 8 ROSCOMMON 70 128 7 8 8 3 0 44 0 1 2 SLIGO 52 120 5 9 2 1 0 64 0 0 22 TIPPERARY 38 2 54 9 11 5 1 31 2 1 31 TYRONE 101 269 3 7 4 2 0 37 0 2 28 WATERFORD 21 0 16 8 3 0 0 10 1 0 0 WESTMEATH 71 42 3 15 1 3 2 11 1 1 3 WEXFORD 105 1 16 2 6 2 3 14 10 19 13 WICKLOW 33 1 9 1 6 0 0 18 1 0 6


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT D1.a (Cont’d): MAP OF SLIGO SHOWING SEQUENCE OF ORDNANCE SURVEY SHEETS.


EXHIBIT D2: DETAILS OF EXHIBIT D BY COUNTY. These Ordnance Survey map data show the extent of non-potato foods in Ireland prior to the Holocaust. Each survey sheet covered 4 miles North/South by 6 miles East/West. See Exhibit D1 to learn that each county’s survey starts at the western side of its northernmost point and works eastward in 4-mile “thick” belts to the eastern boundary of the county upon completion of which it resumes at the western boundary, repeating the process until completion at the east side of its southernmost point. Bolded sheet nos. below indicate the start of a new West-to-East line of sheets. Before starting below see how the map of Co. Donegal (Exhibit D1) relates to Co. Donegal below. The reader can ascertain the location of each place-name below by its relative position between the survey’s start and end. In all cases “corn” means grain. “Shambles” were then market stalls for meat and other foods and goods. The following abbreviations are used: c = corn mill, k = corn kiln, f = flour mill, t = tuck mill, m = mill, b = brewery, d = distillery, wnd = windmill, is where some grain was stored prior to shipment, store = storehouse, p = pound (impoundment of livestock), mk = malt kiln (where grain that was wetted to induce germination is redried for use in brewing or distilling. The many fish weirs and eel weirs shown along rivers and streams were not included here due to strict enforcement of landlords’ exclusive riverine rights at that time. Pounds and woolen mills are significant in that they indicate the local existence of livestock as a rich source of food. Map sheets show “0” if no such facilities exist on it. Map sheets are separated by the divider “|”. “Tuck mill” poses a problem. One of its definitions refers to a cloth making process; but the Ordnance Survey map shows O’Brien’s grain mill in Kilsallagh, Ballymoe, Co. Galway as a “tuck mill.” I observed it milling oats in 1946, and am informed by its life-long neighbors that it has never milled anything but grain. Thus, it is possible or even likely that other “tuck mills” were also grain (thus food) mills. The Williamstown (Co. Galway) area mills shown on the Ordnance Survey maps were still operating in 1946 so they were certainly operating during the Holocaust. Cousin Tom Burke and I spread and raked oats in Egan’s kiln in Templetogher after which his father bagged the dried oats across the road to Egan’s water-wheel-powered mill. Like all farmers in that rural region, the Burke family consumed the resultant oatmeal in stir-about (porridge) and oaten bread until the next year’s harvest. ANTRIM: 68 Sheets. Data as of 1831-33 survey period. Sheet 1: m in Kinkeel (on Tory Island)|2:0|3: Bush Mills in Clougher South, m in Ardihannon|4: p in Ballintoy|5:0|6: c in Ballywatt Leggs, k in Ballyhome|7: d in Eagry, k in Islandcarragh South, m at Walkmill (treadmill) |8: c & k in Ballinlea Lower, m in Island Macallan, in Moyaget Lower, in Drumawillin, in Carncally and in Ballybeg|9: m in Carey Mill, and in Bonamargy, p in Ballyvoy and in Twentyacres|10: 0|11: barley m and c in Articrunaght|12: c in Dervocktown, m in Ballyhunsley South and in Ballyrobin, p in Ballyrathan Upper (Dervock town)|13: c in Park, in Chatham Hall, and in Alcrossagh, m in Kingarriff, p in Amboy (Turnarob townland)|14: c near Essan, t in Altagore|16: c in Glenback, in Culcrow, d in Drumaheglis, m in Glenstal|17: k in Islandmore, 3m in Ballyboylands Lower, 2m in Topp Lower, 2m in Coldagh, m in Killyramer, in Claughey, in Kilreagh, in Millquarter, and in Greenfields Upper, p in Town Parks (near Ballymoney & glebe|


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 18: c in Ballyportery North, m in Ballyveely Upper, p in Tullynorth|19: 0|20: 2c in Cushendall, p in Red Bay, t in Gallanagh|21: c, k in Bovagh|22: c in Slievenaghy, p in Dunloy|23: c & k in Corkey South (n. of Drumrankin), c in Carnamenagh and in Anticur, 2m in Tullabane, 2m in Drumdarragh, m in Cloghmill|24: c, p in Skerry East|25: m in Harper Hall (Carnlough), 2 mill tenements in Carnlough South|26: c in Ballydonnelly, p in Moneyleck|27: c in Killycreen, m in Cornlea, in Limavallaghan, in Cloghmill, in Springmount, and in Killygore, p in Ballycregagh, and in Cornlea|28: c in Martinstown|29: m in Ticloy|30: 0|31: c in Gortgole, and in Gortaheran|32: c in Cardonaghy, and in Drumrankil, d in Ballymena, m in Moylarg, 2m in Aigs and in Hillmount, p in Cullybackey and in Ballymena, shambles in Ballymena|33: 2c, k in Tullymore, m in Ballynacaird, and in Broughshane|34: 2m in Buckna|35: m, t in Ballygalley|36: m in Killygarn|37: c in Gloonan, m in Straid, in Lisnafillon, and Ballycreggy, p in Ballycreggy|38: c in Connor, 2c in Kells (nr. Templemoyle), m in Clattery Knowes|39: 2k in Mistyburn|40: c in lealies, c, k in Ballyloran,,m in Lealies, 2m in Inver, 2m in Glynn|41: c, k in Balloo|42: c in Lismacloskey, and Grange Park, p in Gillistown and in Lismacloskey|43: c in Aghaboy, in Ballygrooby, p in Feehogue and in Randalstown|44:0|45: 2c in Ballylcor, c in Ballynure, 2m in Ballyclare|46: m in Glenoe|47: c in Ballyhill,and in Redhall, k in Ballyhill, p in Fort Hill (Ballycarry village)|48: 0|49: c in Ballynacraigy p in Ballycloghan|50: b in Antrim town, f in Muckamore, m in Dunadry|51: m in Mysland|52: d in carrickfergus|53: k, m in Kilroot|54: c in Ballyquillin, m in Ballyginniff|55: c in Crookedstone, in Dungonnell and in Crookedstone (nr Crookedstone Moores) m in Dundesert, in Ballyrobin (nr. road to Templepatrick), and in Straidhaven|56:0|57: p in Carnmoney|58:0|59: c in Ballygortgarve and in Dunrod village, m in Ballyvorally (nr. Glenconway), p in Crumlin village and in Ballysessy|60: d, f in Town Parks (nr Shankill)|61: f in Belfast, b in Malone (so. of Belfast)|62: c Ballinderry (nr. Mill Hill)|63: p in Maheragall|64: c in Poleglass, m in Dunmurry, and in Old Forge, p in Magheralave, t in Lambeg|65: 0|66: 0|67: c in Gortnacor Upper|68: 2m in Lisburn (east of town). End ARMAGH: 32 Sheets. Data as of 1834-35. Sheet 1: c, p in Derrylea|2: c in Milltown/Derryaugh|3: 0|4: 0|5: wnd in Drumanphy| 6: b, d in Lurgan, p in Derry, n. of Lurgan|7: c in Tullymore and in Carrickoness|8: c in Allistragh, 2 m in Ballygasey, wnd in Clonmain, p in Loughgall|9: 2 k of Hewitt, c in Maghon and in Corcullentraghmore, c & d in Scotch Street, d in Portadown|10: c in Ballynaghy|11: p in Tynan|12: c in Lisadian, in Ballaghy, in Tamlough, and in Tullyelmer, f in Lurgyvallen near Omagh, c,f in Ungola, d in Ballynahonebeg and in Ballycrummy, f in Millford, c in Baltarran, f in Cavanacaw, s in Armagh town, fwnd w. of Armagh town|13: c in Richhill, in Aghary, Ballynewry, in Druminure, and in Lisavague , p in Johnstown and in Tamnaghtelton|14: c in Moodoge, c, f in Tanderagee|15: d, p in Middletown, c in Doogary, in Balteagh, in Drumacanver and Unshog|16: f in Ballyards, c in Latmacollum, in Ennislare and in Ballymoran, c & k in Tassagh, and in Ballybrolly|17: c in Drumachee, in Ballysheilbeg, and in Shancrackanbeg, c & k in Mohan and in Derrycughan, p in Markethill|18: c west of Poyntzpass, c in Poyntzpass|19: c in Milltown, p in Mullyard|20: 2 c, 4 f and p in Keady, c & k in Dundrum|21: c in Cladymilltown, in Creggan Upper, in Kingsmill, in Keadymore, and in Lurgana|22: c in Ballydogherty, in Crankey, and in


Drumbanagher|23: c in Carrickaduff|24: c in Tullyvallan, f at Tullyvallan bridge|25: c at Carrickananny bridge and in Milltown, p in Milltown and in Carrickananny|26: 2 c in Camlough, 2f in Lisdrumgullion, 2b, d, 2p, in Newry, King’s Stores, bonding yard, custom house & m on Newry Canal in Newry|27:c near Kiltybane Lough|28: c in Ballykeel|29: c in Tamnaghbane|30: 0|31: c & k, p in Ball’s Mill and in Forkhill| 32: p in Jonesborough. End CARLOW: 26 Sheets. Data as of 1839. Sheet 1: 0|2: c in Newacre|3: c in Rathmone|4: t in Portrushen Lower, and in Ballykillane, p in Hacketstown|5: c in Borough, and in Ballysallagh Lower|6: 0|7: 2c in Carlow, c in Rathcroge, 2k, 2f, 2b, d, and threshing machine in Graigue town, f in Stapleton|8: c, 2f, 2b, p in Tullow, c in Ballymurphy, in Cannonsquarter, and in Tullowphelim, t in Grangewat|9: m in Ballykilduff Upper|10: 0|11: 0|12: c in Orchard, in Cloghristick, in Clonmacshane, and in Nurney, b, p in Leighlinbridge, 2f in Ballygowan, threshing machine in Cloghristick|13: c, k in Gilbertstown, 2f in Ballynoe|14: threshing machine in Newtown|15: 0|16: 2 c, b in Bagenalstown, malt house in Ballymoon, c in Wells|17: c in Shangarry, in Knockbarragh, and in Cranemore, threshing machine in Kilbride, f in Knockdoonish, t in Cranemore, p in Myshall|18: c near Kildaun town, and in Ballyredmond, threshing machine in Huntington|19: c in Ballymartin, f in Ballyellin, and in Corries or Corrymore|20: reaping hook m in Milltown|21: 0|22: c near Borris, in Cournellan, and in Ballymoran, f near Borris and in Clashganna, b, p in Borris, t in Rosdellig|23: 0|24: 0|25: 0|26: c in Ballyknock/St.Mullin’s, in Mullins, and in Ballynalour, t in Ballyknock, p in Turra| End CAVAN 44 Sheets. Data as of 1837-38. Sheet 1: c & k in Kiltomulty and in Killycarney|2: p in Cornagoe|3: k in Tullynamoyle, c & k in Derrynalester and in Derrynatuan|4: t in Mullaghboy|5: old c in Unshinnagh, c & k in Dowra, k in Cashel|6: new c, k in Mullylower, k in Legatraughta|7: k in Binkeera and in Drumersee, c & k in Drumcanon and in Swanlinbar|8: old c in Tullyveela, c in Corraclassy, malt k in Cronery, c & k in Culliagh, c, t, p in Bawnboy|10: c & k in Bofealan and in Drumrush, f, p in Ballyconnell, c in killywilly|11: Old b in Belturbet|12: 0|13: 0|14: c & k in Ardlougher|15: c in Butlersbridge|16: c, p in Redhill, c in Aughadreenagh, in Mullaghcroghery, in Bunnoe and in Coppanagh, c, f, p in Ballyhaise|17: c & k in Killycreeny and in Corbeagh, p in Corrick and in Pottleboy, k in Rakane, c, f in Newgrove|18: 0|19: c & k in Drummany and in Drumroosk, b, p in Killeshandra|20: c in Drumlark|21: c in Shankill Lower|22: c in Drumsillagh, c & k in Greaghcrottagh, c in Tonyin and in Leaghmin|23: c , t in Knocknalosset, c in Knappagh, 2c in Drumsillagh, k, m in Darkley|24: c in Corradarren, c & k in Drumroe, c in Drumrockady|25: c in Drumcrow and in Clarebane, old c in Gortnashangan Upper, c, p in Bellanagh|26: c & k in Glencorran, c in Leiter|27: c & k in Clifferna, c, t in Knockataggart, c, k in Tullylorcan|28: p in Skeagh, c, t in Corrakeeran, 2 c in Galbolie, m in Glasleck, c & k in Killan, m in Milltown, k in Derry|29: 0|30 c & k in Arvagh, p in Scrabby, c in Woteraghy|31: c in Drumhillagh, in Mullaghkeel, and in Drumkilly, c & k in Clareboy|32: c & k in Cross Keys and in Latagloghan|33: c in Drummallaght, Fintawan, and Derryhum, t in Corratinner, c, t in Cleffin|34: p in Baillieborough|35: c & k in Cornagee|36: k in Kilsaran|37: k in Cloncovet, c, p in Glen, malt k in Ardleny, c in Kilnaleck, c & k, p in Ballheelan|38: k in Kilnaleck, c in Crover, p in Mountnugent, c, t in Rassan or Corglass, c in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ramonan, 2c in Claddagh, c in Pollareagh, p in Ballyjamesduff|39: c & k in Curraghmore, c in Murmod, p, b in Virginia, c, t in Ballaghanea|40: c in Cuilcagh, old c in Seeharan|41: c in Magheraboy Upper|42: c in Clonkiefy|43: c & k in Ryefield Cross, 44: 0. End. CLARE: 75 SHEETS. Data as of 1842. Sheet 1: 0|2: 0|3: m in Oughtmama|4: 0|5: p in Turloughquin|6: sheep fold in Coolnatullagh|7: 0|8: 0|9: 0|10: 0|11: sheep fold in Aughrim, k in Derrylumman|12: 0|13: k in Slieveanore|14: 0|15: t in Caherlooskaun, and in Ennistimon, sheep fold in Tullamore|16: c, t in Cloonomra, sheep fold in Creggaun, and in Ballybreen|17: f, k in Clifden, sheep fold in Killinaboy|18: 2k nr Crusheen and in Meeelick, t in Sranagalloon, p in Crusheen|19: 0|20: 0|21: 0|22: 0|23: 0|24: 0|25: 0|26: c, k in Derrycalliff, k in Carrownacloghy, in Ballyogan, and in Derryvoagh|27: k, t in Stonepark|28: t, p in Feakle, c, k, t in Caherhurly, and in Ballincurrig, t in Feakle Upper, and in Knockalisheen , p in Baurroe, and in Tomgraney, 2m in Scarriff, old k in Fossamore|29: c, t in Raheen, Malt k in Ballymalone|30: 2 p in Milltownmalbay| 31: 0|32: 0|33: f, w, in Ennis|34: 0|35: c, t, 2p in O’Callaghansmills|36: malt k in Knockbrack|37: 0|38: p in Kilmurry, t in Finnerbeg, t, 2m in Annageeragh| 39: t in Moyglass|40: 0|41: t in Ballymacooda|42: 0|43: p in Kilmurry, t in Ballymulcashel|44: c, t in Derry, m in Lisroe, sheep fold in Croaghaun|45: b, 2m in Killaloe|46: 0|47: 0|48: 0|49: 0|50: store on quay in Lisheen|51: 0|52: 0|53: Blackwater mills, Rasmadda mills|54: f in O’Briensbridge|55: 0|56: 0|57: c in Gower North|58: 0|59: c in Blean, p in Killadysert|60: 0|61: 0|62: 0|63: old m in Garraun|64: 0|65: p in Carrigaholt|66: 0|67: 6 stores on quay, d, p in Kilrush|68: 0| 69: 0|70: 0|71: 0|72: 0|73: 0|74: 0|End CORK: 153 Sheets. Data as of 1841, 42. Sheet 1: 0| 2; c in Ross|2: f, p in Charleville, f in Charleville nr. Newtownbarry, also nr. Moatville|3: m in Rathgoggin North|4 t in Knockaclarig, also nr Breanagh, p in Rockhill West|5: t in Langford’s Lodge/Rowls Langford tshp.|6: p in Cromoge, c in Coolbane, threshing mill in Prohust|7: m in Cooliney|8: m in Castleharrison (no. of castle)|9: 0|10: p in Curraghgorm, woolen m in Barrane|11:0|12: 0|13: 0|14: 0|15: p in Carrigcastle, and in Bawnmore North|16: p in Liscarroll|17:cm and p in Buttevant, dairy in Kilcolman East, t in Ballymee, nr Cahermee, and Lag, f in Horseclose, threshing machine in Carkerbeg, old m in Park North|18: c in Ballyshonock and Farahy, p in Ballyshonock, f in Arhacross, m in Park South, t in Meadstown|19: p in Mitchelstown|20: 0|21:0|22: c and t in Derrygalun, p in Boherboy town|23: f, t, and m in Kanturk|24: c, f, in Ballyclough|25: p in Powerstown|26: old c and k in Doonawanby, f in Bannanstown, f in Ballyadeen no. of Castle Widenham, f in Ballyadeen so. of Castle Widenham|27: f in Rathdaggan, f in Rathdaggan nr weir, f in Maryville, t in Ballinglanna South|28: c, woolen m in Macroney Lower, p in Coolmoohan no. of Millstreet, in Knocknagree, in Loumanagh North, and in Derry|29: 0|30:0|31: f in Gurteen|32: c and 2t in Gortmolire, c nr Lombardstown Br, and in Newberry nr Milford, m in Summerhill, p in Glentane|33: b in Mallow, f in Quartertown, in Quartertown Lower and nr. Wilton, c in Killawillin|35: f in Coolroe, and in Fermoy|36: f in Clondulane, p in Clondulane North|37: 0|38: 0|39: f, 2p, in Millstreet|40: p in Nadanuller More|41: p in Knockavaddra, Threshing mill in Danesfort|42: m in Greenhill, p in Ballynamona|43: p in Glenville|44: f in Terramount, m, t in Behernagh Lower| 45: f


in Ballyara, threshing mill at Kilcor Castle, t in Pellick, p in Ahern, and in Carrigmore|46: p in Ballynoe, “poundfields” in Blackpool w of Curraghglass|47: 0| 48: 0|49:0|50: p at Donaghmore Cross and at Aghadallane Cross|51: p, woolen factory at Grenagh North|52: p at Carrignavar, t in Glenville|53: p in Watergrasshill| 54: woolen factory in Ballincurrig, p in Templebodan|55: t in Inch, p in Knockakeo nr. Clonmult bridge|56: 0|57: 0 58: t, f, and 2 p in Ballyvourney|59: old p in Rockville, p in Knockraheen|61: p in Dromatimore, in Callas, and in Kilmurry|62: Woolen factory in Blarney|63: c in Ballincrokig, 2c and old m in Kilcully town, 2t in Dunbulloge, f in Ballincrokig|64: 2t in Brooklodge Lower|65: f in Gortacrue, Threshing machine in Young Grove|66: f in Killeagh town, p in Dungourney and in Killeagh, t in Dromdiny, threshing machine in Gortnagappul, 2 woolen m in Garryoughtragh North|67: f in Cornaveigh, p, pig market, b in Youghal, wnd in Clashadonagh|68; 0|69: 0|70: p in Caherkereen and in Gorteenroe|71 c, f, in Mahereen no. of Macroom; m, t in Bealick, p in Killincardish, and in Currahaly|73: f and threshing machine in Carrigrohane|74: f in Ardarostig, d in Farranferris: c, f, in Millfield, c, wnd in Cork City, k in CC so. of tannery, m in Kilnap; f in Kilnap east of Kilnapglen Ho., c in Commons no. of Kilnap, d, m nr. North Mall, d in Ballinvalane w of Glenwood, k in Glenwood, 2m in Clashnaganniff, f in Cork City nr. Henry Street, p in Douglas, f in Douglas nr. Ballybrack, corn exchange in Cornmarket Ward, d in Cork City nr. Pope’s Hill|75: f, d in Rivertown, f in Ballyglanna nr. Glanmire, and in Fieldstown|76: c, m in Innygraga, f, 2d in Middletown, f in Clashduff, threshing m in Ballyvodock, 2 stores in Ballynacorra town (on water)|77: m in Kilbeg, threshing machine in Barnabrow, |78; cider press in Ballymacoda, threshing machine in Aghavine|79: 0|80: 0|81: t in Kilmore, p in Inchigee|82: p in Kilbarry|83: p in Kilbarry, 2m in Bellmount Lower|84: p in Scart Lower|85: f in Corran, c, t in Ballinveiltig, t in Greybrook|86: f in Fivemilebridge, 2c in Ballea|87: 2f in Carrigaline Middle, 2 f in Liscleary|88: p in Corkbeg, and in Rostellan, 2f in Ballynafarsid nr Farsid Town, c in Rostellan|89: 0| 90:0|91:0|92: 0| 93:0|94: t in Dromfeagh|95: p in Castletown|96: c in Rock Fort, f in Brinny, 3t in Kilmore, c at Kilmore br, threshing machine at Mishells nr. Riverview, c, t in Tuocusheen, threshing machine in Lahaghdaniel, Woolen m in Roughgrove, old p in Brinny|97: t in Cross Barry, p in Inishannon|98: 2f in Ballinhassig, p in Shanavally, t in Mill-Land and in Ballinlug West, 2f in Ballindresrough|99: c, t in Tubberid, threshing mill in Frenchfurze and in Hoddersfield|100:0|101: 2p in Eyeries|102: 0| 103: p in Kildromalive|104: 0|105: 0|106: p in Keelkill|107: threshing mill in Coolkellure, f in Dunmanway South, p, f in Dunmanway town|108: c, 2m in Manch West, m in Darkwood, and in Milleenan Annie, p, m in Ballynacarriga, p in Phale Upper|109: c, p in Enniskeen, c, f in Farrannasheshery, c, t in Maulinarouga North, t in Cappaghknockane, c in Murragh, p in Boulteen|110: c in Gurteen, threshing mill in Laragh, old f in Knocknagarrane, p in Gully, and in Oldchapel Village, 2c, f, t, in Roundhill nr. Oldchapel Village, 2m, 3b, 2m, 2f, c, p, shambles, d in Bandon Town, 2t in Baurleigh|111: f in Ballincurra, m in Ballinadee, p in Dunderrow|112: 2 m in Spital-Land, f in Knocknahilan, f in Lybe no. of Belgooly|113: 0|114: p in Urhin, c, t in Coulagh nr Gortabullig|115: p in Derrymihin West, and in Gortagraffer|116: p in Adrigole|117: 0|118: f in Bantry, in Durris on Bantry Bay, c & t in Dunnamark|119: m in Dromore, f & t in Garranes South, 2p in Deelish, p in Dromdaleague|120: c & t in Minanes, and in Currachalicky|121: f in Drinagh East, t in Inchinattin, m in EdenHill, c in Ballingurteen w of town, p in Ballingurteen, c & t in Gearagh, t, c in Kilbeloge|122: old p at Springford Crossroads, f in Beanhill


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” South, 2m in Carrig, 2f in Ballindroher, and in Ballynascarty, p in Ahalisky|123: c & t in Timoleague, m, f in Killavarrig nr Inchy br., threshing mill, c in Kilmaloda, p, t, f, m in Kilbrittain, f in Barleyfield|124: c, p in Ballinspittle, t, f in Kilmore| 125: 0| 126: 0|127: t in Fuhur, 3p in Kilkinnikin West|128: 0|129: |130: p in Reenacappul| 131: m in Carrigboy, p in Gortnagrough|32: t in Dromcorragh and in Inchinagottagh, p in Garrane, in Clooncugger, and in Shanavalla|133: old c & t in Milleenawillin, t in Carrigbawn, and in Driminidy, p in Knockanenacrohy, in Mileenawillin, and in Derryclogh Lower|134: t in Connonagh, c & t in Reanascreena North, t, 2 m in Coolnagay|135: c, t, 2m in Aghamilla, 2c, f, t b in Clonakilty, f in Ashgrove, p in Gortnascarty|136: c in Aghmanister & Spital, p in Lisleetemple nr. church, and in Grange More |137: 0|138: p in Kilcrohane139: t, p in Lissacaha, p in Arderrawinny, in Skull (no. of town), and in Laharan|140: p in Ballydehob, t in Ratháe More and in Leighcloon, c store in Leighcloon|141: f in Lurriga, c, b in Skibbereen, m in Russagh, and in Maulbrack, store in Deelish|142: 2 m in Carrigtishane, c, t, and in Leap, and on Castleisland quay, p in Curran| 143: c & t in Roury Glen, m in Bugatia, c & t, p in Knocknagappul|144: 0|145: 0| 146: 0|147: p in Cloughanaculleen, p in Goleen town|148: in Lowertown and in Croagh Bay|149: 0|150:, p in Baltimore, in Ardnagrena and in Donegall West, m in Rathmore|151: 2m in Lahardane More, p in Bawnishall, and in Lickowen|152: 0|153: p on Clear Island| End. DERRY 49 Sheets. Data as of 1838. Sheet 1: 0|2: c & k in Aughil and in Bogtown|3: c in Glenmanus|4: c in Ballywatt Legs|5: 2 c in Ballycarton|6: 0|7: c in Lower Baltreagh and in Ballyclaber, new c in Tullans|8: c and barley mill in Articrunaght South|9: c & k, 2 f in Walworth, k in Ballykeen and in Tamlaught, b, distillery in Newtown Limavady alias Rathbradybeg|10: m in Dummond, c in Ardmore, 2 m in Killybrady|11: k in Craigmore and in Ballycaghan, m in Ballynacanon|12: c in Culcrow|13: c in Ballynagrorty, f in Pennyburn|14: 2 m in Ardlough, c & k in Cloghole, p in Gort|15: c in Faughanvale|16: c in Sesnagh and in Magheramore|17: p in Drumagosker|18: c in Killyvally|19: c & k in Bovagh|20: 2 m in Killea, c in Termonbacca West, corn market in Derry, p on riverside in Ballymagowan|21: 0|22: c in Glenkeen, m in Toneduff|23: c in Creg and in Kiltycor, p in Kiltycor|24: m in Ballyharigan, 2 m in Bonnanaboigh|25: p in Dungiven, m in Ballyness|26: 0|27: 0|28:0|29: c in Tullintrain, in Tireighter, and in Straid, c & k, p in Stranaghawilly, k in Kilgort|30: t in Eden, c, t in Derrychier, c in Gallany|31: 2 m in Crabarkey|32: m in Granaghan| 33: 0|34: old malt kiln in Dreen|35: m, p in Tobermore|36: b in Maghera|37 p in Cabragh|38: 0|39: 0|40: c & k in Cavanreagh, k in Moykeeran, c, t in Straw, k in Cloughrin|41: m in Desertmartin and in Dunarnon|42: m in Polepatrick, 2 c in Tamniaran|43: 0|44: 0|45: c in Cloghan|46: k in Turnaface|47: k in Carraloan, distillery in Ballyronan Beg, k in Drumrot|48: c in Arboe, part of|49: 0| End DONEGAL: 110 Sheets. Data as of 1838-39. Sheet 1: 0|2: c in Craigmore|3: 0|4: still house in Knockglass, k in Killin, in Ballycramsey, in Meenaboy, and in Balleeghan Lower, c in Malin and in Culkeeny, 2 k in Drumnavohy|5: k in Dunrose near Caldaff|6: 2 k in Tory Island|7: 0|8: c, t in Coolback|9: p in Dunaff|10: malt kiln in Urismeena, k, t in Meendoran, k in Straid, still house in Roosky|11: c in Strath and in Milltown, k in Ballylosky West, 2 k in Clogherny, m in another Milltown ½ mile west, t, p in Carndonagh|12: c & k in


Carrower, in Ardnagorp, and in Tremone, k in Clonca, in Ballybreen, and in Carrowmeenagh|13: 0|14: k on Inishdoory Island, Still House on Inishbofin Island| 15:c & k in Castlebane, k in Corcregan, and in Dunfanaghy, p in Dunfanaghy|16: c & k in Derrycassan|17: c in Ballymagaghy South, c & k in Carrickart, and in Aghalatty Middle, k in Aghlatty, in Gortnamona, in Ballyheeran Lower, and in Cloughfin Lower, 2k in Springfield, p in Rosnakill|18: c in Lederg, c & k in Ballycallan, and in Linsfort, k in Ballybolagan, in Magherawardan, and in Tonduff| 19: old c in Claggan Lower, Still Houses in Ballinlough, and in Carroghill, p in Ballinlough|20: c in Carrowblagh|21: c in Millmount, and in Moville, c & k in Glencrow, k in Gulladoo|22: c in Drumwee, k in Ballybrack, in Piper Hill, and in Greencastle, p in Greencastle|23: 3k in Brinlack, 2k south of Glashagh, k in Knockfola, in Glashagh|24: 2c, t in Glebe, 2k in Sruhanreagh, k in Meenlaragh, in Derryconor, in Ardsbeg, in Keeldrum Lower, in Ardsmore, in Gortahork, in Coyles Town, in Mulkerrins Town, in Maam, and west of Sruhanreagh, p in Gortahork|25: malt k in Fort Town, k in Carrowcanon, in Falcarragh, in Tullaghabegly, in Starraghan, in Derryreel, in Port Lower, Port Upper, in Roshin, and in KIldarragh| 26: c in Masiness, c & k in Magherarorty, in Glenmenagh, and in Dunmore, k, p in Glenisk, 2k, t in Killmackiloo, k in Creenasmear, in New Town, in Ballymore Lower, in Doocashel Lower, in Creeshlough, in Ballyboe, in Ummerard, in Aghadachor, in Creevagh, in Drum Irish, in Mullan, in Cashel, in Drumeason, Drumlackagh, in Kill, in Carnagore, in Drumdutton, in Ballnaworthra, and in Glenieraragh|27: c, k in Carrowkeel, k in Upper Town, “R.C. kiln” in Tawnylough, Cooladrum, in Devlin South, and in Devlinmore (Newtown)|28: c & k in Tirlaydan, and in Lehardan, k in Drumfad Upper and in Drumhallagh Lower|29: c & k in Stranacarta (north of Buncrana) and near Kinnagoe|30: c in Carrowkeel|31: t in Carrickmaquigley|32: 3 k in Arduns, 2k in Ardnagappary, in Lunniagh, and in Sheskinbeg, m in Bunbeg, k in Gola Island, in Magheraclogher, Stranabroohey, in Stranmackilmartin, and in Derrybeg|33: c & k in Meenderrygamph, 2k in Beltany Lower, in Beltany Upper, and in Cashelnagor, k in Keeldrum Middle, in Keeldrum Upper, in Fawnaboy Lower, in Meenaboy, and in Meenacreevagh, p in Pound Town|34: k near Procklis Lough, another E. of Altan Lough|35: k in Ballyess, in Derrylaggy, and in Derriscligh, malt k in Meenlaragh|36: c & k in Kilwarry, and in Ballygay, c, p in Moyle, corn stores at wharf, c in Milford, k in Carrownasaul, in Carrownaganonagh, in Ballyscanlon Lower, in Tullybeg, and in Glen Upper|37: c & k in Drumherrive and in Rathmullan, c near Ballynakilly, 2k in Kinletteragh, k in Ballyconnelly, nr. Thorn Lough, and in Gortlough, p in Rathmullan|38: c in Ballyderowen, and in Trooperstown, k in Carrontlieve, m in Drumhaggart|39: c & k in Tuck Point, m in Muff Lodge and in Aught East, t in Drumskellan|40: 2k on Cruit Island, k on Owey Island, and in Rathmullan, in Arlands, in Keadew, and in Cruit Lower|41: 6k in Doe, 4k in Rinafarset, 3k in Meenaderrynasloe, and in Derrynamansher, 2k Mullahdoo Irish, in Mullaghdoo Scotch, in Meenalecky, in Knockastaller, and in Cronaguiggy, k in Braade, in Meenaduff, in Loughanure and nr. Loughanure Lough|42: 2c in Meenacung, and in Moneymore, c near Lough Nacrick, in Moneybeg, in GlenTornan, in Meenabull, nr. Dunlewy House, and in Dunlewy, Still House in Moneybeg|43: k in Glenbeagh|44: c & k in Milltown, c in Carrowtrasnagh Lower, 2k in Glebehill, k near Gartan bridge, in Whitehill, in Cloncarney, in Boheolan, in Milltowncarrick, and in Dromore|45: c, t in Miltown, c in Ballaghderg, in Tully Hall, in Ballyare House, and in Cashelshanaghan, f in Drummonaghan, k in Legnahoory, in Skerry, in Cashelgay, Ballyare House, and


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Glen Upper, p in Kilmacrenan|46: b, p in Rathmelton, b in Ballybegly Little, d, p in Newtowncunningham, c in Newmill, k in Cashelshanagher|47: d in Bohullion Lower, e in Bridgetown, p in Moness|48: 3k, p near Ballintra, 2k in Glashbeggan, k in Aphor, in Gorgarra, in Leabgarrow, in Fallagowan, in Inishcod, in Inishfree Upper, in Clogherdillure, in Burtonport, and in Roshinacres|49: c, p in Dunglow, 3k east of Lough Meela, 2k in Crovehy, k near Lough Atercam, in Cruickaghmore, in Lefinn, in Meenmore, in Sheskin, at Ballaghfill Lough, in Lettercau, in Argullies, and in Meenderryherk, Revenue Barracks in Meenmore|50: k north of Lough Agher, and in Tor, Still House in Commeen|51: k in Drumnasharvagh|52: c, t at Leanan Bridge, c & k in Drumbulloge, and near Rathdonnell House, k in Ardaturr, in Ballynascall, in Claggan South, in Meenawilligan, in Seacor Big, in Cabra Glebe, in Pollans, and in Stackarnagh, Revenue Barracks in Church Hill|53: corn market & shambles in Letterkenny, c & k in Garrowcarry, and in Sallaghgrane, c in Lytles Grove, in Greanagh, and in Castle Wray, k in Windyhall, in Aghalenty, Dromore Lower and in Trimragh Lower, p in Old Town|54: c & 2k in Balleeghan, c & k in Pluck, in Drumoghill, and in Glansmill, c in Milltown, and in Burnside, k in Manorcunningham, in Gentle Dooish,and in Largy Dooish|55: c & k in Church Town, c, f in Carrigans, c near Roosky bridge, in Clashygowran Upper, and in Cloon, 2k in Legnaduff, k in Creeve Lower, in Listicall Lower, in Monglass, in Cloughfin and in Garshooey Upper, m in Altaghaderry|56: 2k in Crohy, k in Roshin South|57: 2 k in Meenabollagan, k in Meenrain, in Derryruel Upper, in Derryruel Lower, and in Meenatotan|58: old k in Cloghernagore|59: 3 malt k in Stranabrad Lower|60: c & k in Treankeel Upper, 5k in Cark, k in Altinieran, and in Lettershanbo, 5 malt k in Carrickalangan, 2 malt k in Lenalea, malt k in Meenaneagh, in Ballymagig, in Killymasny, in Kirkneedy, and in Pilliad|61: c & k in Lurgy Upper, c in Knockbrack Upper, k in Dooballagh, and in Starritstown|62: c in Mill Town, and in Dromore, malt k in Winnyhaw, malt house in Mountain Park| 63: k in Castletown Lower|64: 2k in Summy, 2k (one old), p in Lackagh, t in Martin’s Lough|65: c & k in Maas, c in Meenagowen, 3k in Boyoughter, 2 k in Cleenagort, k in Derry Lough, in Kincrum, and in Mulnaminbeg|66: Revenue Police Barracks, p in Fintown, old k in Dalraghamore|67: c in Mill Bridge, k in Meenanarwa, in Letterbrick, in Garvan, and in Kilrean, Malt k in Kilrean|69: c in Callanacor, in Drumgumberland, in Tullydonnel Lower, k in Drumkean, in Tullydonnel Upper, and in Carrickbrack Lower, t in Ballyboe|70: c & k in Carrickbrack Lower, and in Lisnabert, c in Beltany, in Brock’s Town, in Magherashanvally, in Ballymonaster, in Tullyrap, and in Millsessiagh, 2k in Cottown, k in Powderly Middle, in Shannagh, and in Broadlea, malt k in Magherahaan, p in Raphoe|71: p in Drumboy, and in Lifford|72: k in Glenlough|73: 2k in Summy, k in Drumirren, in Laconnell, in Loughill, and old k in Derryness North, p in Ardara|74: c in Mullantiboyle, k in Garvegort, in Letterilly, in Derries, in Kilrean Upper, and in Meenachallow, old k in Tullymore, p in Glenties, t in Doochillnorth|75: K in Meenamalragh, t in Mully|76; 3k in Ballykeegan, k in Clogher East, in Dergroagh, in Crolack, in Meenasrone South, and in Drumderrydonan, k in Drumderrydonan|77: c & k in Goland Lower, k in Carrickmagrath, and near Burnside, p in Ballybobaneen|78: c & 2k in Avaltygort, c & k in Carrickmagrath, in Cavan, and in Dromore, c in Stranorlar, in Dreenan, in Drumboe Lower, in Ballybofey, and in Kilcaddan, k in Clonyreal, old malt k in Corgary, p in Stranorlar, Peace Police Barracks in Ballybofey|79: c & k in


meenlougher, c in Drummurphy, in Grahamsland, in Mullanboy Lower, Magherycallaghan, and in Ballybogan, k in Leaght, in Bogsde, in Shaw’s Town, Blairstown, Tirnagushoge, and Gortamuck Upper|80: 2k in Garveross, in Drum, and in Cashel, k in Beefan, in Ballard, and in Cloghan|81: c in Kilgoly, 2k in Kinnakillew, in Loughaherk, in Straboy, and in Croweighter, k in Port, in Drum, in Meenasillagh, in Meenacross, in Meenadiff, in Meenadreen, in Braade Upper, in Altclough, in Largybrack, in Meenacharvy, in Owenteskiny, a sheepfold on Toralaydan Island|82: c & 2k in Bracky, 2k in Crowlar, and in Meentashesk, k in Loughnalughraman, in Stravally, in Crumlin, in Kinnoughty, in Aighe, and in Meenakillew|83: 3k in Altnagapple, k in Corker More, and in Tullynalaggan|84: 2k in Sallows, and in Disert, k in Meentacreeghan|85:0 |86: malt k in Meenashammer| 87: 2k, old malt house in Meenashinnis, k in Gallaghers Town, and in Crossalaghy, Malt k in Meenashammer, old malt house in Gortahork|88:0|89: c & k in Malinmore, k in Malinbeg|90: c in Carrick Lower, 2k in Ballymacphadin, k, p in Meenavean, k in Stranakirk, in Straleel South, in Straleel, in Umuskan, in Crowanrudda, and in Derrylaghan|91: c & k in Croughlin|92: k in Meentullynagarn, in Meengilcarry, in Curraghnafeaghan, and in Drummacacullen|93:2c & k in Mountcharles, c in Gortlosky, p in Drumark, fish market, cow market, bonded yard in Donegal town|94: c & k in Lougheask, c in Drumlaght, old k in Tawnaghgorm, m in Clarlougheask|95:0|96: c & k in Kilcar, and in Meentakeeraghan, k in Cashelcarn, p in Kilcar|97: c & k near Fintragh, k in Largysillagh, p in Killybegs|98: c & 2k, t in Hollybrook, c & k in Ballymagowan, k in Drumconor|99: k in Drumconor, in Drumgorman Barr, and in Drummanus Glebe, f in Urbalshinny|100: c in Tullylosckan, k in Laghy, p in Carrick East|101: 0|102: k near Lettercran|103: c in Ballynacarrick, c, p in Lismintan, k in Lurgan|104: k in Glaskeeragh|105: c in Ardnaglass, k in Ragarson, and in Fincashel, p in Pettigoe|106:0|107: c in Portnason, and in Abbey Island, d in Ballyshannon|109:0|110:0| End DOWN: 57 Sheets. Data as of 1833-34. Sheet 1: 2m in Holywood (Ballykeel townland), m in Ballymullan (near Crawfordsburn), and in Ballykeel|2: 2c in Ballymaconnell, c in Bangor town, and in Portavoe, f, w in Ballymaconnell, w in Ballygrainey|3: p in Donaghadee town|4: c in Multyhogy, 2m in Ballymacarret, m in Ballyhackamore|5: c in Ballymaglaff village, 2m in Tullycarnet, in Ballylisbredan, in Carrowreagh, m in Corporation South, and in Ballyrogan|6: c in Ballycopeland, 2m in Corporation South, m in Ballyharry, p in Newtownards|7: 2c in Ballymacruise, c in Ballycopeland|8:0|9: 2m in Belvedere, in Ballynavally, and in Ballycowan, m in Drumbeg, in Knockbreckan, and in Ballydollaghan, p in Ballycowan|10: c in Gransha, in Tullyhubbert, and in Cullintran, f in Gransha, in Town Parks (outside of Comber town), and in Comber, 2d in Comber, k in Gransha, m in Solitude, in Gransha, in Ballinkeel, in Stockart, and in Castlebeg, 2w Longlands, p in Comber|11: 3m, k in Cunningburn|12: 2c in Ballybryan, and in Ballywater, c in Ganaway, k in Ballybryan, and in Ballywaler, m in Ganaway, in Ballybryan, w in Dunover|13: 2c in Drumo & Drumcro, c in Kilmore, in Drumbane, and in Ore (south of Knockadoney hill), p in Clare (town of Moira)|14: c in Duneight, d in Culcavy, 2m in Hillsborough, and in Ravernet, m in Damask Beachfield, p in Hillsborough|15: c in Bresagh, 3m in Lagacurry, m in Dreenan, and in Carrickmaddyroe, wnd in Hill Hall, and in Cabragh|16: 2c, f, w in Glassdrumman, 2c in Kilmood & Ballybunden, c in Ballyknockan, in Ballycloghan, in Tullygarvan, in Ravara, and in Carrickmann, f in Carsonstown, p in Sainfield Parks, t in Ravara|17: 2c in Balloo, c in Ballyministragh, and Killinchy, k in Balloo,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” wnd in Killinchy|18: 2c in Ballyhalbert, c in Kilcubbin, south of Kilcubbin, and in Ballyhemlin, k in Ballyhalbert, p in Glastry|19: m in Magherana, p in Ballynagarrick|20: granary and f in Banoge, b in Magherana (near Waringstown House)|21:0|22: m in Cluntagh, and in Magheraknock, p in Ballykine Upper, wnd in Ballynahinch|23: c in Barnamaghery, and in Killinchy (in the woods), 2f in Rademan, m in Leggygowan|24: 2wnd in Ringdufferin|25: 3c in Ballyheely, 2c in Ardkeen, c in Ballywallon, and in Cloughy, k in Ballymacnamee, m in Ballywallon, p in Ardkeen and in Drumardanquarter|26: 2c in Loughans, c in Kernan, and in Drumnascamph, f in Tullylish|27: c in Edenderry, in Banbridge, in Edenordinary, and in Skillyscolban, f, wnd in Banbridge|28: c in Skeagh, in Kinallen, in Finnish, and in Dromara, 3m in Garvaghy, m in Enagh, and in Tullinisky, p in Dromara|29: 2c in Drumaness, c in Ballylone Big, 2m in Magheradrool, m in Ballylone Big, and in Edendarriff|30: c in Lissara, and in Rosconnor, 2f in Lisnamore, 2m Carnacally, p in Grossgar|31: c in Finnabrogue, in Ballintogher, in Carrowvanny, in Audleys Town, in Strangford Lower and in Ballyculter Lower, d in Quoile, wnd in Lisboy, and in Carrownacaw|32: c in Tullyboard, and in Kearney, p in Ballyphillip|33: c, k, p in Scarva, c & k in Lisnabrague|34: c, f in Balloolymore, c in Cappagh, in Lisnasliggan, in Derrydrummuck, and in Derrylough, k in Greenan, m in Drumnahare|35: 2c, f in Shannaghan, c in Balloolymore, and east of Gransha, 2m in Moneyslane, m in Cloghskelt|36: c in Leitrim, in Backaderry, and in Druma road|37: c, f in Drumgooland, c in Magheralagan, and in Lisnamaul, 2f in Ballydugan, p in Naghan, and in Downpatrick|38: c & k NE of Downpatrick, and west of Saul, c in Ballywarren and on Killough road|39: c in Kilclief|40: c in Ballymacatty Beg|41: c in Ringbane, near Barnmeen, at Ballynamagna, and in Drumlough|42: c in Ballymoney, 2m in Lackan, and in Tirygory, m in Ballyward, and in Gargarry|43: c, k in Clarkill, p in Aghacullion|44: c in Cloghram, in Dundrum, and in Ballykinlar| 45: c in Sheepland Beg, p in Killough|46: corn market, hide market, 3b, d, p in Newry, c in Drumcashellone, f in Lisdrumgullion, m in Drummiller|47: 2c in Desert, c in Bavan, 4f in Derryleckagh, f in Desert|48: c in Ballymaghery, and in Carcullion, p in Hilltown|49: 2c in Tullyree, m in Newcastle|50: 0|51: m in Milltown, p in Aghavilly|52: 0|53: m in Mullartown|54: c in Rosstrevor, p in Warrenpoint, and in Rosstrevor, wnd in Warrenpoint|55: p in Kilkeel|56: c in Aughnahoory|57: 0| End DUBLIN: 26 sheets. Data as of 1843-44. Sheet 1: threshing machine in Flemington|2: m in Balbriggan, threshing machine in Bremore|3: 0|4: c, wnd in Walshestown, f, p in Naul|5: c in Skerries|6: 0|7: c in Westpalstown, in Gracedieu, and in Woodpark, threshing machine in Skidoo|8: c in Whitestown, threshing machine in Portraine, wnd in Ballough|9: 0|10: 0|11: 0|12: wnd in Feltrim|13: c in Blanchardstown, m in Mulhuddart|14: p in Finglas|15: c in Portmarnock|16:0|17: c in Lucan, and in Clondalkin, f in Ballymakally, in Palmerstown, and in Broomfield, m in Grange|18: c in Clonliff East, f in Islandbridge, in Clonturk, in Harolds Cross, in Mount Jerome, and in Beggars Bush, d in St. Catherine’s, woolen m in Chapelizod, in Blue Ball, and in Drimnagh, 7 or 8 m in Dublin|19: 0|20: 0|21: c in Rathcreedan, in Saggart, in Greenoge, and in Fairview, various m in Corkagh, p in Rathcoole|22: c in Tallaght, 2f in Haarlem, f in Kimmage, in Templeoge and in Willbrook, woolen m in Oldfield, starch m in


Windyharbour, old m in Rathfarnham|23: b in Stillorgan, p in Stepaside|24: 0|25: 0| 26: old c in Ticknick, “site of t” in Mullinastill|27:0|28: 0| End. FERMANAGH: 43 sheets. Data as of 1836, 37, 38. Sheet 1: c & k in Drumnagallragh, c in Mullanmeenunder, k in Drumgowna West|2: c in Gushedybeg, k in Drumbristan, in Tirwhinny and in Tirmacspird|3: 0|4: c & k , woolen m in Gobnagurnie, k in Tullychurly|5: c & k in Drumbane, c in Drumnarullagh, k in Bannaghbeg, in Kesh, in Roscah, and in Crevinish, p in Kesh, m in Drumnacahan|6: 4c in Edenaclough, 2k in Kilsmullan, k in Crimlin, in Oghill, in Killygarry, in Slievebane, in Edenclaw Little, in Drumgivery, in Clonee, in Drumboarty, in Tirwhinny, in Drumsawna More, in Edenamohill, in Meenmore, and Tedd, p in Ederny, and in Lack|7: 0|8: c & k in Ballymagaghran, c in Belleek and in Farrancassidy, k in Druminillar|9: c & k in Drumreask, k in Whiterocks|10: c & k in Shallany, k in Glenrose, in Drumshane, and in Drumskea, Malt k in Rossmore, p in Lisnarrick|11: k in Coolaness, in Knockroe, in Cullaghmore, in Glenall, in Drumbo, and in Keeran, 2 “kilns” in Cullaghmore|12: 0|13: c & k, p in Garrison, k in Gorteen|14: p in Dogbig, c in Gortgor, 2k in Meenagleragh and in Glennashevar, k in Derrynafaugher, and in Connagher East, “kiln” in Rossinuremore, and “old kiln” in Carrick|15: c & 2k in Rosspoint, c in Derrygonnelly, and in Tullycreevy, k in Claragh, in Roosky, in Caseystown, in Drumcaw, and in Buninubbor, m in Roosky, p in Castletownmonea|16: c, f in Ballycassidy, c, p in Bellinamallard, k in Drumshinbeg, and in Ballindullagh Inward, “kiln” in Cavanalough Glebe|17: c & k in Drumcor, 2k in Knockennis, and in Immercoo, k, p in Glen, k in Letterbailey, and in Coolcan|17: k, p in Clabby|19: c & k in Tullybellina, k in Slattinagh, and in Frevagh, p in Agho|20: k in Legland, “kiln” in Tievebunna, and in Teebane|21: c & k in Aghaherrish, in Gortgall, and in Monaghan, c in Dinnydoon, k in Drumhirk Lower, p in Carn|22: c, t in Derrykeeghan, c in Tullydevinish, and in Rossole, b, d, p in Enniskillen|23: c & k in Creevehill, in Corralongford, and in Cooneen, c in Mullyknock, in Doon, in Edenmore, in Greenhill, in Tullyullagh, and in Tullykenneye, p in Edenmore|25: c, old t, p in Cavancarragh, k in Meenawargy, sheepfold in Marlbank|26: c & k in Moneen, c in Mullycovet, and in Dooederny|27: c & k in Lisbellaw, 2 c in Tully, c in Farnamullan|28: c & k in Tully North, c in Drumlone, in Drumgoon, in Boyhill, and in Littlemount, m in Draperhill, p in Brookeborough|29: 2k in Bunnisnagapple, k in Ardmoney, in Mullanvaum, in Eshnadarragh, and in Bunlougher, t in Curraghfad, p in Eshnasillog More|30: c & k in Corraleek, k in Corragunt|31: 0|32: c & k, p in Tully (near Florencecourt), c in Gubbacrock|33: p in Keelpark Glebe|34: c, f in Roosky, c in Knocks, p in Lisnaskea, m in Mushwash, and in Donagh|35: c, p in Keeranbeg, c in Aghadrumsee & Killygorman, k in Greaghnagore, and in Cortrasna|36: c in Tonity Bog, k, p in Roslea, k in Annaghlee, old k in Tonnaghboy, and in Derryheanlish|37: 0|38: c & k in Glasdrummon, c in Milltown, m in Leginn|39: 0|40: 2c , p in Newtown Butler, c in Corvaghan, and in Mullynavannoge, p in Shanock Green|41: 0|42: m in Killymackan|43: 0| End GALWAY: 137 sheets. Data as of 1841-42. Sheet 1: c & k in Knockanarra, k in Croaghill, and in Fortyacres, 2 “kiln” in Croaghill, and in Carrownderry|2: c & k, f, p in Ballymoe, 2k in Booklagh|3: 0|4: c & k in Conagher|5: k, m, in Attiflynn|6: c & k in Gortaganny, in Kilsallagh (O’Brien’s), and in Templetogher (Egan’s), c in Polremon, k, p, in Kilnalag, k in Cloonmaghaura Middle, in Cloonmaghaura New, in Curragh West, in Cloonkeen, in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Pollshask, in Classaghroe, in Castletogher (Rook Hill), p in Derrywode|7: c & k in Glinsk, k in Kilmacrickard|Sheets 8 through 13: nil|14: p in Churchfield Lower|15: m in Belmont, p in Ardour|16: m in Milltown, in Lack, and in Fartamore, p in Cloonacross|17: c & k, m in Addergoole More, c in Clooneen, k in Knockatoe East, p in Dunmore|18: c & k in Woodfield, and in Glennamaddy, c in Lettera, k in Gortagarrow, in Shannagh More, and in Clooncon East|19: 2c in Millpark|20: malt k in Creggauns|21: 0|22: c in Shanboolard, k in Leagaun, and in Shinnanagh, p in Crockanroe, t in Streamstown|23 through 25: nil|26: t in Teeranea|27: 2m in Creggaree|28: f in Shrule|29: c in Kilcreevanty, c, 2m, b, old m, 2 old wnd in Tuam| 30: c & k in Cloonconra, c in Birmingham demesne, m in Drumaskin|31: 2c, t near Cloonkeen bridge, p in Kilkerrin|32: c in Milltown|33:0|34: 0|35: old m in Ardagh, b, m, p in Clifden|36 through 40: nil|41: 2c in Ower|42: 0|43: c in Claretuam, k south of Tuam, w in Carrowbeg|44: c in Garbaun, and in Coolrevagh|45: p in Mount Bellew|46: c in Cloonreleagh East, in Killian, and in Cloonnabricka, k in Carrownafreevy, f in Ballynalahy, t in Cloonabricka, sheepfold in Longford|47: t in Ballinlass|48: 0|49: 0|50: k in Roundstone (no. of )|51: 0|52: 0| 53: 0|54: c, p in Oughterard|55: 0|56: c, p in Bunnatober|57: p in Corofin|58: c, f in Abbey, f in Newtown, c in Ballygloonan|59: c in Killoscobe, p in Menloughoughter, and in Fairhill|60: c in Greenville, and in Cloonfree, p in Castleblakeney|61: c & k in Kilglass, and in Ahascragh, p in Ahascragh|62: 0|63: 2k in Letterard, k in Moyrus| 64: k in Croghnut, k, malt k in Loughacone|65: 3k in Derryrush|66: 0|67: k in Killaguile|68: 0|69: p, 3m in Cregg|70: p in Claregalway, and in Barnaboy|71: 0|72: c in Killooaun, k in Fahy|73: c at Annagh bridge, and in Cloonatleva Lower|74: c & k, t in Shanboley|75: 0|76: k in Ardwest, in Letterdeskert, and in Cuilleen|77: c, p in Carna|78 through 83, nil|84: 2c, p in Athenry, c in Carrowntober East, t in Kilcornan|85: c & k in Tormaun, c in Raford, k near Wood Lough|86: c & k in Gortmore, and in Killaan, c & 2k in Ballinderry, old malt m in Knockbrack, p in Kilconnell|87: c & 2k in Ballinderry, c in Knockglass, and in Lissavahaun, p in Aughrim|88: c, m, canal stores (on Grand Canal) in Ballinsloe, p, Revenue Police Barrack (west of Ballinasloe), f in Pollboy, p in Abbey Park|89: c in Slateford, p on Lettermullan Island|90: p in Carrowroe South|91: k in Polnameeltoge Harbour, p in Loughaunbeg|92: 0|93: p in Barna|94: 5f, tread m, 2t, d, b, corn stores at dock in Galway City|95: f, p, b, Oranmore|96: m in Creggan, and in Strongfort|97: c, p in Clogharevaun, c & k in Lackafinea, m in Killilan|98: t in Chelsea|99: c & k in Springfield, in Cloonlahan, and in Kiltormer|100: threshing machine at Ballymore Castle|101 through 103: nil|104: c, f in Esker Hanore, c in Edenhill|105: 2c, f, t in Ballingarry, c & k in Ballygasty, and in Cosmona, f, p, b in Loughrea, p in Glenaclara West|106: c & k in Lecarrow, k in Kilcooly, c in Drumatober|107: c in Lisduff, c, p in Killimor|108: c in Derry, threshing machine in Quainsborough Lodge, w in Keenaghan|109: c & k in Kilnaborris, c in Keeloge (on the Shannon r), old c in Esker (near the Shannon)|110: 0|111: 0|112: f in Rinneen|113: k in Shessanagirba, p in Kinvara|114: p in Ardrahan|115: malt k in Toormacnevin|116: c & k, t in Shanbally, c in Allygola, in Leitrim More, and in Limehill, c, p, in Duniry, 4k in Tooreen North, k in Kylebrack West, and in Lisheeny|117: c in Cloonconbeg, p in Skehanagh, and in Tynagh|118: c in Gortawullaun|119: 0 (Inishmaan Island)| 120: 0 (Inisheer Island)|121: 0|122: c, p in Gort|123: c, t in Ballylee, c in Ballaba, old c & k in Castleblake|124: k in Derreennamucka|125: k in Derreennamucka, and in Druminnacootia, and in Laughil, p in Woodford|126: 0|127: corn stores beside


harbour at Palmestown House, b in Portumna|128: c in Pollduagh|129: 0|130: 0|131: k in Loughatorick South, m, old malt k, south of Woodford,, m, t, in Coos North| 132: k in Derrycrag|133: k in Knockatoo Mountain|134: c in Sellernaun East, k in Derrycon Upper|135: k in Ballyroe, p in Whitegate|136: k in Middleline South, c, p in Mount Shannon|137:0| End KERRY: 110 Sheets. Data as of 1841,42. Sheet 1: 0|2: 0|3: 0|4: 0|5: p in Lisselton|6: 0|7: 0|8: p in Cloghanebane|9: t, p in Kilmore, p in Ballyduff|10: t in Islandganniv North, m in Listowel, p in Coolkeragh, and in Knockanasig|11: 0|12: 0|13: c in Ballynoe|14: c, t in Caherbulla, c near Ballynoe, t, m in Ballynoe, p in Togherbane, and in Ballyheige|15: p in Dromkeen West|16: p in Ballynageragh, in Knockburrane, in Knockawilly, and in Toornageehy| 17: p in Duagh|18:0|19: 0|20: p in Ardfert|21: c, t in Milltown, t, p in Kilflynn|22: 0| 23: p in Knocknagashel|24: p in Brosna|25: sheep fold in Slieveglass|26: 0|27: c in Martramane|28: c in Liscahane, p in Chapeltown|29: 3b, shambles, p in Tralee, d in Ballymullen, w, p in Blennerville, p in Clogherbrien, in Cloonanorig, in Lisloose, and in Ballybeggan, m in Ballyseedy|30: t in Clogher, m in Tonreagh Lower, p in Mweelinroe|31: 0|32: 0|33: 0|34: 0|35: c in Balliniry, p in Cloghane, and in Kilcummin More|36: c, t in Tullaree, p in Duagh, and in Cappaclogh East|37: c, p in Derrymore West, t, m in Curraheen, m in Knockglass more, p in Killelton|38: p in Caherleheen|39: p in Kilcow|40: c, t in Castleisland, p nr Castleisland (E. of), f, woolen m in Tobermaing, p in Cordal West, and in Ballinard|41: 0|42: p in Marhin, in Ballyaglisha, and in Teeravane|43: f, b, m, p in Dingle, c, 2t, in Milltown, c, t in Ballyheabought, c in Flemingstown, and in Kilfountain, p in Ballycanneen, 3 sheep folds in Leamirlea|44: p in Garrynadur, and in Emlagh|45: c, t in Derrygorman, p in Ballyandreen, in Ballynane, and in Gortbreagoge|46: k, store at Tincally Point on water’s edge, p in Lack, 2m in Castledrum, m in Gortanaden|47: c store, p in Castlemaine, p in Kilcolman, and in Ballyfinnane|48: p, m in Killahane, p in Castlefarm, and in Dysert|49: t, p in Ballahantouragh, t in Knockrower West|50: 0| 51: 0|52: sheep folds in Fahan, p in Cantra|53: 0|54: p in Foheraghmore|55: 0|56: p, m in Killorglin, p in Ownagarry|57: p in Faha East, m in Meanus|58: t in Dromadeesirt, p in Rockford East, and in Ballyhar|59: 0|60: p in Lisheen, 2m in Shinnagh|61: 0|62: 0|63: c, t in Curra, p in Kilnabrack Upper|64: p in Ballintleave| 65: c, t in Tomies West, p in Kilgobnet, m in Pallis|66: c in Coolclogher, f in Coollegrean, b, p in Killarney, m in Cloghereen|67: t, p in Headford, p in Brewsterfield|68: t in Drom, p in Readrinagh|69: 0|70: 0|71: 0|72: p in Shanacashel| 73: 0|74: 0|75: p in Rusheen Beg, and in Gortdromakiery|76: 0|77: 0|78: p in Feaghmaan West|79: p in Boherboy, 2m in Carhan Low|80: p in Coars, and in Srugreana, sheepfield in Garrane North|81: p in Ballynakilly, sheep fold in Coomleagh|82: 0|83: 0|84: 0|85: 0|86: 0|87: p in Lateeve, and in Ballyhearny West| 88: t in Ballard Upper, p in Aghatubrid, and in Fermoyle|89: t in Inchiboy, in Dromod, and in Garreiny, p in Mastergeehy|90: sheepfold in Coshcumme*ragh|91: 0| 92: p in Drumkerron|93: t in Gortamullin, p in Kenmore, in Mucksna, and in Gearhadiveen|94: c, p in Ardtully|95: 0|96: p in Rathkieran|97: 0|98: c, t in Ballybrack, p in Loher, and in Waterville|99: 0|100: t in Derreennamucklagh, and in Ardea, p in Scrahannagaur, and in Tahilla|101: p in Dawros|102: 0|103: 0|104: 0| 105: 0|106: 0|107: m in Liss|108: 0|109: p in Lehid, and in Garranes|110: 0|111: 0| End KILDARE: 40 Sheets. Data as of 1837,38.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Sheet 1: c in Bunglass/Ballyonan|2: 0|3: c in Garrisker, and in Cornamucklagh, p in Cadamstown|4: c in Johnstown, f in Gorteen|5: c, b, d in Kilco*ck, c in Ballycannon, b, m, kiln in Maynooth|6: 0|7: 0| 8: 2c, p in Carbury, c in Clonkeen, w in Dreenan|9: 0|10: c in Baltracey|11: 2m in Newtown near Celbridge, woolen m in Celbridge, f in Parsonstown, d in Newtown, c, d, p in Leixlip|12: 0|13: 0|14: c in Clane, in Ladycastle Lower, f in Turnings Lower, woolen m in Carrigeen|15: c in Clonaghlis, t in Tuckmilltown|16: 0|17: 3f, p in Rathangan|18: f in Yeomans, m in Milltown|19: c, f in Osberstown, 2c in Naas, c in Newhall, in Tapper North, and in Hartwell Upper, 2f in Maudlings, f in Haynestown, and in Johnstown, p in Kill|20: c in Rathmore East|21: c in Mountrice, f in Millfarm|22: threshing mill in Knavinstown, and in Moorestown|23: f, p in Great Connell, f in Athgarvan|24: 0|25: 0|26: b, d in Monasterevin|27: c in Harristown Lower, and in Tully West, f in Cherrymills, 2m in Nunery|28: c in Kilcullen, in Newabbey, and in Gilltown|29:c in Mullaghboy, in Carnalway, and in Alliganstown, m, woolen m, p in Ballymore-Eustace|30: 0|31: c in Boley Great|32: c, t in Tippeenan Lower, c in Glassely, nr Glassely Ho., in Ballyshannon, in Millfarm, in Kilgowan, and in Colbinstown|33: 0|34: 0|35: c, f, 2b in Athy, c in Tomard, malt house in Rathstewart|36: c, 2f in Noone, c in Ballitore, f in Baltimore|37: f in Levistown, and in Beaconstown, c, reaping hook factory in Castleroe West|38: c, woolen factory in Newtown, c in Belan|39: c, reaping hook factory in Maganey Upper, f in Prumpelstown, m in Woodlands East| End KILKENNY: 47 Sheets. Data as of 1839. Sheet 1: c in Castlemarket|2: 0|3: 0|4: 2m in Ballyconra, f in Castlecomer, m in Russellstown|6: b in Clonen, |7: 0|8: 0|9: 0|10: 2f in Parksgrove, p in Ballyragget|11: c, woolen m in Gaulstown, c, threshing machine in Mill Fall/Coolculla|12: 2f in Urlingford|13: c & k in Clintstown, 2f in Kilrush, in Freshford Lots, and in Clomantagh|14: d in Naglesland, threshing machine in Jenkinstown|15: p in Mountnugent Lower|16: 0|17: 0|18: 0|19: 4f, b, d, p, 3 woolen m in Kilkenny town, f in Archers Grove|20: 2f in Maddockstown, f, p in Gowranstown, d in Warrington| 21: c in Garrydufe, in Paulstown, and in Grange Lower, m in Ballaghcore, and in Grange Lower, p in Grange Lower|22: threshing machine in Rathleek|23: 0|24: c & k in Killrea, c in Sheastown, and Scart, 2f in Bennetts Bridge, f in Ballyredding North, threshing machine in Skeaghaturrish|25: c in Milltown|26: c & k in Kilbrickan, f in Minnauns, in Callan, and in Mill Island|27: c in Newtown, in Rathculbin, and in Rathduff, f in Spruceshay, in Ennisnag nr. church, in Kellsgrange, in Kellsborough, in Garrynamann Lower, in Lawcus, and in Ennisnag nr. dyeing ho., t in Rathduff, and in Garrynamann Lower, m in Ennisnag, threshing machine in Kilcoran, and in Kellsgrange, p in Kells town|28: c in Jerpointchurch, c, 2f, 2b, p in Thomastown, f in Jerpoint, in Ballyroe, and outside Thomastown|29: b, 2m in Graiguenamanagh|30: threshing machine in Coolamore|31: c, p in Kilmaganny, c in Derrynahinch|32: c, t in Cooleroe, c in Jerpointabbey, in Ballylowra, in Ballyduff, and in Inistioge, p, “corn house” in Inistioge|33: c in Inistioge, in Kilcross, and in Killeens, f in Coolnamuck, threshing machine near Ballygub New, p in Farrantemple|34: c in Kilmacoliver, in Birchwood, and at Annsborough Ho., f in Annsborough|35: c in Mullenbeg, and in Lismateige, f in Owning|36: 2c in Lukeswell/Mansels Court|37:2c near Ballyneale Ho., c, f in Glencloglea, d in Raheen|38: f in Knockroe|39: c, p in Banagher, f in Tinnakilly|40: c & k in Mullinavat, c in Glendonnell, and in Deerpark, p in Deerpark|41: 2c in


Robinstown, c, p in Graiguenakill, c in Mullennahone|42: 2c in Portnascully, c in Nicholastown, and in Ballinlough|43: c in kilcow, and in Fahy, 3f, f & k in Kilcow, f in Dangan, in Strangmill, in Newtown, and in Cappagh, woolen m in Skeard|44: c in Ballyroragh, and in Gorteens, f in Rathpatrick|45: 0|46|f in Ferrybank, and in Gorteen nr. Prospect Ho. |47: f in Gorteen nr Gloss Ho.| End LAOIS (then “Queen’s County”): 37 Sheets. Data as of 1839. Sheet 1: 0|2: c in Castlecuff, m, p in Clonaslee|3: c & k at Clarahill Bridge, in Corbally (w. of Rosenallis), in Cappaneary, and in Rinn|4: sheep fold in Forest Lower, f in Portarlington|5: c in Loughmansland Glebe (on the Barrow)|6: 0|7: f in Mountmellick (w. of), Woolen m at Barkmill|8: c in Derrygarran, 2b, d, p in Mountmellick, woolen m so. of Mountmellick|9: p in Ballybrittas|10: 0|11: old m in Cardtown, “site of flour mill” in Rossadown, 2c, k in Killinure|12: old c in Pallas Little|13: 2f in Portlaoise|14: c in Garrymaddock, and in Milland, f in Stradbally|15: 0|16: 2f in Castletown, f in Coolrain|17: c, b, p in Mountrath, f at Woodbine Cottage, c, t in Doon|18:c in Ballycarnan, woolen m in Kilvahan|19: c in Timogue, f, p in Stradbally|20: 0|21: c & k, f, p in Borris-in-Ossory|23: c in Gortnaclea, woolen m at Beechview Ho., worsted m in Fruitlawn, f in Oldtown, b in Abbeyleix| 24: c, p in Ballyroan|25: 0|26: c, threshing machine at Castletown Ho., m in Coolanowle|27: c in Kyleamullaun|28: c, p in Donaghmore, c, f, g, p in Rathdowney|29: f in New Town, woolen m in Fermoyle|30: c in Dysert, b in Ballinakill, woolen m in Ronmills|31: c in Clonbrock, p in Monavea|32: c in Ballickmoyler, c & k, churning machine in Sleaty, k, f in Monksgrange|33: c, t in Templequain| :c & f in Balinafrase, k, f in Aghmacart, c, t in Ballydavin, threshing machine in Cannonswood|35: 0 (This sheet includes Ballykealy whence my paternal g.grandfather James Fogarty & family were evicted in 1836 by British Lord Ashbrook|36: 0|37: f, d, threshing machine in Graigue| End LEITRIM: 38 Sheets, Data as of 1835,36. Sheet 1: 0|2: c & k, p in Moneen|3: 2k in Curryard East, p in Loughmurran|4: 0|5: c & k in Sraud, c, p in Gubnageer|6: c in Launtaggart, malt k in Gleneige|7: k, malt k in Carrickeeny, k in Mulkaun, m in Glebe, c in Fivepoundland, and in Milltown, p in Lurganboy|8: c & k so. of Kiltyclogher, k in Meenagh|10: c & k, p in Carrickanaroo|11: p, t in Manorhamilton, c nr. Curley bridge|12: 2c, k in Sradrine, c in Glenboy, 2k in Barr of Farrow|13: c in Brockagh Lower|14: c & k, p in Drumahaire|15: c & k in Cornamarve, c & k, p in Tullinwillin, p in Blackgardens| 16: c & k in Lisacoaghil, and in Dergvone, c in Derryvalannagher Glebe|17: 0|18: c & 3k in Cornamucklagh North, c & k in Sheena, c in Killadiskert, and in Derrynahinch, k, p in Largandill, k in Corchuill Lower, p in Drumkeeran, 2 malt k in Annagh Upper, Malt k in Derreen Upper, k in Urbal|19: 3k in Slievenakilla, 2k in Tullynahaia, k in Greaghnafarna, in Drumnafinnila Barr, in Urbal Barr, in Sranagarvanagh, and in Aughrim|20: c & k in Cormongan, and in Lavaur, 2k, p in Cornamucklagh South, 2k, p, old k in Greaghnaquillaun|21: 2k in Knockacullion, k in Gubnaveagh, and in Altakeeran|22: c & k in Corraleehan, k in Prabagh, in Cornacreeve, in Drumbrick, in Kiltyhugh, and in Derradda|23: c & k in Mahanagh, and in Drumcroman, c in Drumherriff, and in Drumshanbo, k in Shancurry, in Sheskinacurry, and in Moherrevogagh, p in Blackrock, and on O’Reilly’s Island (in Lough Allen)|24: 2c & 2k in Kiltynashinnagh, c, 2k in Drumlaheen, c & k in Tomloskan, k in Drumrackan, and in Muckros, p in Keshcarrigan|25: c & k in Stradermot, c in Garadice, and in Ardunsaghan, k in Curraghashillaun, p in Fenagh|


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” 26: c & k in Newtowngore, c in Laheen|27: c & k in Carrickevy, and in Kilclaremore, k in Killarcan, and at Leitrim bridge, p, old c, old k in Tonnagh, old k in Kilmaddaroe|28: 2c, k in Annaghderg Lower, c, 2k, p in Doonarah, c & k, t in Annaghearly, c & k in Gortanure North, and in Milltown, k in Mullaghboy, in Drumgowla, and in Meelick|29: c & k in Cornagher, in Aghalough, and in Killyfea, c in Drumore, k in Ardagh|30: c & k in Carrigallen, and in Aghawillin, p in Mullanadarragh|31: f in Jamestown, p in Carrick-on-Shannon, p, corn stores in Drumsna (on Shannon riv)|32: c, 2k in Milltown, and in Cloonfinnan, c in Drumcree, 2k in Ummera, k in Laheen North and in Drumraghool North, p in Springfield|33: c & k in Belscarry, and in Aghavas, k in Drumadorn|34: 0|35: c & k in Drumod, k in Finnalaghta, in Esker North, in Drumlong, in Derreen, in Rooskynamore, in Clooneagh, in Cashel, and in Drumgilra, storehouse on Lough Boffin|36: c & k in Killyvehy, c at Ballantra bridge, k at Drumgilra|37: k in Bellagreeher|38: k in Fearglass South, and in Cloonlaughil| End LIMERICK: 60 Sheets. Data as of 1840, 41, 42. Sheet 1: 0|2: 0|3: 0|4: 0|5: In the following Limerick City districts: 2b, 2m in center, d in Prior’s-Land, hay markets, butter market, corn market, foundry, 2m in St. John’s, potato market in St. Mary’s, 2b in Monamuck, b, 2m in Thom*ondbridge Ward Park, b, pig market in Irishtown, b in Spitall-Land, p in Garryowen, and in Singland, (This completes Limerick city.) 2m in Sreelane, m in Ahacore, and in Corbally|6: c in Keyanna, 2m in Ballyclough, m in Scart|7: 2m in Ashroe, 8: 0|9: p in Loghill|10: 0|11: f, 2m, t, p in Askeaton, 2 corn stores (on river Deel) in Askeaton, c in Moig Nest, p in Pallaskenry|12: p in Kildimo, and in Patrick’s Well, 2 woolen m, 2m in Ballyclough, threshing machine in Greenmount|14: c in Clonkeen, m in Abington|15: p in Dromsallagh| 16: m in Toomaline|17: p in Ballygiltgen North|18: 0|19: p in Shanagolden, f, t in Mullagh|20: c, t in Ballyan, c in Coolballysha, Smithfield (livestock and meat market) in Croagh|21: c in Capparoe (nr Mullanmosheen bridge) f in Caherass, p in Adare|22: 0|23: 0|24: 2t in Cross, p in Pallas Grean|25: 0|26: 0|27:0|28: p in Ardagh|29: c in Cloghan Arnold, m in Castlematrix, b in Rathkeale, f in Lissamota, p in Ballingarry||30: m in Croom, wnd in Kilfinny, threshing machine in Carrigeen|31: t in Meanus|32: f in Bruff, p in Herbertstown, and in Knockainy|33: Pound Cross nr. Farranafina|34: p in Athea|35: 0|36: b in Newcastle, c, t, p in Mahoonagh More|37: t in Ballynoe, p in Knockaderry|38: t in Coolrus, p in Castletown|39: f, t, m, p in Bruree, t in Drumacumme*r East|40: c in Baggotstown|41: 0|42: 0|43: t in Drumtrasna, p in Tulligoline North|44: 0|45: c, t in Accrour, p in Kilmeedy|46: 2c in Drewscourt East| 47: c in Kilmallock, m, p on Kilmallock hill, 2m in Greenfield|48: c, p in Kilfinnane|49: 2m in Ballylanders, c in Galbally, t, p near Galbally|50: 0|51: 0|52: 0| 53:0|54: m in Coolaboy, p in Dromcolliher|55: 0|56: c in Sunville Lower, t in Ballinlyna Lower, c, t in Ballydonohoe|57: 0|58: 0|59: 0|60: m in Knockrour/ Moanmore| End LONGFORD: 27 Sheets. Data as of 1836,37. Sheet 1: c & k in Ballyduffy, old k in Farmullagh, p in Ballinamuck|2: 2k in Annagh, k in Kiltycreevagh, in Cloonelly, and in Corrinagh|3: c, 3k in Rossduff, c, 2k in Smear, c & k in Birrinagh, k in Cornadrung|4: 2k in Clooncolligan, k in Bunanass, and in Cloonagecher|5: c, 3k in Gaigue, c& k NE of Drumlish, and in Creelaghta, 2k in Barramore, and in Derawley, k in Melkagh, in Crowdrumman, in


Lettergullion, in Aghadowry, and in Camagh|6: c & k, t in Aghacliff, c& k in Dring, in Toome, and at Clooneen bridge, k in Aghakeeran, in Polladooey, in Larkfield, and in Kilmore, old t in Dunbeggan|7: k in Toome|8: c & k in Caldragh, c in Ballykenny, and in Treel, k in Clooneen, in Cloonart South, and in Cloon, p in Kilnashee|9: c & 2k in Aghnamaddoo, c & k in Cavan, in Kilshruley, and in Aghnashannagh (n. of Ballinalee), c in Killeter, and in Garvagh|10: c & k in Drumnahara, 2c, k, b in Ballymacroly, t in Kilshruley, 2k in Laughil, p in Bunlaghy, and in Granard|11: c, 2k in Ballywillin, c & k in Kilbride, c in Ballyboy, p in Abbeylara|12: 0|13: c, 2k in Cloonmore, and at Cloonturk bridge, c, b, d in Longford town, d in Cloondara|14: c & k, p in Milltown, c & k in Corboy|15: c, 2k in Sheeroe, c in Ringdowny, old m in Milltown, p in Edgeworthstown|16: c & k in Freaghtmeen|17: c in Barnacor, k in Derrygeel, w in Knock|18: c, 2k in Grillagh, c in Cloonker, and in Cloonmucker, k in Annaghmore, in Derryad, and in Cloontamore|19: c & k in Cordivin, c in Ballycloghan|20: c in Lissanure, old c & k in Monadarragh, p in Ballinlaghta|21: 0| 22: c & k in Ledwithstown, c in Forthill, p in Keenagh, f in Mosstown|23: c & k in Barry, and in Loughsheedan, c, store at Royal Canal near mill, at Clyman House, c, p in Abbeyshrule, p in Taghshinny|24: c, p in Legan, c at Ballynacarrow bridge|25: 0|26: c, f at Shrule bridge, c in Castlecore|27: c, p in Ballymahon, f in Newcastle, c in Cornamucklagh| End LOUTH: 25 Sheets. Data as of 1835. Sheet 1: 0|2: p in Drummullagh|3: c & k in Dungooly, c in Ballinfuil, m in Ballybinaby|4: c in Anaverna, 2m in Balregan, p in Doolargy|5: c in Ballyteskin, and in Carlingford, p in Carlingford|6: c in Kilcurly, and in Milltown. 2f in Phillipstown, and in Chanon Rock, threshing mill in Ballinurd|7 : c & k in Little Mill, c in Ballynascallan, d, p, wnd, butter market in Dundalk, corn storehouse at quay in Dundalk, f, m in Balrega, f, k in Stranacarry, f, p in Castletown, p in Bellurgan|8: c & k in Rathcor, c in Piedmont, and in Castletowncooley, t in Castletowncooley, p in Rampark, and in Grangekish|9: 0|10: c in Killanny|11: c & k in Killincoole, c, m in Lowrath North, c in Grange, corn wnd in Rathcassan, 2m, p in Castlering, threshing machine in Drumcamill, p in Mullavally|12: p in Dromiskin|13: c & k in Reaghstown, p in Ballabony|14: p in Rathneestin/Phillipstown, and in Ardee Town Parks|15: b , m in Castlebellingham, f, wnd in Annagassan, p in Greenmount|16: 0| 17: 3c, k, m, shambles in Ardee, c & k in Scramore|18: c, m in Charleville, c in Drumin, in Drumcar, in Milltown, and in Listulk, 2m in Richardstown, p in Ravel| 19: c in Cruisetown, and in Togher|20: 2c in Collon|21: c in Castletown, and in Carntown|22: c, p in Termonf*ckin|23: 2c in Mellifont, c in Mellifont Park or Loughhill|24: c, d, b, wnd, corn market, corn steam mill, potato market in Drogheda, c in Newtownstalaban, in Yellowbatter, and in Drogheda near Newfoundwell bridge, “mill mount” in center of Drogheda|25: c in Banktown, MAYO: 123 Sheets. Data as of 1838, 39. Sheet 1: 0|2: 0|3: 0|4: p in Kilgalligan, old c in Portacloy|5: 0|6: 0|7: m in Ballycastle, 2m in Ballinwillin, p in Carrowcor|8: 0|9: p in Carn|10: p in Belmullet, and in Inver|11: k in Knockalower|12: p in Lenarevagh|13: k in Lugnalettin|14: c in Ballykinlettragh, and in Carrowmore, p, 2m in Rathbaun|15: p in Carrowtrasna, in Foghill, and in Tooreen|16: 2k in Drumreagh, k in Cross, and p in Binghamstown| 17: p at Srah (at Tramore bayshore), and at Glencastle|18: 0|19: 0|20: 0|21: c in Killeennashask, in Carranard, and Ballinagavna, m at Ballintober bridge, p in Belladooan, and in Tonrehown|22: p in Cloonshinnagh, in Knocksradeen, and in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Killala|23: 0 on Inishkea Islands|24: p in Termon, and in Newtown, old k in Elly, nr. Bingham Castle|25: 0|26: k in Attavally, old k in Darraragh, old c & k SW of Bangor|27: t in Briska|28: 0 |29: c in Forrew, and in Tooreen nr Abbeytown Glebe, old m in Knocknaskeeh, malt k in Rathnamagh, p in Ballynahowna|30: 2c in Greenaun, c, b in Ballina, p north of Ballina|31: 2k near Loughnacreevy Lough, k in Carrownaglagh, and in Rathreda, p in Bunnyconnellen|32: 0|33: k in Fallmore|34: 2k in Roy, k in Cregganroe|35: k in Bunmore, in Tarsaghaunbeg North, and in Tarsaghaunbeg South, p in Knockmoyleen|36: 0|37: k in Derry, m in Coolturkbeg| 38: c in Rathcreevy, c, k, p in Mullanmore North, (nr. Pollnacross so. of Crossmolina), k in Clonevin, in Doonbreedia, and in Dervin|39: c, 2k, p, t in Knockfree, c, t in Corroy, k in Cloontally, in Garrycloonagh, and in Shanclough, p in Garrycloonagh, in Rathduff, in Cloughans, in Coolcran, in Ballynaheglish, and in Gortaskibbole|40: c & k, t in Corrower, c in Craggera, 4k in Mullaghawny, k in Kildermot, in Kilgellia, in Boyhollagh, in Cartron, in Carrowcrom, in Ballymore, in Carrowdoogan, and in Ellaghbeg, p in Kilgarvan, and in Carrowcastle, Malt k in Treanlaur|41: 0|42: c, t, Anglican proselytizer mission in Doogort, p near Slievemore|43: 0|44:0|45: 0|46: (very few houses) p in Keenagh Upper, and in Bellinaderg|47: 2c, 2k in Cloghbrackfar on Nephin’s SE slope, c in Ballyduffy, and in Knockmaria, 3k in Cuilkillew, 2k in Knockmaria, and in Tawnagh, k in Ballymacredmond, in Aghaloonteen, k, p in Levally, and in Bofreenaun, p in Ballymoyock, and in Laherdaun|48: c & k in Knockmore, 2k in Colladussaun, in Rathbaun, in Lissaniska East, in Gortnadrehy, and in Sraheen, k in Rinmore, in Shannasmore, in Classaghroe, in Coolcronaun, and in Carrowkeribly, p in Lissaniska West, in Classaghroe, and in Bunnafinglas|49: c in Boherhallagh, and in Larganmore, 3k in Carradrishy, and in Boyhollagh, 2k in Roosky, in Boherhallagh, in Bellgarrow, in Cullin at Silver Ford, in Cartronmacmanus, and in Magheraboy, k in Treanoughter, in Derryvicneill, in Larganmore, in Atimachugh, in Askillaun, in Derrynabaunshy, in Cartron, in Carrowmore, and in Doonmaynor, m in Coolagagh, p in Bellgarrow, in Boyhollagh, in Cullin at Silver Ford, and at Magheraboy|50: 2k in Carrowliambeg, k in Cartron, in Doonmaynor, in Dromada, and in Knocks|51: k in Brackloonagh North, in Srah Lower, and in Ballindoo|52: c, 2k in Flughany, 2k in Roosky, k in Cloontaconnagh, and in Tawnbeg|53: 0|54: 0|55: k in Cashel, and in Salia, p in Bunnacurry, and in Tonregee West|56: “huts for cattle” in Cleggan Mountain, ditto in two other areas on same mountain|57: 0|58: k in Gortnaheltia, p in Bracklagh near Derryroe bridge, sheep shed in Derrybrock|59: c & k no. of Cuilmullagh village, c in Ballingarden, and in Foxford, 2k in Bracklagh, in Bleanmore, and in Tawnaghbeg, k in Cuilmullagh, in Derryfadda, in Mossbrook South, in Greenans, in Terryduff, in Attiappleton, in Gort, in Bunduvowen, , in Crillaun, in Caurans Upper, in Treanbrogaun, in Knockakillew, in Longfield, and in Woodhill, p in Bleanmore, and in Foxford|61: c, k, 2p in Toomore, c, t in Carrowmore, c, 2k in Cloongullaun, and c & k in Lisbrogan, 3k in Cuillonaghtan, in Rinbrack, and in Ardhoom, 2k in Cregnafyla, in Laghtmacdurkin, in Cuildoo, in Cloongullaun, and in Carrowreagh, k in Cloongee, in Ummoon, in Ballylahan, in Gorteen, in Cashel, in Cloonmung, in Cabragh, in Pollnagawna, in Coolcashla, in Graffy, in Lismoran, in Pollsharvoge, in Lisdurraun, in Oldcastle, in Bothaul , in Tiraninny, in Cloonfinnaun, in Lisheennabrone, and in Esker, p near Ballahan bridge, in Ummoon, and in Ardhoom|62: c & k in Lagcurragh, in Cloonaghboy, and in Cartron, c, p in Swineford, c in Cornageena, 2k in Dromada (Gore), k in


Dromada (Joyce), in Clooncleevragh, in Esker, in Killaturly, in Tumgesh, in Cuillaun, in Cloonfinish, and in Cloontubrid|63: c in Ballyglass East, in Templelecarrow, and in Carrowntuber, k in Tonroe, Carrowntuber, and in Glastrasna, old k in Sonnagh, malt k in Bracklagh|64: c & k in Hawksford, 3k in Derrynabrock, k in Bohalas, in Kilgarriff, and in Drumacoo, p in Creggan|65: p in Derreen nr. Kildavnet, c, t in Balfarsad|66: t in Murrevah|67: c in Rosgalliv, k, gig m, t, in Furnace, p in Roskeen North, and in Kiltarnag|68: c, t in Barrackhill, k in Callowbrack, p in Kilbride|69: c in Tawnylaheen|70: c, 3k in Cloonkesh, and in Strade, c, 2k in Grallagh, c k, malt k in Carrowkeel, c, p, m in Leckneen, c, t in Clougher, 2k in Cloontubbrid, and in Aghalusky, k in Garraghill, in Levallinree, in Ballyart, in Laghtavarry, in Clooncullenbawn, in Cloonconlan, in Knockavrony, and in Atticahill, p in Ross West, in Toormore West, in Strade village, and in Derryneer, Malt k in Lack East, and in Cashel Upper|71: c, 2k in Carrowgallda, c & k in Grallagh, in Lismiraun, and in Treanfohanaun, c in Cloonconra, and in Knockatemple, 3k in Gorteen, 2k in Carroward, and in Rathslevin, k in Oughtagh, in Carrowcastle, in Aghalusky, in Boleyard, in Bohola, in Laghtmacdurkan, in Barleyhill, in Carrowkeel, in Cloonagalloon, in Tullyroe, at Killedan Ho., in Ballinvoher, in Ballyglass, in Tullancorra, in Ballinlag, and in Kinaff, kiln in Toocananagh, p in Carrowcastle, in Boleyard, in Bohola, in Ballymiles, in Carrowmore, and in Carrowbaun|72: c & k in Curryaun, and in Barnacahoge, c in Carrowcanada, 2k in Carrownaculla, and in Tawnaglass, k in Rabaun, in Castlesheenaghan, in Derryronan, in Killaturly, in Gowlaun, and in Derrynaleck, p in Knockranny, and in Kilkelly|73: c & k in Tavraun, in Cloonnamna, and in Kilcashel, 3k in Glentavraun, k in Lurga Upper, in Carrowbeg, in Glenmullynaha West, in Tawnyinah Upper, in Sonvolaun, and in Corgarriff|74: c, 2k, p, Malt k in Ballyglass, c & k in Roosky, in Tonroe, and in Lung, k in Barnaboy, in Cashelard, in Drumnaglassan, in Ashlaun, and in Roosky, t in Lung, Malt k at Clooncar Ho., and in Leveelick, old m in Arkill, p in Ishlaun, and in Ballaghadereen|75: k in Ballytouhy More|76: k in Castleaffy, p in Money, and in Buckfield|77: c, p, t in Brocagh, c in Cogaula, k, old m in Lisclavaun, k in Letter|78: c in Claggarna East, t in Derrylea, p, b, d in Castlebar, p in Drumadoon, f in Ballynew|79: c in Moyhenna, and in Burris, k in Bohage, t in Gneeve|80: c & k in Ballinamore, in Oxford, and in Corrahoor, c in Treankill, t in Roosky, old m in Tawnagh, 3k in Woods, 2k in Shraheens, and in Kiltimagh, k in Bohamore, in Lisnamaneagh, in Lisduff, in Ballynamona, in Carrick, in Gowelboy, and in Attavally, p in Tober|82: c in Cloonfa*ghta, 2k in Urlaur, k in Arderry, in Cappagh, in Ballyhine, in Cartron, in Mountaincommon, in Cloongawnagh, and in Aghadiffin|83: 0|84: k in Lecarrow (on Clare Island)|85: p in Fawnglass, and in Capnagower (both on Clare Island)|86: c & k in Louisburgh, p in Carrowmore, in Clooncarrabaun, and in Kilsallagh Lower|87: 2c, k, p in Brackloon, c, p in Murrisk, c at Leckanvy bridge, and in Killeen, 2f in Cloonagh|88: c in Westport Demesne, 2f at Westport Quay, c, b, d, 2 stores in Westport, c, corn stores in Carrowbaun, c in Lackaun, k in Bunrower, old c, gig m in Knappaghmore, t in Aille, p in Killaghoor, and in Keeloges|89: 2c in Bellaburke, c & k in Ballyhean, m in Killawullaun West, old m in Ballintober, p in Gortbaun|90 c & k, p in Drum or Knockatemple, c in Bullinaster, and in Curry, p in Balla|91: c, 6k in Murneen North, c, 2k in Gortnaraha, in Kilcolman, and in Cloonmore Upper, k in Mace Upper, and in Cloonlavis Upper|92: c, 3k in Ballyhowly, c & k in Bekan, c in Cullentragh, and in Crohery, k in Killeen, in Eden, in Cloondace, in Magheramore, and in Coogue South, p in Knockbaun, in Drum (nr. Knock village), and in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Brackloon West|93: c & k in Crossbeg, in Lurgan, and in Coolnafarna, c in Carrowreagh, and in Brackloon East, 3k in Coolloughra, 2k in Mountain, and in Brackloon South, k in Coolnaha South, in Clagnagh (east of Ballyhaunis), in Togher, and in Barheen, 2 old k in Gorteen More|94: p in Garranty, and in Mountain Common (both on Inishturk Island), 95: gig m Cloonlaur|96: c, t in Tully, k in Cartoor|97: c, 2k, t, at Glinsk bridge, malt k in Glenbaun, k in Oughty|98: c in Cloonskill, 2k in Curdarragh South, malt k in Sragheen|99|: m in Cloonee, p in Newtown, and at Castleburke|100: p in Kilgreana nr. Ballyglass bridge, and in Lissaniska|101: c & k in Garraulagh, c in Eskerlevally, k in Polldrian, f in Brookhill, b in Clare, p in Carrowmore, in Clare, and in Barnycarroll|102: c, 2k in Cuilmone, and in Cuiltycreaghan, 2k in Redhill, k in Garryredmond, and in Cloonbookeight| 103: c, 2k in Cloonbullig, and in Carrowbeg, c & k in Agloragh, c in Deulis (so. of Ballyhaunis), k in Knockbrack, in Curries, and in Bargarriff|104: 0 (small islands)| 105: p in Gowlaun|106: 0 (includes Doolough, nearly uninhabited)|107: k in Derryherbert, and in Lettermaglinskin, t in Drummin East|108: k in Claddy, and in Erriff|109: p in Carheen (no. of Tourmakeady)110: 0 |111: p in Lissatava, and in Shantallow, t in Curraghadooey|112: c in Doonmacreena, k in Ballyhankeen, and in Meelick, p, b in Ballindine|113: 0|114: p on Inishshark Island|115: 0 in Killary inlet| 116: 0|117: c in Ballynamone, and in Bunnadober (east of Lough Mask)|118: c in Ballinrobe|119: k in Ballyglass (on Galway border)|120: 3c in Cong, p in Cooslughoga (east of Cong)|121: c in Cross, and in Fountainhill, p in Neale, in Ballymacgibbon, and in Kilmaine|122: c, p, b in Shrule|123: c in Gortbrack, and in Ballynalty| End MEATH: 43 Sheets. Data as of 1836. Sheet 1: c in Fertagh|2: c & k, t in Aghaloaghan, c & k in Corratober|3: c & k at Drumgill bridge|4: c in Corboggy|5: c, 2k, p in Kilmainham, c in Rathe, old malt house in Garmanagh, old m, p in Nobber, t in Carnacally|6: 2c in Caddlestown, c in Julianstown, t in Woodtown Upper, p in Drumcondra, and in Siddan|7: c in Mentrim|8: c & k in Tubbrid|9: f in Millbrook, c in Newcastle, and in Ballinavally| 10: c in Oughan|11: p in Moynalty, c in Newtown|12: c & k in Rathbranchurch, c, p in Rathkenny, c in Stokestown, and in Knock|13: p in Newtownfortesque|14: 0|15: c in Loughcrew|16: c, t in Castlepole, c in Balnagan Upper, p in Kilskeer|17: c, p in Martry, c in Teltown, and in Cookstown Great, old c in Kestown Glebe, and in Nugentstown, b, p in Kells, old m in Tankardstown|18: c & k in Roestown, c in Wilkinstown, and in Mullagha|19: c & k in Monknewtown, c in Dollardstown, in Higginstown, and in Roughgrange, f in Slane, t in Cruicetown|20: c in Proudfoottown, in Dowth, and in Staleen|21: c, w in Stameen|22: p in Boherard, m in Killallon|23: 0|24: 0|25: 5c, f, d, old c in Navan, 2c, f NE of Navan, 2c in Ardmulchan, c in Liscarton, and in Dunmoe|26: c in Ardmulchan|27: 3c in Duleek, c in Dardistown, 2f in Beaumont|28: c in Gormanstown, t in Dardistown|29: c in Knockshangan, c, f in Athboy|30: 0|31: c at Bective bridge, 2c, f in Kilcarn, c in Ardsallagh, and nr. Garlagh crossroads, old m in Philpotstown|32: c in Monktown, in Loughmanstown, and in Balrath|33: c in Johnstown, and in Bartramstown|34: f so. of Stanmullin, and in Tullog|35: c in Woodtown, in Corballis|36: c, t in Newtowntrim, c in Brannockstown, t in Higgingsbrook, f, malt house, p in Trim, 2m in Iffernock|37: 2c in Scurlocktown, in Dunsany, m in Kilmessan, threshing mill in Warrenstown|38:c in Clowanstown|39: 0|40: 0|41: c nr Inchmore bridge, m in


Kellyon|42: c, old wnd in Tobertynan|43: m in Moynalty, p in Culmullin|44: c in Knockmark, and in Ratoath|45: 2m in Milltown, c in Donaghmore|46: old m in Ticroghan|47: c in Clonguiffen|48: c in Ballynaskea|49: c in Calgath, and in Knocknatulla, old m in Rodanstown|50: old c nr. Blackboll bridge, c, p in Dunboyne|51: c in Cloonee|52: c, p in Castlejordan|53:0| End MONAGHAN: 34 Sheets. Data as of 1834,5. Sheet 1: p in Ardginny|2: 0|3: c in Killyloughavoy, and in Cavancore, f in Kilcooly, p in Kilnagullan|4: 0|5: 0|6: c in Cornanure, in Drumconnelly, and in Scarnageeragh| 7: c in Aghnagap, in Drumbanagher, in Glannan, and in Kilcran. 2m in Kilcran|8: c in Selloo, and in kilcorragh, k, m in Drummans|9: c in Teraverty, in Brandrum, in Mullaghmore West, in Quiglough, in Rafeenan, in Gallanagh, in Dunsinare, and in Crumlin, b, p in Mullaghmonaghan, shambles, shambles square in Monaghan town, 2m in Killymarran|10: c & k in Greenmount, c in Tullynanure, in Aghintamy, and in Clonlonan, p in Knockboy|11: b in Clones|12: c, p in Killeevan, c in Garran, in Killfuddy, in Drummullan, and in Templetate, 2f in Annaghkilly, f in Roosky|13: c & k in Doosky, c in Drumguill, in Carbane, in Drumgarve, in Tullygillen, in Tetoppa, and in Drumalt, p in Roosky|14: c & k in Moy Otra, c in Rackwallace, in Corfad, in Glennyhorn, in Fintully, in Coolatragh, and in Shanmullagh, p in Avalbane|15: 0|16: c & k in Killyfargy, c in Corvaghan, in Corcummins, and in Clonmore|17: c in Ledarragh|18: c & k in Drumloughlin, k in Drumloughlin, c in Aghalough, in Rockcorry, in Aghnacue, in Cordevlis, in Shantonagh, and in Edenferkin, 2m in Cordevlis, m in Shantonagh, and in Dromore East|19: c & k in Corlealackagh, in Dernalug, and in Toome, c, m in Legacurry, and in Cappagh, c in Cremartin, and in Killycrom, shambles, p in Ballyray town|20: c in Carrickaslane, in Drumaliss, in Liseenan, and in Drumleek South, p in Drumilard Little|21: c in Corralackan, m in Corsilloga, in Tattincake, and in Attiduff|23: c in Corfad, in Aghnamullen, in Anveyerg, in Drumfaldra, and in Lisnagallagh, f in Drumfaldra, p in Aghnamullen and in Moyle More|24:c in Tievaleny, in Gragarnagh, and in Drumlane, threshing mill, m in Corwillin|25: t, m in Aghadreenan, c in Mullaghanee, in Longfield and in Corragharry|26: 2c in Derrygoony|27: c & k in Lisacullion, 2c in Reduff, c in Tullyglass, and in Laragh, m in Laragh|28: c & k in Laragh, in Carmoy, in Drumhillagh, and in Creevy, c in Lurganboy, m in Drumhillagh, and in Donaghmoyne|29: c, t in Drumass, c in Moyles, in Coolragh, and in Seeola, p in Candlefort|30: c, 2k in Raferagh, 2c in Corlea, c & k in Lisnakeeny|31:c in Lurgans, 2b, d, p in Carrickmacross town, d in Drummond Otra, p in Drummond Etra, p in Aghafad|32: 0|33: 0|34: c in Clontrain, threshing machine in Maghernacloy| End OFFALY (then “King’s County”): 47 Sheets. Data as of 1838. Sheet 1: c & k in Parkwood, and in Cloncraff|2: woolen m in Tully, p in Newtown| 3: 0|4: c in Srah|5: c in Clonmacnoise|6: c & k in Doon Demesne|7: c, t in Ballycumber, p in Boher|8: t, k in Cloghatanny, 3f, 2k, c in Clara, c in Lehinch, f in Loughbaun|9: c & k in Ballynasrah or Tinnycross, 2c in Bracklin Big, c, d in Acantha, p in Culleen|10: c & k in Croghan Demesne, and in Aghamore, c in Down| 11: c in Ballyhugh, k in Toberdaly, w in Fahy, Threshing machine in Killure, in Mountwilson, and in Clonin|12: c & k in Monasteroris, p in Edenderry|13: c in Annaghmore, p in Clonever|14: c & k in Skehanagh, f, t in Bellmount or Lisderg, f, p in Ferbane, f in Kincora|15: 0|16: c, t in Mucklagh, c in Killina, and in Ballyduff| 17: c, corn market, 2f, 3b, 2d, p in Tullamore, c in Meelaghans|18: c, k in Lugmore,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” p in Philipstown|19: c in Clonbulloge, and in Clonavoe|20: 0|21: 2m in Curraghavarna/Portavrolla, b, d in Banagher|22: 3f in Moystown Demesne, f, k in Tonlemone (in Gaybrook village)|23: f in Cloon|24: c in Derrymore, p in Pallas|25: b, p in Killeigh, c in Millbrook, in Killeenmore, and in Newtown|26: c & k in Bogtown, and in Enaghan, c in Gorteenard, p in Geashill|27: f in Bracknagh, and in Millgrove|28: 0|29: f in Lavagh, c, f, 2k, p in Lecarron Glebe or Britannia, c, threshing mill in Claremont|30: c & k in Ballynaguilsha, and in Curraghmore, f in Eglish, 2c, rape mill in Ballaghanoher|31: f, b, d in Frankford, c in Park, 2f, p in Ballyboy, f, k , m in Killnagall|32: c, f in Cappagowlan, c in Killoughy|33: b in Clonygowan|34: f in Portarlington|35: c, k in Bunrevan, f, 2b, d in Birr, d, m outside Birr, c & k in Ballincree, c, f in Crinkill, f, oil mill in Clonoghill Lower, c in Clonbrone, m in Ballincur|36: c in Ballyshane, p in Kinnitty|37: m in Cadamstown| 38: 0|39: c in Knockarley, m in Longford Big|40: 0|41: c in Rusheen, and nr. Hillsborough in Drumakeenan f in Kilcomin|42: b in Shinrone, f, k in Keeloge, f in Milltown, p in Brosna, 4f, m nr. Brosna Ho. in Drumakeenan|43: c in Ballyduff, f in Fancroft|:44 f in Gorraun|45: c, p in Clonlisk, d in Franckfort|46: p in Moneygall|47: 0| End ROSCOMMON: 56 Sheets. Data as of 1837. Sheet 1: 0|2: c & k in Knockdryan, p in Ardcollum (no. of Arigna)|3: k in Aghagowla, 2k in Aghacarra, c in Cornagrea|4: p in Keadew West|5: 2k in Tivannagh, k in Kiltybannock, in Cornameelta, and in Garrow, t in Tinacarra|6: c in Boyle, old b north of Boyle, b west of Boyle, k in Doon|7: 0|8: k in Callow (or Bunnawillin)|9: k in Derrycoagh, in Sraco*cka, in Ballinvoher, in Kilnamanagh, and at Culmore bridge|10: c in Knockabeast, and in Knockroe, p in Ballinameen, and in Estersnow|11: c in Carrowreagh, p in Toorymartin, old k in Derreen|12: in Tooloscan nr Shannon r|13: c & 2k in Lissydaly, k in Curraghsallagh, in Cloonargid, and in Corracoggil North, p in Corracoggil North|14: c & k in Aghaderry, k in Cartron More, in Barnacawley, and in Lissacurkia|15: c, t, in Cooldavin, and in Bellinagare, c, gig m in Cloonshanville, 2k in Carrigeenacreeha, k in Loughbally, in Brackloon, and in Carrigeennagappul, p in Frenchpark, and in Brackloon|16: c & 2k in Carrownurlar, c & k in Ballroddy, k in Edenan and Kinclare, in Gortnacloy, in Runnaboll, in Carrownnamorheeny, in Skeenavort, and in Ballyroddy, p in Toomore| 17: c & k in Pollnamoghil, 2k in Cloonycattin, k in Drumlish, in Cloongarvan, in Cloonshannagh, in Roo, and in Ardgallagher, old k in Ballagh, p in Toomore||18: k in Derreen ( in Lavaghin), old k in Annagh|19: c, 2k, gig m in Tully, c, 4k in Clooncan, c & k in Derry, k in Ballyglass, in Meelick, and in Derrylahan, p at Cloontowart bridge|20: 3k in Kilroddan, k in Cuiltybo, in Coolagarry, and Coonarragh, p in Loughglinn|21: c, t in Kilcorkey|22: c, 2k, t in Killynagh, k in Kilvoy, p in Flaskagh, and in Flaskagh Beg|23: k in Drinaun, c, k, & t in Grange, Revenue Police barracks and bridewell in Strokestown, k in Clooncoface, p in Curry, and c,k, p, and “old corn mill” in Gillstown|24: c, p in Knockhall, k in Moher, in Derrylarg, in Meelick, and in Derrymoyle, p in Roosky, and in Caul|25: c, 2k in Clooncrim (NW of Ballinlough), p west of Ballinlough|26: c & k in Willsbrook (beside Suck bridge) 2k in Cregganmeen, k in Derryharraun West, and in Cloonlative, c, p, b, d, in Castlerea town|27: p in Ballintober, and in Caran|28: c & k in Grange, c in Ballyglass, old k in Briarfield Ho.|29: c in Cloonfinlough, k in Cloonrane, p, 2b at south edge of Strokestown|30: c, old c, old t in Termonbarry, k


in Lack, and in Newtown|31: k in Culkeen|32: c & k in Cloonfad East, and in Swinefield, c in Meeltraun, and in Milltown|33: 0|34: old c in Frenchlawn, k in Leabeg, in Leamore, and in Ballynakill, old c in Ballynakill|35: p in Ballinderry|36: c & k in Kilroosky, k in Coolcam, Corradrehid, Aghalahard, and in Clooncashel More, p in Sheehaunrevagh|37: k in Derryhanee, p in Cloonaddra|38: 0|39: c & k in Clooneenbaun, c in Carrigans Park, in Emlaghkeadew, in Castlecoote, at south edge of Roscommon town, and in Derrydonnell, k in Creemully and Aghagadbeg, p in Fuerty and in Roscommon town, f in Castlecoote, b in Roscommon town|40: c & 2 k in Lisgobbaun, c & k in Cloontimullan, c in Lisbride, and in Carrowmore, 2k in Cloonmore, k in Cloonlarge, p in Aghmagree|41: c, p in Athleague, 2k in Cloonmore, k in Cloonlarge, 2c in Buckfield, fish weir in Athleague, eel weirs in Castlestrange, Clooneen, Corrabeg, and Toberavaddy|42: c & k in Mote Demesne, c, p, f, in Knockcroghery, c in Scregg, k in Longamuck, and Kilmore, t in Cloonsellan| 43: 0|44: c & k in Cloonlaughan, p in Carricknagat, wnd in Correal (hilltop)|45: c & k, p, f, in Lecarrow, p in Carrownderry, old m in Rahara|46: k in Rinnagan, k, t in Kiltoom|47: c, f in Ballyforan, c in Garrynagran, p in Carrownadurly|48: c & k in Ratawragh, in Atteagh, and in Carrantotan, p in Brideswell|49: 0|50: c in Cregganycarna, and in Rockland| 51: c in Bellaneeny, k, f in Burnbrook, malt k in Ardkeenan, p in Dundonnell|52: c & k in Bellanamullia, and in Crannagh, k, f in Millbrook, f in Crannagh, b in Bellaugh (Monksland, west of Athlone), p in Bogganfin, 2d in Connacht side of Athlone|53: 2c, b in Ballinasloe, c & k in Atticora, c in Ashford|54: c, t in Camloon, p in Ballydangan|55: p in Ballynakill|56: c & k in Culliaghbeg, malt k in Curraghagower| End SLIGO: 47 Sheets. Data as of 1836,7. Sheet 1: 0|2: p in Ballinphull|3: 0|4: old c in Lislary|5: c in Barnaderg, t in Grange, p in Breaghwy, and in Newtown|6: c, p in Keeloges|7: p in Doonfore|8: c in Cullagh Beg, in Drumcliff South, and in Collinsford, t in Drumcliff South, and in Collinsford, f in Millbrook, p in Cullaghmore, and in Tully|9: t in Willowbrook|10: p in Quigaboy|11: c in Leaffony, and in Curraghnagap, t in Leaffony, m in Tourboy, p in Finned, in Rathlee, and in Doonaltan|12: c & k in Donaghintraine, c in Doonycoy, p in Dromore, and in Doonycoy|13: p in Buninna|14: 2f in Rathbraghan, f in Scardan More, b, d in Sligo town, p in Barnasrahy, and in Rathquarter (no. of Sligo town)|15: 0|16: c in Kockagower, p in Cloonaderavally, and in Ballymoghany| 17: m in Culleens, p in Tullylin or Ballyfeenaun, in Ballyogan, and in Culleens|18: c in Grange More, k, old c, p in Farranyharpy|19: c & k in Ballinlig, in Carrowbleagh East, in Altanelvick, and in Larkhill, c, t in Carrowmorris, c in Drumnagoal, p in Tanrego East or Carrowmore|20: 6m in Knockmuloney town, 3m in Lugnamackan, p in Streamstown|21: k in Gortlownan, and in Rathgeean, old m in Gortlownan, p in Tiratick|22: c, p in Rathmurphy|23: 0|: 24: 0|25: c & k in Carrownaskeagh, and in Carha, c in Carrowneden, in Ballinvally, and in Carrownacleigha, t in Carha, k in Lissalough, and in Carrowgavneen, m in Carrownaskeagh, p in Carrowneden, in Knockadoo, and in Coolaney|26: c, t in Cloonacurra, c in Ballynacarrrow North, m in Knockbeg West, and in Ardcurley, p in Mullaghnabreena|27: 2c & 2k, t in Cooperhill (near Rivertown), c & k in Rockbrook, m, k in Doonally, k in Lavally, and in Emlagh, p in Carrickcoola|28: malt k in Carrownadargny|29: 2c in Bunree, t in Rathkip, and in Behy More, f in Carrowcushlaun West, b in Ardanaree, p in Abbeyhalfquarter|30: p in Largan (n. of Lough Talt)|31: c & 2k, 2p, in Cloonacool, k in Sessuecommon, and in Carrowreagh, m in Castlerock, and in Sessuegilroy, p in Tullyvellia|32: c & k in Tobertelly, c, k in Carrowcarragh, k in Lisnagore, p in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ballinvally|33: c in Keenaghan, p in Falnasoogaun|34: c in Bellanagarrigeen, in Bellanascarva, and in Ummery Roe, 2k in Drumshinnagh, k in Lisdoogan, in Drumraine, in Doonsheheen, in Cornamucklagh, in Tully, in Barroe North, in Bullaun, and in Annaghcarthy, m in Kilmorgan, p in Tawnagh, and in Brickeen, sheep fold in Carrowkeel|35: c in Rannatruffaun West, and in Straduff, malt k in Cabragh, and in Carrownadargny, p in Carrowmore, and in Carrigeenboy|36: c & k in Lislea, c in Kilmacteige, and in Carrowreagh, 2k in Kilmacteige, k in Oughaval, and in Carns, malt k in Carrowreagh, m, kiln, p in Glennawoo or Gortersluin, p in Aclare, and in Lislea (no. of Aclare)|37:c in Drummartin, and in Drimina, k in Eskragh, Ballyara or Falduff, and in Drimina, m, p in Banada|38: c & k in Ballynaraw North, k in Moylong, and in Doobeg, Malt k in Carrowntober, 2p in Tobercurry, and in Ballynaraw South|39: c, t in Daghloonagh, and in Battlefield, 2k in Knocknageeha, k in Knockrawer, in Clooncunny, in Greyfield, in Drumaneel, and in Kilsallagh, k in Killavil, in Knocknaskeagh, in Battlefield, and in Knockoconor, p in Ballyfahy, and in Knocknacroy|40: c in Carrowcrory, and in Ballinafad, k in Toomour, in Carrighawna, in Carrowreagh, in Carrowkeel, in Bunnadober, and in Lecarrow, k in Ballinafad, p in Murhy, in Ballinafad (near Chapel) and Ballinafad (near corn mill), school cave in Carnaweeleen|41: malt k in Cloghmine, p in Highwood|42: c & k in Montiagh, and in Cloonlaughil, m, k in Curry, k in Coolrawer, in Cully, in Bunnacranagh, in Curry, and in Curraghbonaun, m in Cloonlaughil, and in Curry, p in Curry and in Bellaghy|43: 0|44: 5k in Cuilmore, 4 k in Doon, in Kilfree, and in Moygara, 3k in Cloonanure, 2k in Carrowtemple, in Gortygara, in Cloonsillagh, in Rathmadder, in Clooncagh, k in Greyfield, in Moydough, in Derrynagraug, in Lisbaleely, in Chacefield, in Cloontye, in Seefin, and in Sroove, c & k in Cloontye, p in Mahan|45: 2k in Mahanagh, and in Deerinoghran, k in Sragh, in Cuppanagh, in Cloonlough, in Seefin, and in Stone Park, k in Mweelroe, p in Stone Park|46: k in Lomcloon, in Clooncunny, in Tawnymucklagh, and in Annagh|47: 0|48: 0| End TIPPERARY: 91 Sheets. Data as of 1839-41. Sheets 1, 2, & 3: nil|4: c in Carrigahorig, in Lorrha, and in Ballyquirk, 2f in Firmount, p in Lorrha|5: f in Ballyloughnare, wnd in Ballykinash|6: d, 2m in Ballinderry|7: old f in Fortmoy|8: 2f in Doughkill|9: 0|10: c, t, 2m in Feemore, b in Shesheragh More, m in Mountfalcon|11: 0|12: c in Barnagree, b in Racket Hall, c, t, 2f, b, and malt store in Roscrea, p in Castleholding (n. of Roscrea)|13: 0|14: f in Ballyartella, and in Ballycommon|15: b in Bantis, d in Mullenkeagh, 2m in Ballyamurragh South|16: 0|17: 0|18: 0|19: p in Cooneen|20: c in Newtown, p in Pallas Beg, b, p, m in Nenagh|21: c in Lisbunny, and in Knockanglass, m in Tyone, 2m in Islandlawn, t in Knockglass|22: 2f, 2m in Ballyknockane, p in Bayanagh (near Toomyvara), 2m in Ollatrim|23: old c in Clontaaffe, m in Summerhill, and in Mien|24: 0|25: t in Burges Beg|26: old c in Cooleen, f in Castlecranna, p in Cloghleigh, and in Silvermines, m in Curragharn|27: c in Lisgarriff East, m in Ballyclogh, in Kylebeg, and in Garrane, p in Templederry|28: 0|29: f in Knockagh, m in Castleleiny|30: 0|31:m in Rockvale|32; 0|33: c, m in Loughane Lower|34: c, 2p in Borrisland North, b, malt m in Borrisoleigh|35: t in Graiguefrahane|36: 0|37: c in Newport, t in Tullow, p in Clonbealy|38: 0|39: 0|40: t in Gortkelly, p in Garrynamona|41: f, 2 old c, woolen m in Mullauns, f in Turtulla, and in Archerstown, b in Archerstown, p in Garryvicleheen, malt house in Glengarriff, b in


Thurles|42: c, f in Manselstown|43: p, threshing machine in Kilcooly Abbey|44: 0| 45: 0|46: f in Moyaliff, t, woolen m in Rossmore|47: c in Commons, and in Clohoge, old c in Fertina, f, woolen m in Beakstown, d in Graiguenoe|48: p in Glengoole North|49: c in Gorteenrainee|50: 0|51: c in Rossacrow, t in Philipston, f in Dundrum, p in Cappagh, and in Gortarush Upper|52: f in Cloon, p, old woolen m in Ardmayle|53: c in Thurles Beg, old m in Tuberdora|54: p, old d in Killenaule, m in Ballinunty|55: c & k in Ballingarry Lower|56: 0|57: 0|58: 0|59: 0|60: c in Camus, and in Castlelake, 2f in Mantlehill Great, f in Camus, d in Castlelake|61: p in Ashwell’s Lot|62: c in St. Johnstown|63: c, f in Mullinoly|63r: 0|64: 0|65: 0|66: 0|67: c in Tipperary town, and in Kilshane, p in Tipperary town, f, p in Bansha town|68: f in Garranlea|69: 0|70: 2c, 2f, p in Fethard town, c in Clare More|71: c in Milestown| 72:0 )|73: p in Ballynacourty|74: 0|75: c in Killemly, 4f, p in Caher town, f in Barnora, p near Cappa bridge, m in Cloghabreedy|76: sheep pen in Maginstown|77: f in Rathronan, m in Kilmore|78: c in Graigue|79: c in Figlash, f in Cregg|80: 0|81: c near Kilcoran bridge, f in Rehill, p in Scarthbeg|82: 0|83: 4f on Suir Island at Clonmel, 2f in Redmondstown, d in Marlfield, f in Toberheena, and in Inchanabraher, m in Abbey, and Anner Park|84 c in Kilsheelan|85: c, 2b, m, p in Carrick-on-Suir, m in Ballyrichard, f, bacon store in Ballylynch, f in Cregg|86: p in Ballyporeen|87: f in Flemingstown, c, 3f, b in Clogheen Market, p in Clogheen, f in Mountanglesby, f in Castlegrace, c & k in Ballinhalla|88: c in Ardfinnan town|89: 0| 90: 0|91: 0| End TYRONE: 68 Sheets. Data as of 1833,34. Sheet 1: old m in Magheramason|2: c in Milltown, and in Tullyard, k in Loughneas, old m in Coolermoney|3: c in Bunowen, old m in Binnelly|4: 0|5: 2c in Leckpatrick, c, 2k Knockabrack, b in Strabane, p in Woodend|6: 2c in Rousky, c in Aghafad, m in Ballynamallaght|7: c & k, t, p in Stranagalwilly|8: old still house (2) each isolated and high on mountain side|9: c in Clady, and in Donnygowen, k in Cladyhood|10: k in Edymore, in ligfordrum, in Knockiniller, and in Sessagh or Gallan|11: c in Glencoppogagh, and in Eden, 3k in Castledamph, 2k in Lower Drumnaspar, k in Meenagorp, in Meenagarragh, in Aghalane, and in Lisnacreaght|12: c & k in Cranagh, 4k, p in Glenroan, 4k in Lower Barnes, 2k in Glenchiel, k in Meenacrane, in Upper Barnes, in Quiggy, and in Garvagh|13: c, p in Sperrin, k in Carrowoaghtra| 14: k in Croagh|15: malt k in Laughtfoggy, t in Mournbeg|16: c & k in Castlesessagh, 2c, p in Magheracreggan, c in Crew Upper, k in Killeen, p in Castlederg, and in Ballyfolliard|17: c, 2k in Ballyrenan, c in Killymore, k, p in Newtownstewart, k in Urbalreagh, and in Ballykeel, t in Birnaghs|18: c & k in Glenmacoffer, c, d in Gorteen, 2k in Dunbunrower, and in Meenadoo, k, p in Beltrim, k in Droit, in Liscabble, in Learden Lower, and in Lenamore|19: c, 3k in Teebane, c & k in Aghnamirigan, 4k in Gorticashel, 2k in Carnanransy, t in Attagh, k in Garvagh, in Drumlea, in Fallagh Lower, in Gorticashel Upper, in Altacamcosy, in Liggins, in Oaghmnicroy, and in Aghascrebagh|20: malt k in Broughderg|21: 0| 22: k in Meenanoran, in Meenafergus, in Tullynashane, in Crighshane, and in Crighdenis|23: k in Gortnagross, and in Binnawooda, old malt k in Shanaghy, p in Killeter|24: c & k in Drumleggagh, c in Binnawooda, 2k in Meencargagh, k in Ardbarren Upper, in Aghasessy, and in Archill, m in Coolnacrunaght|25: c in Lisnacreaght, 2k in Envagh, k in Byturn, in Legland, in Cashty, in Beragh, and in Castletown|26: c, 3k in Dunbreen, c in Golan, and in Killins, 2k in Eskeradooey, k in Castleroddy Glebe, in Tirmurty, and in Glenawna|27: 2k in Formil, k, old k in Creggan, k in Crockanboy, old k in Aghalane|28: c in Corvanaghan|29: c, p in


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Gortin, c in Corchoney, in Knockaleery, and in Kildress, m in Tamlaght, p in Drumnacross Lower, and in Cookstown|30: w in Mullaghwotragh|31: c in Ballinderry|32: old k in Scraghy|33: c in Drumown, 2k, m in Coolavannagh, k in Drumnamalra, in Carrick, in Drumscragh, in Drummenagh, Legphressy, and in Carony, m in Drumquin|34: 2c, k in Gillygooly, c & k in Dunwish, c in Cloghog, 2k in Dressoge, k in Claraghmore, in Corlea, and in Cavanacaw Upper|35: b in Omagh, c & k in Ballynamullan, k in Killybrack, in Boheragh, in Crosh, in Lisboy, in Recarson, in Deroran, and in Faccary, p in Campsie (E of Omagh)|36: c & k in Faccary, and in Tiroony, c, 4k in Bracky, c, 2k in Loughmacrory, 3k, t in Drumnakilly, k in Mullanbeg, in Sulton, and in Granagh, p in Merchantstown Glebe| 37: c in Killey, t in part of Gortindarragh, old c, old k in Tremoge|38: c in Mullynure, in Desertcreat, and in Tullywittan, m in Coolnahavil, p in The Sand Holes/Killyneedan, and in Tullyhog|39: c & k in Templereagh, c in Leck, and in Carnan, 2m in Edernagh|40: 0|41: c & k in Knocknahorn, k in Lettery, in Corbally, in Curraghamulkin, in Derrynaseeer, in Oughterard, in Aghadarragh, and in Dressoge|42: c in Tattysallagh, and in Shannaragh, 4k in Cornavarrow, and in Aghadulla/Harper, 2k in Tattymulmona, k in Drumlish, in Corrasheskin, in Knockaraven, in Mullenboy, in Aghadarragh, in Garvagh, in Aghadulla, in Blacksessagh, and in Fallaghearn|43: c & k in Ranelly, c in Moylagh, 2k in Dervaghroy, k in Tullyrush, in Donaghanie, in Raw, in Tattykeeran, and in Bancran, m in Blackfort, and in Edenderry|44: c & k in Cloghfin, c, p in Beragh, c in Foremass Lower, k, p in Sixmilecross, k in Ballintrain, and in Drumlester, old k in Derroge, p in Radergan|45: c in Dernaseer, k in Galbally|46: c & k in Lisnagowan, c in Crossdermot, b, m in Donaghmore, 2m in Drumreagh Otra, m in Dungorora, and in Kilmore|47: f in Gortnaskea, and in Gortin, m, p in Clintycracken, m in Meenagh, old m in Back Upper|48: 0|49: c, 2k in Tummery, c & k in Scallen, and in Shanmullagh East, 3k in Feglish, and in Esker, 2k in Moorfield, k in Drum, in Shanmullagh West, Brackagh, in Doocrock, in Lettergash, in Lisdoo, in Gargadis, in Moorfield, in Aghalarragh, in Aghee, in Cornamuck, in Newpark, in Dergany, in Crossan, in Keenoge, in Drumskinny, and in Glasmullagh North|50: c, 2k in Drumconnis, and in Rakeeranbeg, 3k in Rahony, 2k in Drumskinny, in Aghnamoe, in Lissaneden, in Meenagar, and in Cornamucklagh, k in Gardrum, in Ballyard, in Curly, in Glengeen, in Drumderg Glebe, in Tattycor, in Tullyclunagh, and in Stranisk, m in Tannagh More, p in Aghadarragh, and in Dromore|51: c & k in Seskinore, c in Lackagh, k in Letfern, and in Tatnadaveny, 2m in Kilnaheery, m in Belnagarnan, in Garvallagh, and Raveagh, p in Tamlaght|52: c & k in Artcloghfin, c in Garvaghy, k in Roscavey, and in Fallaghearn, p in Ballygawley|53: c in Farriter, m in Ballyreagh|54: d, p in Dungannon, c SE of Dungannon, wnd SW of Dungannon|55: old m in Tempanroe|56: 2c, k, p south of Trillick, c, 2k in Corlea, and in Golan Glebe, c & k in Drumsonnus, in Cordromedy, c, p in Corkragh, c in Derry, 2k in Cabragh, k, p in Cloncandra Glebe, k in Relaghguinness, in Carran, in Dreigh, and in Effernan Glebe|57: c & k in Tattymoyle Upper, 4k in Lifford, 3k in Moneygar, k, sheep fold in Killyblunick Glebe, k in Greenan, in Derrylea, in Carryglass, and in Stranisk|58: m in Carntallbeg, p in Aghintain, in Killaney Lower, and in Clogher Tenements|59: c, p in Augher, c in Cleanally, in Roughill, in Lisdoart, and in Ballygawley, m in Annagarvey, t in Culnaha, p in Durless White|60: c, p in Aughnacloy, c in Lisconduff, and in Mullyroddan|61: c in Kilnacart, in Brossley, in Syerla, and in Drummond, m in Benburb, p in Derrylappen|62: c in


Moy, m in Tullydowey|63: m in Corcreevy demesne|64: c, m in Fivemiletown, m in Nurchossy Scotch|65: 0|66: 0|67: c in Dyan, f, p in Caledon|68: 0| End WATERFORD: 40 Sheets. Data as of 1839, 41. Sheet 1: 3c, f in Spa, m in Scrothea West, p in Clonmel, 2f on Suir Island|2: c, m in Tikincor Upper|3: c in Ballindysert, t in Corragina|4: 0|5: 0|6: c, t in Graigavalla|7: c in Clonea, and in Munsburrow, 2t in Shanakill|8: c, 2t, p in Kilmeadan, f in Stonehouse, p so. of Portlaw|9: queen’s bonding stores, queen’s stores, b, p in Waterford city, f, many quayside stores in Ferry Bank (opp. City)|10: 0|11: 0|12: 0| 13: f in Ballinamult|14: 0|15: c, f in Kilmacthomas, c in Kilnagrange, p in Kilcomer| 16: 0|17: c in Ballindud, and in Couse|18: f in Spring Hill, c in Ballymaclode|19: 0| 20: 0|21: f in Ballyin Ho., c in Cappoquin|22: c in Carrowgarriff, old c in Kilcooney, p in Graigue More|23: 0|24: c in Ballylaneen|25: c in Ballyristeen, p in Kill, and in Tramore West|26: “site of corn mill” in Lisselan|27: “site of corn mill” no. of Summerville, f in Ballynamoyntragh|28: f, b, p in Tullow|29: corn store at quay to Blackwater riv. in Quarter, f in Tourin, and in Bleach|30:c in Ballynacourty, woolen m in Kill|31: c in Ballynamuck Middle, b in Dungarvan, t in Knocknagranagh|32: 0| 33: p in Churchquarter|34: c, f beside Blackwater quays in Glenassy or Clooneen, p in Knockanore|35: 0|36: 0|37: f in Clashmore, and in Pilltown nr. Blackwater|38: 0| 39: t in Gowlan nr. Ballintlea bridge|40: 0| End WESTMEATH: 40 SHEETS. Data as of 1837, 38 Sheet 1: 0|2: c, k in Kilmore, and in Tinode|3: c in Rockbrook, c, t in Gilbertstown, k in Mullagh, p near Castlepollard (no. of)|4: c, k in Carrick|5: 0|6: c, k, t in Russagh, c & k in Corry, in Carrick, and near Multyfarnham (no. of)|7: 0|8: c, k, t in Grangestown, c in cumme*rstown, in Glenidan, and in Gormanstown|9: c in Archerstown|10: c. store on Royal Canal at Ballynacarrigy|11: c & k in Rath, c in Ballindurrow, k, old c in Ballyhooreen, k in Mount Murray demesne|12: c & k in Sheefin|13: c & k, t at Killagh bridge, c & k in Gigginstown, threshing machine in Edmondstown estate|14: c & k in Crowinstown Great, p in Castletowndelvin|15: c in Cannorstown|16: wnd in Carrick|17: c & k in Templepatrick, and in Ballynacarrow, c in Rowlanstown demesne, and in Corkan|18: c & k, t in Kildallen North, c & k in Parcellstown, p in Slanebeg|19: c, t, p in Mullingar, c. stores on Royal Canal north of Mullingar, c. store on Royal Canal east of Mullingar|20: c & k in Killynan, c in Balrath East, p in Killucan|21: c & k in Kilcolum|22: 2c, k in Glassan|23: c & k in Ardnagragh, and in Doonamona, c in Baskin Low, and in Milltown, f in Harrystown|24: c in Mullenmeehan, in Ardbrennan, and in Lockardstown, p in Darlingtown|25: c & k in Dysert, c, t in Stokestown, p in Adamstown|26: c & k, t in Rochfort demesne, c & k in Kilpatrick, c, t in Carrick, threshing mill at Anneville Ho.|27: c & k in Hightown or Balleighter, and in Cushinstown, f at Rathmore Ho.|28: 0|29: f, b in Athlone, c, t in Annaghgortagh, c in Kilmacuagh (Cooke), in Ballykeeran, and in Kilmacuagh (Castlemaine)|30: 2c, 2k in Creeve, c & k in Cooleen, c, t in Ballycloughduff, d in Tullaghnageeragh (w. of Moate), 2m in Clonrelick, old b in Moate|31: c & k in Ballynabarna, c, t in Sraduff, c in Syonan, t in Srahneeg, m at Rockfield Ho., old c & k in Ballybrickoge|32: c & k, p in Castletown, c & k, f in Ballynagore|33: c, t in Corcloon, c in Rahanine, p near Rochfort bridge, f in Milltown, wnd at Robinstown Ho.|34: c & k in Pass of Kilbride, and in Cloonfad|35: c & k in Kilbrillighan|36: c & k in Toorydonnellan, c in Boyanagh|37: 0|38: c & k, f north of Kilbeggan, c, b, 2d


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” in Kilbeggan, c & k, t in Rahinmore, p in Shureen and Ballynasuddery, and in Torque|39: 0|40; 0|End WEXFORD: 54 Sheets. Data as of 1839, 40. Sheet 1: 0|2: c in Pallis Upper|3: c, p in Coolgreany, c in Ballincorlore(sp), in Ballylarkin, and in Killybegs|4: p in Johnstown|5: c in Aska More, threshing machine in Knocknalour|6: c in Millquarter, in Clonamona Lower, and in Kilmichael Lower, woolen m in Ballinacoola|7: c in Ballynestragh demesne, and in Ballynacree, b in Millands|8: 0|9: c, f, 2m, p in Newtownbarry, c, 2m in Coolattin, f, m in Clohamon|10: 0|11: c, f in Camolin, c in Clogh, and in Rossminoge South. Churning mill in Ballygullen|12: c in Ballykale, and in Ballinatray Lower|13: 0|14: c in Ballycrystal, t, m, p in Mocurry West|15: c in Tomgarrow, in Ballingale, and in Milltown|16: c, f in Ballycanew, c in Monagreany Lower|17: c in Raheen nr. Killenagh bridge|18: c in Ballybaun, and in Rathduff|19: c in Ballynaminnan|20: 2f, b, d, pig market in Enniscorthy, woolen m in Ballymoty More, p in Templeshannon| 21: c in Garrybrit Upper, in Ballycash Lower, and in Ballyedmond|22: c in Clongany, m in Ballymacadam|23: c in Ballywilliam|24: c in Ballygalvert, p in Templeludigan|25: c in Garr, and in Clough, f in Townamulloge, m in Countnacuddy and in Boolabaun, p in Wilton|26: f in St. Johns, in Sweet Farm, and in Salville or Motabeg, m in Borrmount|27: 3c in Blackwater town, c in Ballybregagh, in Ballyhought, in Garryvadden, and in Crosshue|28: c in Ballynamona, f in Killincooly Beg|29: c at Maudlins, in Pigotts, in Arnestown, in Ballyanne, in Bawnmore, and in Shallows Park, b in New Ross, b in Irish Town, d in Rosbercon|30:0|31: c in Tomgarrow, and in Kereight|32: c in Deeps, in Ballynaslane, in Bleachlands, in Randallsmill, in Pollregan, and in Crory Lower, f in Castlebridge|33: c in Ballybeg Small, in Garrylough, and in Sinnottmill|34: c in Knockmullin, in Stokestown, in Aughclare, in Arnestown and in Aclamon, threshing machine at Arnestown Ho.|35: c, woolen m in Moorfields,c in Kilscanlan, in Ballinvegga, in Ballyclemock, and in Ballyshannon, p in Carnagh|36: c, t in Brownscastle, c in Castlehaystown, f in Shawstown, woolen m in Mulmontry|37: c, f in Newbay, c in Polehore, and in Ballyboggan, m in Coolcot, f, b, shambles, wnd, p in Wexford town, b in Maudlintown|38:0|39: c in boderan, and in Tinnco*ck|40: c, m in Taylorstown, c, woolen m in Mullinderry, and in Yolestown, m, threshing machine in Abbeyville, m in Cloonagh|41: c in Ballynitty, in Tullycanna, in Waddington, in Youngstown, and in Horetown South|42: c in Coolsallagh, in Rathmacknee Great, in Kellystown, in Kerloge, and in Hodgesmill, wnd in Hayestown Great, woolen m in Rathlannon||43: 0|44 c, p in Coleman|45: 2c in Kiltra, f, p in Dungulph, f in Baylestown, c at Castlework Ho., and at Ambrosetown, p in Saltmills, and in Haggard|46: c in Dumcormick, in Scar and in Kilcowan Upper, wnd in Ambrosetown, in Russellstown, and in Rathangan, k in Russellstown|47: c in Mulrankin, in Gardamus Great, in Lingstown Upper, and in Orristown, t in Sleedagh, wnd in Common, and in Ballyeskin|48: c, wnd in Butlerstown, c in Slad, in Milltown, and in Drimnagh, wnd, m in Ballyhitt, w in Ballybrennan Big, and in Bing, p in Rathholm|49: 0|50: wnd, p in Ramstown, wnd in Graigue Great|51: 0|52: wnd in Ballask, in Libgate, and in Chapel|53: c in Sigginstown, wnd in Furziestown, in Churchtown, and in Ballyfane|54: 0| End. WICKLOW: 47 Sheets. Data as of 1838.


Sheet 1: 0|2: 0|3: 0|4: c, b in Bray|5: c, p in Blessington, c in Knockatillane|6: 0|7: 0| 8: 0|9: m in Humphreystown, p in Hollywood Upper|11: 0|12: 0|13: f near Newtownmountkennedy, p in Kilmacullagh|14: c in Milltown|15: c in Tober demesne|16: 0|17: 0|18: m in Ballinacorbeg, p in Togheramore|19: c in New Castle Middle, b in Kiltimon, p in Ballyduff Lower nr. Killiskey|20: 0|21: c in Whitestown Lower, m in Stratford|22: m in Donard Demesne West|23: Woolen m in Knocknamunnion|24: c in Ballycullen, and in Moyntiagh, p in Ballymanus|25: c & k in Milltown North, c in Mountusher, m in Coolwinnia, and in Ballinahinch, p in Tinakelly Murragh, and in Corporations Lands nr. Wicklow town|26: 0|27: f, b in Baltinglass, c, t in Tuckmill Lower, m in Stratford Lodge, and in Parkmore, p in Bawnoge nr. Baltinglass, and in Talbotstown Lower|28: p in Toorboy|29: 0|30: c in Ballinderry Lower, 2b, p in Rathdrum, f in Glasnarget North nr Rathdrum town, p in Ballintombay Upper|31: c in Ballinameesda Lower, churning mill in Coolbeg|32: c in Borkill Beg|33: c in Ballycreen Lower, f in Tinnakilly Lower, p in Marcreddin, and in Aughrim|35: c in Ballinacarrig Lower, in Tinnahinch, and in Redcross, f in Kilmagig Lower, m in Tigroney West, p in Redcross|36: c in Castletimon/Brittas, f in Brittas|37: 0|38: c, f, p in Tinahely, c in Knocknaboley, and in Ballynamanoge|39: 2c in Ballinglen, c in Killacloran|40: c, b in Tiknock, c in Ballinamona, in Knockmiller, and in Ballyduff North. Sheephouse in Lamberton Ho., p in Ballykillageer Lower|41: 0|42: c in Killinure|43: c in Cronlea, 2f in Ballynultagh nr Shillelagh village, f in Ballyraheen|44: c in Toberpatrick|45: 0|46: 0| End Note: Though Mary and I used magnifying glasses to read the Ordnance Survey sheets we are bound to have overlooked some mills, etc.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT E: THE LANDLORDS’ NAMES AND DATA (for space considerations, all from A through E only) Many landlords’ Holocaust-era holdings had already been reduced prior to 1882 when the following data were compiled. Accounts of Ireland’s landlords, whether prior to, during, or post-Holocaust, and whether they resided in Ireland, England, or elsewhere, describe their full-time “rajah-style” lives. Nearly all were spending more than they could squeeze out of “their” Irish agricultural producers to the point of death and beyond. Landlords’ mortgagees (banks and insurance companies) had difficulty executing defaulted mortgages until facilitated by the Encumbered Estates Act of 1848 that enabled some to “get out from under.” To support these landlords, British Prime Minister Gladstone persecuted and imprisoned more than one thousand Irish Land Leaguers including its leaders Charles Stewart Parnell and Michael Davitt. Facing international pressure due to the Holocaust and Land League militancy he established Land Acts in 1870, 1881, and the Ashbourne Act of 1885 This was followed by Balfour’s of 1891, and Wyndham’s of 1903 amended by Birrell in 1909 which began compulsory acquisition. Many landlords were also legislators, thus arranged for above-market prices for their estates. The following data, of Irish land only, are extracted sequentially, without omissions, from Bateman’s THE GREAT LANDOWNERS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND: A LIST OF ALL OWNERS OF THREE THOUSAND ACRES AND UPWARDS (1883). (And yielding at least £3000 per year.) Space here permits only the names “A” through “D.” Numbers represent acres. The landlords’ titles and gov’t appointments shown are English; so are military units. “Reverends” are Anglican. Bart. = Baronet. K.G. = Knight of the Garter, etc. I recommend purchase of Bateman’s book; and have extracted copiously from it, its copyright having elapsed a century ago. Bateman’s nomenclature, spellings, etc., are maintained here except in a few instances, e.g., Counties “Laois,” “Offaly,” and “Derry” instead of “Queen’s,” “King’s,” and “Londonderry,” respectively. ABERCORN, Duke of, K.G., twice Lord Lieut. of Ireland: Tyrone, 60,000; Donegal, 16,500. ABERCROMBY, Sir Robt., Bart., of Forglen House, Turriff, Banffshire, Scotland: Cork, 434. ACTON, Thos., of West Acton, England: Wicklow, 4,845. ADARE, John George, Donegal, 42,000; Laois, 9,655; Kilkenny, 518. AGNEW, William, of Kilwaughter Castle, Larne, Co. Antrim. 9,770. ALBEMARLE, Earl of, Quiddenham Hall, Attleboro’, Norfolk, England. Leitrim, 2,506. ALco*ck, Harry, of Wilton Castle, Enniscorthy. Wexford, 9,121. ALDWORTH, R.O. of Newmarket: Cork/Limerick, 8,739. ALEXANDER, Granville, Henry, Jackson. Ex-83rd Foot, Armagh, 8,324. “ , Robert Jackson, Antrim, 5,215; Derry, 2,866; Tyrone, 1,769. “ , Robert Quin, Dublin, 2,973; Armagh, 192. “ , Samuel Maxwell, Derry, 5,229; Donegal, 504.


“ , J. of Milford House; Carlow, Antrim: 2,375. ALLEN, George, of Mt. Panther, Down, 2,855. ANDERSON, T.W. Gracedieu, Kilk/Cork/Wat, 3,690 ANNALY, Lord, ex-13th Dragoons; ex-Lord of the Treasury, Sat for Clare, Longford, and Kidderminster, England. Longford, 12,560; Dublin, 3,954. ANNESLEY, Earl, Castle Wellan, Co. Down. Ex-Fusilier Guards and 43rd Foot. Sat for Cavan. Cavan, 24,221; Down, 24,350; Laois, 2,489. ANTRIM, Earl of, Glenarm Castle, Antrim. Antrim, 34,292; Derry, 112. ARCHDALE, Mervyn Edward, Castle Archdale, Ferman. Ex-Inniskilling Dragoons. Sat for Fermanagh. Fermanagh, 27,410; Tyrone, 6,505. “ , William Humphrys. Fermanagh, 5,627 (exclusive of a large amount of land on perpetual leases, which appear in tenants’ names). ARDILAUN, Lord, St. Anne’s, Dublin. Sat for Dublin City. Galway, 27,111; Mayo, 3,747; Dub, 484. ARCHIBALD, R. Kildare, 3,075. WRIGHT-ARMSTRONG, Henry Bruce, Killylea Ho., Armagh, 3,120; Longford, 1,949. ARRAN, Earl of, K.P., Castle Gore, Mayo. Was Britain’s Chargė d’Affaires at B’Aires. Mayo, 29,644; Donegal, 6,883. Exclusive of 7,000 acres let on perpetual leases. ARTHUR, Francis, of Dublin. Clare, 10,534. ASHBROOK, Viscount, The Castle, Durrow, Co. Laois. Ex-52nd Foot. Kilkenny, 9,292; Offaly, 7,746; Laois, 4,623; Limerick, 860; Dublin, 509. (This man’s father, in 1836, evicted my g.grandfather and family from their tenancy in Ballykealy, Durrow. They survived the next few years in temporary shelter where my grandfather was born beside Ashbrook’s gibbet on the roadside uphill of the castle gate. I’ve corresponded with the current Lord Ashbrook, “Robin Flower,” who remains on the multi-thousand-acre Arley estate in Cheshire, England, that he inherited. (More on Lords Ashbrook in Exhibits E5 & 6.) ASHTOWN, Lord, Woodlawn, Galway. Limerick, 11,273; Galway, 8,310; Waterford, 9,435; Offaly, 2,780; Tipperary, 4,526; Roscommon, 841; Dublin, 50; Westmeath, 42. ATHLUMNEY, Lord, Somerville Ho., Navan, Co. Meath. Meath, 10,213; Dublin, 274. ALYMER, Sir Gerald George, Bart., The Castle, Donadea, Co. Kildare. Kildare, 15,396. “ , Michael, Courtown, Kilco*ck, Co. Kildare. Kildare, 3,871; Offaly, 732; Cork, 9. BACON, Mrs., Richill, Co. Armagh. Armagh, 6,878. BAGOT, John Lloyd Neville, of Ballymoe, Co. Galway. Ex-Lord in Waiting. Galway, 19,303; Roscommon, 104. (Visit his cofferdammed sarcophagus behind Ballymoe’s abandoned Protestant church alongside the River Suck.) BAGWELL, John, Ex-Lord of the Treasury. Sat for Clonmel. Tipperary, 3,519; Cork, 509; Waterford, 778. BAGGE, J.H. of Monea. Waterford, 3,016.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” BALFE, Patrick, South Park Demesne, Castlerea. Roscommon, 6.024, Galway, 376. Originally part of the Wills-Sandford estate. Balfe had bought it with a £26,000 loan from the C. of I. About 1909, the Congested Districts Board bought most of Balfe’s land, divided it into small farms which they allotted to farmers mostly from smaller, poorer holdings near Loughglynn, Ballinlough, and Williamstown. My parents bought one of these in 1947. Until the 1970s my father and his neighbors paid annual “rent” to reimburse what the gov’t had paid to buy-out the landlords. They also paid twice-yearly rates (property taxes) BALFOUR, Blayley Townley, of Townley Hall, Drogheda. Ex-Lt. Gov. of the Bahamas. Louth, 3,139; Meath, 1,453; Westmeath, 1,623; Armagh, 645; Tyrone, 76, Down, 16. BALL, Thos. of Castleblayney, Armagh, 5,085. “ , Hon. Mrs. of Fort Fergus. Clare/Kilk., 3,104. BANDON, Earl of, Castlebernard, Bandon. Cork, 40,941. Exclusive of a large area perpetually leased. BANGOR, Viscount, Castle Ward, Downpatrick. Ex-43rd Foot in Kaffir War, Down, 9,861. BANTRY, Earl of, Macroom Castle. Cork, 69,500. BARRINGTON, Sir Croker, Bart, of Glenstal, Murroe. Limerick, 9,485. BARNEWALL, C. of Meadstown. Meath, 2,782. BARRON, Sir Henry P. T., Bart. Belmont Park. Ex-Attachė at Brussels, Sec. Leg. at Lisbon, Sec. of Embassy at Constantinople. Waterford, 6,281. SMITH-BARRY, Arthur H., Fota Island, Queenstown. Sat for Cork. Cork, 12,969; Tipperary, 8,620. “ - “ , James H. Ex-Grenadier Guards. Louth, 6,273. “ - “ , Richard H., Ballyedmond, Midleton, Cork. Ex-12th Lancers. Cork, 8,137; Limerick, 269. BARTON, Hugh Llynedoch, Straffan Ho., Kildare. Ex-6th Inniskilling Drgns. Kildare, 5,044. “ , Samuel Henry, of Grove, Fethard, Tipp. Tipperary, 5,119. BATEMAN, John, Brightlingsea, Colchester, UK. Author of “The Great Landholders of…” Mayo, 2,997. BATESON, Sir Thos., Bart. Belvoir Park, Belfast. Ex-13th Light Drgns. & Lord of the Treasury. Sits for Devizes. Sat for Co. Kerry. Down, 6,400; Limerick, 2,927; Derry, 7,762; Antrim, 284. BATH, Marquis of, Longleat, Warminster. Monaghan, 22,762. BATT, Thos., of Rathmullen, Donegal. Donegal, 4,337. “ , Robert Narcissus, of Purdysburn, Belfast. Down, 12,010. BAYLEY, E.S., of Ballyarthur. Wicklow/Westmeath, 3,685. BEAMISH, Sampson, of Kilmalooda, Timoleague, Cork. Cork, 6,626. BEAUCLERK, Aubrey de Vere, Ardglass Castle, Down. Down, 3,474. WRIXON-BECHER, Sir Henry, Bart., Castle Hyde, Fermoy, Co. Cork. ExRifle Brigade. Cork, 18,933; Tipperary, 358. BELLEW, Lord, of Barmeath, Dunleer, Co. Louth. Louth, 4,110; Meath, 204.


BELLINGHAM, Sir, Alan E., Bart., of Castle Bellingham, Co. Louth. Louth, 4,186; Mayo, 11,810. BELMORE, Earl of, K.C.M.G., Castle Coole, Enniskillen. Ex-Und. Sec. for Home Dep. Ex-Gov. of New South Wales, Ex-Com. of Education in Ireland. Tyrone, 14,388; Fermanagh, 5,043. Other acreage was let on perpetual leases. BENNETT, F.V., of Thomastown. Offaly, 5,480. “ , T., of Castleroe. Derry/Antrim, 2,776. BERESFORD, Lord C, Cavan. Leitrim, 11,060. “ , Most Rev. Marcus Gervais (Archbishop of the Disestablished [effectively in1871] Church of Ireland [Anglican]), of The Palace, Armagh). Cavan, 6,788; Tyrone, 273; Leitrim, 950; Offaly, 94; Meath, 22; Monaghan, 23. “ , J.D., Cavan, 3,356 “ , John Barré, of Learmont Park, Derry. Derry, 10,420; Donegal, 1,342; Tyrone, 1,111. MASSY-BERESFORD, Very Rev. John Maunsell (Dean of Kilmore), St. Hubert’s, Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh. Limerick, 2,261; Fermanagh, 1,169; Tipperary, 488. PACK-BERESFORD, Denis Robert, of Fenagh House, Bagenalstown. Carlow, 7,619. BERKELEY, Col. Thomas, of Castle Bernard, Kinnity, Co. Offaly. Ex-12th Lancers. Offaly, 14,629. BERRIDGE, Richard, of Clifden Castle, Connemara. Galway, 160,152; Mayo, 9,965. BESSBOROUGH, Earl of, Bessborough House, Piltown, Co. Kilkenny. Kilkenny 23,967; Carlow, 10,578; Tipperary, 200; Waterford, 1. FENWICK-BISSETT, Mordaunt, of Barborough House, Taunton, Eng. Sits for West Somerset, Eng. Ex -1st Dragoon Guards. Donegal, 5,005. BLACKALL, Major Robt., of Coolamber Manor, Co. Longford. Ex-30th Foot. Longford, 4,623; Leitrim, 1,805. BLACKER, Rev. R.S.C, of Woodbrook, Wexford. 5,624. BLAKE, Maurice Charles Joseph, of Towerhill, Ballyglass, Co. Mayo. Galway, 7,690; Mayo, 4,198. “ , Walter Martin, of Ballyglunin Park, Athenry. Galway, 10,452. “ , T.M., of Frenchfort. Galway, 5,103. BLAND, F.C., of Derriquin. Kerry, 25,576. BLAKENEY, John, of Abbert. Galway, 7,504. BLENNERHASSETT, Arthur, of Ballyseedy House, Tralee. Kerry, 12,621. “ , Sir Roland, Bart., of Churchtown. Kerry, 8,393. BLAYNEY, Peerage (reps. of). Tipperary/Antrim, 2,000. LYNCH-BLOSSE, Sir Robert, Bart., of Athavallie, Balla, Co. Mayo. Mayo, 22,658. BLOOMFIELD, John C., of Castle Caldwell. Fermanagh/Donegal, 4,899. BODKIN, R., of Annagh. Galway/Mayo, 6,506. BOLTON, George, of Nenagh, Co. Tipp. Tipperary, 4,301; Kildare, 618; Limerick, 303; Offaly, 679. BOMFORD, G., of Oakley Park. Meath/Westmeath, 2,879.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” BOND, James Willoughby, of Farragh, Longford. Longford, 6,574; Meath, 1,525; Westmeath, 1,057. “ , Joshua Walter McGeough, of Drumsill, Armagh.Ex-49th Foot, Sat for Armagh. Armagh, 3,992; Westmeath, 995; Down, 610; Louth, 27. GORE-BOOTH, Sir Henry William, Bart., of Lissadell, Co. Sligo. Sligo, 31,774. BORROWES, Robert Higginson, of Gilltown, Newbridge, Co. Kildare. Ex13th Light Dragoons. Also has house property in Dublin. Kildare, 6,089. “ , Sir E.D., Bart., of Barrettstown. Kildare/Laois, 4,818. BOWEN, Robert Cole, of Bowenscourt, Castletown Roche, Cork. Ex-87th Foot. Cork, 1,680; Tipp., 5,060. “ , C.E.H., of Kilnacourt. Laois/Dublin, 2,123. (Ancestor of Author and MI6 spy Elizabeth Bowen.) BOYD, Rev. Sir Frederick, Bart., of The Mansion, Ballycastle, Co. Antrim. Antrim, 5,304. “ , Richard Keown, of Ballydugan, Downpatrick. Down, 4,249; Antrim, 70; Wicklow, 57. “ , J.R., of Ballymacool. Donegal, 5,001. BOYLAN, T., of Hilltown. Meath, 2,194. BOYLE, The Ladies Elizabeth and Charlotte Anne, of Courtmasherry, Bandon. Cork, 5,696. BOYNE, Viscount, Brancepeth Castle, Durham, Eng. Meath, 2,739. BOYSE, Henry Arthur, of Bannow Ho. New Ross. Wexford, 4,589; Kilkenny, 2,375; Offaly, 159. BRABAZON, Capt., of Brabazon Park. Mayo, 6,857. BRAZIER, Brooke R., of Ballyellis. Limerick/Tipperary/Cork, 2,109 FRENCH-BREWSTER, R.A.R., of 22 Merrion Sq. Dublin. Dub/Carl/Rosc/Wick, 2,863. BRINKLEY, Richard Graves, of Fortland, Easkey, Co. Sligo. Sligo, 6,730. BROOKE, G.F., of Summerton. Wexford, 5,797. “ , Sir Victor Alexander, Bart., of Colebrooke, Co. Fermanagh. Fermanagh, 27,994. DE-CAPELL-BROOKE, Sir William, Bart., of Oakley Hall, Kettering, Eng. Cork, 2,131, Tipp., 901. BROWNE, Robert Clayton, of Browne’s Hill, Carlow. Carlow, 4,652; Dublin, 265, Laois, 277. “ , Thomas Beale, of Crotta, Kilflynn, Co. Kerry. Kerry, 2,064. “ , Thomas Richardson, of Aughentaine Castle, Fivemiletown, Co. Tyrone. Tyrone, 10,350. “ , T.B., of Newgrove. Clare, 5,960. BROWNLOW, W., of Knapton House. Monaghan, 2,959. BRUCE, Sir Henry Hervey, Bart., of Downhill, Coleraine. Ex-1st Life Guards, Sits for Coleraine. Derry, 20,803; “ , James, of Benburb (res. Thorndale, Belfast). Tyrone, 9,230. “ , H.S.B., of Ballyscullion. Derry/Antrim, 4,000. BRUEN, Rt. Hon. Henry, of Oak Park, Carlow. Carlow, 16,477: Wexford, 6,932; Kildare, 218.



BRYAN, Hon. George Leopold, of Jenkinstown, Kilkenny. In 10th Hussars. Kilkenny, 8,209; Meath, 3,055; Kildare, 1,627. “ , Loftus Anthony, of Borrmount Manor, Enniscorthy. Wexford, 6,135. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, Earl of, Richmond Lodge, Sidmouth, Eng. Limerick, 2,082. BUCKLEY, Nathaniel, of Ryecroft, Ashton-Under-Lyme, Eng. Tipperary, 13,260; Limerick, 7,563. BURGES, John Ynyr, of Parkanaur, Dungannon. Tyrone, 2,485; Armagh, 729; Down, 430. BURKE, Sir Henry George, Bart., of Marble Hill, Loughrea. Galway, 25,258; Roscommon, 2,230. BURROWES, Robert James, of Stradone Ho. Cavan. Ex-1st Dragoon Guards. Cavan, 9,572 BURTON, Francis Nathaniel Valentine, of Carrigaholt Castle, Kilrush. Ex18th Foot. Clare, 9,169. “ , William FitzWilliam, of Burton Hall, Carlow. Ex-4th Light Dragoons. Carlow, 5,964; Kildare, 577; Laois, 155; Dublin, 55; Wicklow, 32; Offaly, 587. BUTLER, The Misses Anna, Sophia, and Henrietta, of Castle Crine, Sixmilebridge. Tipp., 465; Clare, 11,389. “ , Sir Thomas Pierce, Bart., of Ballin Temple, Tullow. Ex-56th & 24th Foot. Carlow, 6,538. “ , A., of Ballyline. Clare, 7,460. BUSHE, G.P., of Glencairn. Kilkenny/Waterford, 2,366. BUSTARD, E., of Belville. Donegal, 10,249. CADDELL, Robert O’Ferrall, of Harbourstown, Balbriggan. Sligo, 3,464; Rosc., 3,341; Meath, 1,372. CALEDON, Earl of, Caledon, Tyrone. Ex-1st Life Guards. Tyrone, 29,236; Armagh, 2,877. CANNON, W.J., of Castlegrove. Galway/Mayo, 5,973 CARBERY, Lord, Castle Freke, Rosscarbery, Co. Cork. Cork, 13,692; Laois, 2,919; Limerick, 2,724. CARDEN, Sir John Craven, Bart., of Templemore Abbey, Tipp. Tipperary, 7,850. “ , A.M., of Barnane. Tipperary, 2,709. CAREW, Lord, Castleborough, Enniscorthy. Wexford, 17,830; Waterford, 2,038; Laois, 1,098. CARROLL, T., of Mitchelstown. Limerick/Tipperary/Cork, 2,492. CARTER, Henry Tilton Shaen, of Watlington Park, Oxfordshire, Engl. Ex17th Lancers. Meath, 166; Westmeath, 1,137; Mayo, 40,698. CARYSFORT, Earl of, Glenart Castle, Arklow. Wicklow, 16,674; Dublin, 1,250; Kildare, 1,748. CAsem*nT, T., of Ballee. Antrim/Derry, 2,339. CASTLEMAINE, Lord, Moydrum Castle, Athlone. Ex-41st Foot. Westmeath, 11,444; Roscommon, 597. CASTLESTUART, Earl of, Stuart Hall, Stewartstown, Tyrone. Tyrone, 32,615; Cavan, 2,260. CASTLETOWN, Lord, Lisduff, Templemore, Laois. Ex-Army, Sat for

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Laois. Laois, 22,510. CAULFIELD, St. George Francis, of Donamon Castle. Co. Roscommon. Roscommon, 6,632; Galway, 4,604; Kilkenny, 1,514; Tipperary, 824; Tyrone, 558. “ , G. of Copeswood. Limerick, 3,350. CAVAN, Earl of, Mayo, 2,000? CHAINE, James, of Ballycraigy, Co. Antrim. Sits for Co. Antrim. Antrim, 5,010. CHAMPAGNE, A.H., of River Lyons. Laois/Offaly, 2,000? CHAPMAN, Sir Benjamin James, Bart., of Killua Castle, Clonmellon, Co. Westmeath. Sat for W’meath. Westmeath, 9,516; Meath, 241; Mayo, 3,600. “ , William, of Southill, Delvin, Westmeath. Westmeath, 5,042; Meath, 1,386; Mayo, 2,664. CHARLEMONT, Earl of, K.P., Roxborough Castle, Moy, Tyrone. Sat for Armagh. Armagh, 20,695; Tyrone, 5,903; Dublin, 222. CHARLEVILLE, Countess of, Charleville Forest, Tullamore, Co. Offaly. Offaly, 20,032. CHARTERIS, Lady Margaret, of The Lodge, Cahir, Co. Tipperary. Tipperary, 16,616. CHEARNLEY, Henry Philip, of Salterbridge, Cappoquin, Co. Waterford. Waterford, 18,165. CHESTER, F., of Williamstown. Louth/Limerick/Meath, 2,166. “ , Miss, of Cartown. Louth/Meath, 2,412. CHEVERS, M.J., of Killyan. Galway/Mayo, 6,380. CHRISTMAS, Miss Octavia, of Whitfield, Waterford (res. Cheltenham, Engl.) Waterford, 4,026; Kilkenny, 579. CHURCHER, Emanuel, of Bridgmary House, Gosport, Engl. Galway, 7,823; Mayo, 1,633; Rosc., 1,400. CHUTE, F.B., of Chute Hall. Kerry, 10,328 CLANCARTY, Earl of, Garbally, Ballinasloe, Co. Galway. Galway, 23,896; Roscommon, 1,614. CLANMORRIS, Lord, Creg Clare, Ardrahan, Co. Galway. With Rifle Brigade, Ex-28th Foot. Mayo, 12,337; Galway, 5,774. CLANRICARDE, Marquis of, Portumna Castle, Galway. Ex-Attaché and Sec. of Leg. at Turin. Sat for Galway. Galway, 56,826. CLANWILLIAM, Earl of, Gill Hall, Dromore. Navy Vice-Admiral; ExNaval A.D.C to the Queen. Ex-Lord of the Admiralty. Down, 3,584. CLARINA, Lord, Limerick, 2,012. CLARK, J.J., of Largantogher. Derry/Tyrone, 5,994. CLARKE, G.J., of The Steeple. Antrim, 2,422. “ , William, of Farrans. Cork, 5,679. “ , David, of Bushy Park, Borrisokane, Co Tipperary. Tyrone, 760, Tipperary, 5,873. BROWNE-CLAYTON, Richard Clayton, of Carrigbyrne Lodge, Enniscorthy. Wexford, 3,191; Kilkenny, 3,063. CLELAND, James, of Tobar Mhuire, Crossgar, Co. Down. Down, 3,544.


“ , John, of Stormont Castle, Dundonald, Co. Down. Down, 4,385. CLEMENTS, Henry Theophilus, of Ashfield, Cootehill, Co. Cavan. Cavan, 3,908; Leitrim, 22,790, Waterford, 174; Galway, 18,145; Kildare, 487. “ , T.H., of Rathkenny. Cavan/Meath, 3,058. CLERMONT, Lord, Ravensdale Park, Newry. Louth, 20,369; Armagh, 758. Another 8,500 acres are rented to others on perpetual leases. CLIFDEN, Viscount, Gowran Castle, Kilkenny. Kilkenny, 35,288; Dublin, 822; Kild. 978; Meath, 500. CLIFFE, Anthony John, of Belle Vue, Wexford. Wexf., 4,459; Kilkenny, 2,465; Cork, 947; Meath, 375. PELHAM-CLINTON, Lord Charles, of Warwick Sq., UK. Ex-1st Life Guards, Sat for Sandwich. Cork, 4,563. CLIVE, Charles Meysey Bolton, of Whitfield, Hereford, UK. Louth, 3,103; Mayo, 3,457. “ , Col. Edward Henry, of Perrystone Court, UK. Sat for Hereford. Tipperary, 4,689; Mayo, 35,000. CLONBROCK, Lord, Clonbrock, Ahascragh, Co. Galway. Galway, 29,550. CLONCURRY, Lord, Lyons, Hazelhatch, Kildare. Kildare, 6,121; Limrck, 5,137; Dub, 923; Meath, 306. CLONMELL, Earl of, Bishop’s Court, Straffan, Co. Kildare. Ex-1st Life Guards. Tipperary, 16,187; Kildare, 1,958; Kilkenny, 2,226; Carlow, 3,300; Monaghan, 2,022; Limerick, 1,902; Dublin, 51. CLOSE, Maxwell Charles, of Drumbanagher, Newry. Sits for Armagh. Armagh, 9,087; Laois, 3,678. COATES, William C., of Knockinally. Kildare/Longford, 2,236. COBBE, Charles, of Newbridge House, Donabate, Co. Dublin. Dublin, 9,928; Louth, 1,419. COBURNE, P.C., of Shanganagh. Kildare/Laois/Dublin, 2,533. CODDINGTON, H.B., of Oldbridge. Meath/Wicklow, 3,737. COEY, Sir Edward, Kt., of Merville, Belfast. Antrim, 5,257. COGAN, Right Hon. W.H.F., of Tinode. Kildare/Carlow/Wicklow, 4,086. COGHILL, Sir John Joscelyn, Bart., of Glen Barrahane, Castletownsend, Co. Cork. Ex-59th Foot. Kilkenny, 4,564; Meath, 1,269; Dublin, 472. ROSSBOROUGH-COLCLOUGH, Mrs., of Tintern Abbey, New Ross. Wexford, 13,329. COLLEY, Henry Fitz-George, of Mount Temple, Clontarf. Kildare, 4,216; Cork, 603. COLLUM, William, of Bellevue, Tamlaght, Enniskillen. Ex-28th and 94th Foot. Fermanagh, 5,200; Cav, 487. COLTHURST, Sir George St John, of Blarney Castle, Co. Cork. Ex-43rd Foot. Cork, 31,260. COMYN, F.L., of Woodstock. Clare/Mayo/Galway, 12,881. CONGLETON, Lord, Laois, 4,000? CONGREVE, Ambrose, of Mount Congreve, Kilmeadan, Co. Waterford. Ex1st Life Guards. Kilkenny, 2,295; Waterford, 2,016; Cork, 2,998. COOKE-COLLIS, Rev. M.A., of Castle Cooke. Tipperary/Cork, 5,841,


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” CRONIN-COLTSMAN, Daniel, of Flesk. Cork/Kerry, 14,794. CONNOLY, Thomas, of Castletown, Celbridge, Co. Kild. Donegal, 22,736; Kildare, 2,605, Dublin, 1,512. CONSIDINE, H., of Derk., UK. Longford/Tipperary/Tipperary, 2,074. CONYNGHAM, Marquis, of Bifrons, Canterbury, UK. Maj. Gen. in Army and Extra Equerry to the Queen. Ex-1st Life Guards. Donegal, 122,300; Clare, 27,613; Meath, 7,060. LENOX-CONYNGHAM, Sir W. Fitz-W., of Springhill. Tyrone/Derry, 2,526. COOPER, Edward Henry, of Markree Castle, Colloony, Co. Sligo. ExGrenadier Guards and 7th Hussars. Sat for Co. Sligo. Sligo, 34,120, Limerick, 1,118. “ , William Augustus, of Cooper Hill, Carlow. Laois, 2,822; Kildare, 417. “ , Col., of Dunboden. Westmeath/Cork, 2,840. COOTE, Sir Charles Henry, Bart., of Ballyfin, Mountrath, Laois. Laois, 47,451; Roscommon, 1,017; Kildare, 878; Limerick, 340. “ , Eyre, of Rockbourne West Park, Salisbury, Eng. Dublin, 3,207; Laois, 1,524. “ , C.J. Aldworth, of Mount Coote. Limerick/Cork, 2,840. “ , Rev. Algernon, Offaly, 4,436. “ , John Chidley, of 5, Hereford Gardens, Park Lane, London. Ex-43rd Foot. Roscommon, 10,348. PURDON-COOTE, C. of Ballyclough. Cork, 4,510. COPE, Francis Robert, of the Manor House, Loughgall, Co. Armagh. Armagh, 9,367. CORBALLIS, J.R. of Rosemount. Meath, 2,136. CORBALLY, Hon. Mrs., of Adderley Hall, Tara, Co. Meath. Meath, 5,033. CORK and ORRERY, Earl of, K.P., Marston House, Frome, UK. Is Master of the Buckhounds, Sat for Frome. Cork, 20,195; Kerry, 11,531; Limerick, 3,189. COSBY, Robert Ashworth Godolphin, of Stradbally, Laois. Ex-Inniskilling Dragoons. Laois, 10,110. COTTER, Sir J.L., Bart., of Rockforest. Cork, 7,873. COURTOWN, Earl of, Courtown House, Gorey, Co. Wexford. Ex-Grenadier Guards. Wexford, 14,426; Carlow, 7,396. CRAMSIE, J., of ___. Antrim, 4,613. CRAWFORD, Andrew Jones, of Crosthwaite Park, Kingstown, Dublin. Armagh, 5,928. SHARMAN-CRAWFORD, John, of Crawfordsburn, Belfast. Down, 5,748; Meath, 1. CREAGH, C., of Dangan. Clare, 6,004. CROFTON, Lord, Mote Park, Roscommon. Roscommon, 11,053. “ , Sir Morgan George, Bart., of Mohill Castle, Leitrim, 9,570, Longford, 1,608, Rosc., 271. “ , H.M. Earbery, of Inchinapa. Cork/Wicklow/Roscommon, 6,239. CROKER, Henry Stanley Monck, of Ballynagarde, Co. Limerick. Limerick,


3,328. CROMIE, Mrs., of Cromore, Portstewart. Derry, 3,215; Antrim, 3,756. CROSBIE, James, of Ballyheigue Castle, Tralee. Kerry, 13,422. TALBOT-CROSBIE, William, of Artfert Abbey, Co. Kerry. Kerry, 10,039. DELACHEROIS-CROMMELIN, S.A.H. of Carrowdore. Antrim/Down/Tyrone, 8,862 CROWE, Thomas, of Dromore. Clare, 6,121. “ , W.F., of Cahircalla. Clare, 3,126. GUN-CUNINGHAME, Cornwallis Robert Ducarel, of Mount Kennedy, Wicklow. Wicklow, 10,479. CUSACK, Sir R.S., of Furry Park. Dublin/Meath, 2,394. “ , T.A., of Carraboola. Longford, 4,980. CUTHBERT, T., of Garrettstown. Cork, 3,906. BLAKE-DALY, John Archer, of Raford, Co. Galway. Galway, 11,709. DAWSON-DAMER, Capt. Lionel Seymour William, of Came House, Dorchester, UK. Ex-Scots Fusilier Guards. Sat for Portarlington. Laois, 1,548. DARBY, Jonathan Charles, of Leap Castle, Roscrea, Offaly, Offaly, 4,637. DALWAY, M.R., of Bella Hill. Antrim, 2,473. HALL-DARE, Robert Westley, of Newtownbarry House. Co. Wexford. Wexford, 5,239; Carlow, 5,627. DARNLEY, Earl of, Cobham Hall, Gravesend, UK. Meath, 25,463. D’ARCY, H., of New Forest, UK. Galway/Mayo/Clare, 11,434. DARELL, Rev. Sir W.L, Bart., of Fretherne, UK. Cork, 1,000? DARTREY, Earl of, K.P., Dartrey House, Cootehill, Co. Monaghan. ExLord in Waiting. Monaghan, 17,732; Waterford, 8,918; Armagh, 1,665; Louth, 1,792. DAVIES, Robert, of Bodlowdeb, Bangor, UK. Dublin, 918. “ , Richard, of Treborth, UK. Dublin, 1,000? DAVIS, John, of Rathpeacon. Cork, 3,167. DAWSON, Col., of Moyola Park, Castledawson. Derry, 2,618; Cavan, 1,118; Dublin, 1. MASSY-DAWSON, George Staunton King, of Ballynacourty, Tipperary. Ex-14th Light Dragoons. Tipperary, 19,093; Limerick, 165. DEASE, Gerald, of Orangefield, Co. Cavan. Ex-7th Foot. Cavan, 4,647; Westmeath, 2,315. O’REILLY-DEASE, Matthew, of Dee Farm, Dunleer, Co. Louth. Sat for Co. Louth. Louth, 1,494; Cavan, 1,417; Mayo, 2,366; Limerick, 446; Dublin, 181; Meath, 184. DE BILLE, Mrs., of Slaghtfreedan. Tyrone, 12,680. DE BOISI, Count. Tipperary/Kilkenny/Limerick/Clare, 5,767. DE BURGHO, Lady, of Island House. Limerick/Wexford, 4,216. DE CLIFFORD, Lord, of Kirkby Mallory, Hinckley, UK. Mayo, 11,594; Galway, 1,406. DE FREYNE, Lord, of French Park, Roscommon. Roscommon, 34,400; Sligo, 4,059; Galway, 328. DELACOUR, James, of Sunny Hill. Cork, 5,379. DELAP, Rev. Robert, of Monellan, Killygordon, Co. Donegal. Donegal, 5,923.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” DE LA POER, Count Edmond, of Gurteen la Poer, Kilsheehan, Co Waterford. Waterford, 13,448. DE MONTMORENCY, Rev. W., of Castle Morres. Kilkenny, 4,825. DENNY, Sir Edward, Bart., of Tralee (res. 31, The Grove, West Brompton, London). Kerry, 21,479 DERING, George Edward, of Lockleys, Welwyn, UK. Galway, 11,206. DE ROBECK, Baron, of Gowran Grange, Naas, Co. Kildare. Ex-8th Foot. Dublin, 1,660; Kildare, 1,838; Wicklow, 2,038. DE ROS, Lord, Old Court, Strangford, Co. Down. Ex-1st Life Guards and Lord in Waiting and Equerry to the Prince Consort and to the Queen. Down, 2,952; Meath, 1,271. DE SALIS, Count John, of Hillingdon Place, Uxbridge, UK. Limerick, 4,026; Armagh, 3,663. DESART, Earl of, Desart Court, Kilkenny. Ex-Grenadier Guards. Kilkenny, 8,000; Tipperary, 932. D’ESTERRE, H.V., of Castle Henry. Clare/Limerick, 3,147. DE VERE, Sir Stephen, Bart., of Curragh Chase. Limerick, 4,166. DE VESCI, Viscount, Abbeyleix Ho, Laois. In Coldstream Gds. Dublin, 420, Laois, 15,069; Cork, 818. DEVON, Earl of, Powderham Castle, Exeter, UK. Ex-Poor Law Inspector, Sec. Poor Law Board, Chancellor Duchy Lancaster, President of Poor Law Board. Sat for Devon. Limerick, 33,026. DEVONSHIRE, Duke of, K.G., F.R.S., Chatsworth, Bakewell, UK. Sat for Cambridge, for Malton, and for North Derbyshire, England. Cork, 32,550; Waterford, 27,483; Tipperary, 3. DICKSON, Maj.Gen. of Croom Castle, Limerick. Ex-16th Lancers. Limerick, 8,559; Tipperary, 513. “ , S.F., of Creaves. Limerick, 2,540. HUME-DICK, W.W.FitzW., of Humewood. Wicklow, 4,770. DIGBY, Lord, Minterne House, Cerne, UK. Ex-9th Lancers. Offaly, 29,722; Laois, 938; Mayo, 6,835. “ , K.H., of Lauderstown. Kildare/Sligo/Westmeath/Wicklow, 3,580. DILLON, Viscount, Dytchley Park, Charlbury, UK. Ex-Home Office. Mayo, 83,749; Roscommon, 5,435; Westmeath, 136. “ , Sir John Fox, Bart., of Lismullen, Navan. Co. Meath. Meath, 3,209. DOBBIN, Col., of Annagh. Armagh/Cavan, 3,461. DOBBS, Conway Richard, of Castle Dobbs, Carrickfergus. Ex-Royal Navy Commander. Sat for Carrickfergus. Antrim, 5,060; Kildare, 7,971. “ , C.E., of Glenariff. Antrim/Kildare, 7,648. DOHERTY, R., of Redcastle. Donegal, 6,363. DOLLING, R.W. Ratliffe, of Magheralin. Derry/Down/Armagh, 3,950. DOMVILLE, Sir Charles Compton William, Bart., of Santry House, Dublin. Ex-13th Light Dragoons. Dublin, 6,262. Sir Domville’s acreage is much larger, as eleven of his biggest tenants are returned as owners of their holdings. DOMVILE, William Compton, of Thornhill, Co Wicklow. Dublin, 1,513;


Mayo, 6,040; Laois, 1,512.\ DONEGALL, Marquis of, K.P., G.C.H., C.B., The Castle, Belfast. (Kt. Com. Legion Honor.) Ex-7th Hussars. Ex-Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, Vice-Chamberlain of the Household, and Captain Yeoman of the Guard. Sat for Carrickfergus, for Belfast, and for Co. Antrim. Donegal, 8,155; Mayo, 6,040; Laois, 1,512. The Marquis collects rent from an additional 140,000 acres, chiefly in Donegal, let on perpetual leases. DONERAILE, Viscount, Doneraile Court, Co. Cork. Cork, 16,400; Waterford, 12,300. DONOUGHMORE, Earl of, K.C.M.G., Knocklofty, Clonmel. Ex-British Commissioner to E. Roumelia under the Berlin Treaty. Tipperary, 4,711; Waterford, 2,878; Cork, 1,972; Wexford, 1,307; Kilkenny, 486; Monaghan, 373; Dublin, 143; Louth, 80. DONOVAN, R., of Ballymore.Wexford/Tipperary, 4,268. DORCHESTER, Lord. Tyrone/Meath, 12,000? BLACKER-DOUGLAS, St. John Thomas, of Grace Hall, Lurgan. Down, 2,791; Kerry, 8,159; Arm., 266. DOWNSHIRE, Marquis of, Hillsborough Castle, Co. Down. Down, 78,051: Wicklow, 15,766; Offaly, 13,679; Antrim, 5,787; Kildare, 1,338. DOYNE, Charles Mervyn, of Wells, Gorey, Co. Wexford. Wexford, 7,134; Carlow, 3,203; Kildare, 518. DROGHEDA, Marquis of, K.P., Moore Abbey, Monasterevan, Co. Kildare. Kildare, 16,609; Laois, 2,688. Lord D. does not include here anything on perpetuity leases. DROUGHT, T.A., of Lettybrook. Offaly, 3,594. DRUMMOND, Robert, of Palace Gate, Kensington, London. Kerry, 29,780. DUCKETT, William, of Duckett’s Grove, Carlow. Carlow, 4,923; Wicklow, 1,156; Dublin, 16; Kildare, 499; Wexford, 48; Laois, 5,004. DUFFERIN, Earl of, K.P., K.C.B., G.C.M.G., Clandeboye, Belfast. Ambassador to Turkey. Ex-Gov. Gen. of Canada, Lord in Waiting, Commissioner in Syria, Under Sec. for India and for War, and Ch. D. Lancaster, and Amb. to Russia. Down, 18,238. DUNALLEY, Lord, Kilboy, Nenagh. Tipperary. Tipperary, 21,081. DUNBAR, John George Henry William, of Woburn, Donaghadee, Co. Down. Ex-1st Life Guards. Donegal, 5,247; Tyrone, 1,517; Down, 787; Armagh, 508; Derry, 275; Antrim, 20. DUNCAN, J.F., of Upper Merrion Street, Dublin. Dublin/Limerick/Sligo, 2,348. DUNLOP, Hon. Mrs., of Monasterboice. Louth/Cavan, 3,265. DUNNE, The Misses (three), of Brittas, Clonaslee. Laois. Laois, 9,215; Roscommon, 1,544; Dublin, 583. DUNRAVEN, Earl of, K.P., Adare Manor, Limerick. Limerick, 14,298; Kerry, 1,005; Clare, 164. DUNSANDLE and CLANCONAL, Lord, Dunsandle, Galway. Ex-11th Light Dragoons. Galway, 33,543; Tipperary, 3,514. DUNSANY, Lord, Dunsany Castle, Navan. Ex-Royal Navy Vice-Admiral. Meath, 4,379; Kilkenny, 2,320; Cavan, 31.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” DYOTT, Richard, of Freeford Hall, Lichfield, England. Antrim, 1,717. (Note: Like some above, Mr. Dyott’s estates in England cause his inclusion in this list of >3,000 acre holders. C.Fogarty)


EXHIBIT E2: SUMMARY OF ACREAGES OF LANDLORDS OF 3,000 ACRES OR MORE, BY COUNTY (1882) ANTRIM: 454,190 ARMAGH: 190,073 CARLOW: 127,139 CAVAN: 221,541 CLARE: 364,969 CORK: 757,280 DERRY: 167,276 DONEGAL: 692,858 DOWN: 439,937 DUBLIN: 110,906 FERMANAGH: 255,756 GALWAY: 809,560 KERRY: 748,523 KILDARE: 259,534 KILKENNY: 250,050 LAOIS: 256,210 LEITRIM: 226,677 LIMERICK: 337,247 LONGFORD: 140,720


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” LOUTH: 105,069 MAYO: 786,399 MEATH: 319,408 MONAGHAN: 202,842 OFFALY: 210,607 ROSCOMMON: 315,448 SLIGO: 245,200 TIPPERARY: 461,262 TYRONE: 437,150 WATERFORD: 300,873 WESTMEATH: 244,400 WEXFORD: 276,188 WICKLOW: 322,214 ___________________ TOTAL: 11,037,530




Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


EXHIBIT E4. LIST OF IRELAND’S LANDLORDS (in 1882) FROM E THROUGH Z WHO WERE MEMBERS OF BRITAIN’S HOUSE OF COMMONS OR HAD ACCESS TO THE HOUSE OF LORDS VIA THEIR TITLES (and could thus legislate in their own interests). EGMONT, Earl of, Nork House, Epsom, &c, Sat for Midhurst. In Cork alone, 16,766. ELY, Marquis of, Ely Lodge, Enniskillen, &c ENNIS, Sir John James, Bart. Of Ballinahown, Athlone. Sits for Athlone. In Westmeath/Meath/Dublin/Roscommon, 10,935 ENNISKILLEN, Earl of, Florence Court, Enniskillen. Sat for Enniskillen, Fermanagh alone, 29,635 ERNE, Earl of, K.P. Crom Castle, Newtown Butler. In four counties, 40,365 ESSEX, Earl of, Cashiobury Park, Watford, U.K. Four Irish counties alone, 5.545 FARNHAM, Lord, Farnham, Cavan. Sat for Cavan. Cavan, 25,920 FERMOY, Lord, Trabolgan, Whitegate, Co. Cork. Cork, Waterford, Limerick, 21,314 FETHERSTON, Rev. Sir George, Bart. (res. Westbury, U.K.) Longford, 8,711 FINGALL, Earl of, Killeen Castle, Co. Meath. Meath alone, 9,589 FITZGERALD, Sir Augustine, Bart. Ennis, Co. Clare. Clare alone, 14,915 DALTON-FITZGERALD, Sir Gerald, Bart. Castle Ishen, Cork &c. Cork and Tipp. alone, 3,277 FITZGERALD, Lord Maurice, Bart. Equerry to HRH Duke of Connaught. Carlow & Kerry, 8,066 FITZ-GIBBON, Lady Louisa Isabella Georgina, Mt. Shannon, Limerick. Limerick & Tipp. 13,494 FITZWILLIAM, Earl, K.G. Wentworth Ho. U.K. 115,743 of which 91,748 in Wicklow, Kildare, Wexford FORDE, Col. William Brownlow. Seaforde, Co. Down. Sat for Co. Down. Down, 20,106 FORTESQUE, Earl, was Lord of the Treasury, So. Moulton, U.K. 30,887 of which 3,958 in Waterford FOSTER, Rev. Sir Cavendish (res. Thoydon, Garson, Epping, U.K.) In Louth alone, 3,442 FOSTER, William Orme, Bridgenorth, U.K. Sat for So. Staffordshire. 21,062 of which 9,724 in Wexford FRANKFORT de MONTMORENCY, Viscount (res. Epping, U.K.) Kilk, Clare, Cav. & Carlow, 7,953 FRENCH, Robert, Monivea Castle, Galway, Sec. to Embassy at Vienna. Galway, 10,121 FULLERTON, Alexander, Ballintoy Castle, Co. Antrim. Was Attaché in Paris. 6,861 of which 5,611 in Antrim GARVAGH, Lord, Garvagh Lodge, Co. Derry, &c. Derry, Cavan & Down 15,406 GODFREY, Sir John Fermor, Bart. Kilcoleman Abbey, Milltown, Co. Kerry. Cork & Kerry, 6,092


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” KNOX-GORE, Sir Charles, Bart. Belleek Manor, Ballina, Mayo, 22,023; Sligo, 8,569 GORMANSTON, Visc. Gormanston Castle, Dublin, Was Com. Ed. in Ireland. Meath, 9,657; Dublin, 1,300 GOSFORD, Earl of, K.P. Gosford Castle, Market Hill, Armagh. Armagh, 12,177; Cavan, 6,417 GOUGH, Viscount, Lough Cultra Castle, Gort, Galway. Galway, Laois, Tipp., Dublin, Kildare, 13,708 GRANARD, Earl of, K.P. Castle Forbes, Longford. Was Attaché at Dresden. Long., Leit., Wex. 21,294 BELLEW-GRATTAN, Sir Henry. Bart. Mount Bellew, Galway. Galway, Laois, Rosc., 23,004 GREGORY, Rt. Hon. Sir W., KCMG, of Coole Park, Galway. “The Gregory Clause.” Galway, 4,893 GREVILLE, Lord, Clonyn Castle, Delvin, Westmeath. 18,608 of which 17,430 in Ireland GROGAN, Sir Edward, Bart. Sat for Dublin City; Westmeath, Offaly, Wexford, 6,490 GUNNING, Rev. Sir Henry, Bart. Northampton, U.K., 6,846 of which 2,033 in Longford, 704 in Rosc. GUILLAMORE, Visc. Limerick & Cork, 4,846 HAMILTON, Ion Trant, Sits for Dublin, In Dublin, Laois, Down & Meath, 6,889 HARLECH, Lord, Sat for Sligo and Leitrim. 58,358 of which 36,165 are in Sligo, Leit., Westm., Mayo, Rosc. KING-HARMAN, Edward, Sat for Sligo, Longford, Rosc., Sligo, Westm., Laois total 72,913. HARTOFF, Edward. Sat for No. Leicester, U.K. 34,190 of which 24,222 in Kerry, 4,545 in Limerick. HARVEY, Sir Robert, Sits for Bucks. 11,088 of which 7,485 in Antrim HAWARDEN, Viscount. Was Lord in Waiting. Tipperary, 15,272. HAYES, Sir Samuel Hercules, Bart. of Drumboe Castle, Stranorlar, Donegal, 22,825 HEADFORT, Marquis of, of Headfort House, Kells. 42,754 of which 14,251 are in Cavan & 7,544 in Meath HEADLEY, Lord, Aghadoe House, Killarney. 16,042 of which 12,769 are in Kerry. HENNIKER, Lord, Sat for E. Suffolk, Was Lord in Waiting. 11,040 of which 3 in Wicklow HERBERT, Henry, of Muckross Abbey, Killarney. Sat for Kerry. Kerry, 47,238 HERTFORD, Marquis of, GCB, Was Lord Chamberlain & Equerry to Queen, 12,289 of which 1,791 in Ireland HEYGATE, Sir Frederick, Bart. Sat for Derry. Derry, 5,507, Donegal, 3,338 HEYTESBURY, Lord, Heytesbury House, Bath. Sat for Isle of Wight. 13,303 of which 1,473 in Wicklow. (Made Holocaust official on 3Nov1845.) HODSON, Sir George, Bart. 26 in England, Cavan, 4,349; Wicklow, 1,211, Meath, 729, Westmeath, 502 McGAREL-HOGG, Sir James, Bart. Sat for Bath, Sits for Truro, UK. Antrim, 3,541 HORT, Sir J. Josiah. Bart., of Hortland, UK. Kildare, Laois, Cavan, Fermanagh, 3,956


HOWTH, Earl of, Howth Castle, Dublin. Sat for Galway. Dublin, 7,377; Meath, 2,061. HULSE, Sir Edward, Bart. of Breamore Ho., Salisbury, UK. 6,952 of which 653 in Tipperary HUMBLE, Sir John, Bart. of Cloncoskoran Castle, Dungarvan. Tipp., 189; Waterford, 6,435. HUNTINGDON, Earl of, Clashmore House, Waterford. In Waterford, Offaly, Galway, 13,523 INCHIQUIN, Lord, Dromoland, Newmarket-on-Fergus, Co. Clare. Clare, 20,321 INNES, Arthur, Newry, Co. Down. Sat for Newry. Down, 3,237 JOHNSON, Lady, of Belfast, Antrim & Roscommon, 4,521 KAVANAGH, Arthur, Sat for Wexford and Carlow. Carlow, Kilkenny, Wexford, Westm., 29,025 KEANE, Sir Richard, Bart. Cappoquin House, Waterford. Waterford, 8,909 KENMARE, Earl of, K.P. Killarney House. Was Compt. Of Household, V.Chamberlain, Lord in Waiting, and is Lord Chamberlain. Rom. Catholic! Kerry, 91,080; Cork, 22,700; Limerick, 4,826. KENNEDY, Sir John. Bart. of Johnstown Kennedy, Dublin. Waterford, 6,680; Dublin, 1,447 KILMAINE, Lord, Gaulston Park, Killucan, Westm. Mayo, 11,564; Westmeath, 2,122; Roscommon, 979 KILMOREY, Earl of, Sat for Newry. Down, 40,902; Armagh, 3,061. U.K., 8,449. KING, Sir Gilbert, Bart. Sligo, 4,328; Roscommon, 1,858; Leitrim, 480. KING, John Gilbert, Sat for Offaly. Offaly, 10,242; Roscommon, 954. KINGSALE, Lady Adelaide, Lea Castle, UK. Cork, 3,473; UK, 1,019 KINGSTON, Anna, Countess of, Mitchelstown Castle, Cork. Cork, 24,421; Limerick, 250 (her second husband, William Downs Webber has Leitrim, 350; Kildare, 200; Laois, 504; Sligo, 2,756) KINGSTON, Earl of, Kilronan Castle, Rosc. Rosc. 17,726; Sligo, 1,783; Leitrim, 1,554; Dublin & Westm., 244 LANESBOROUGH, Earl of, Belturbet, Co. Cavan, Cavan, 7,946; Fermanagh, 6,606; UK, 1,845 LANGFORD, Lord, Limerick, 3,855; Dublin, 3,659; Meath, 2,231 LANSDOWNE, Marquis of, UK. 94,983, Kerry; 12,995, Meath; Laois, 8,980; Dublin, 2,132; Offaly, 617. The rest, 21,567, in England. LECONFIELD, Lord, res. Sussex. Clare, 37,292; Limerick, 6,269; Tipp. 273. The rest, 66,101 in England. LEINSTER, Duke of, Carton, Maynooth, Kildare. Kildare, 71,977; Meath, 1,123 LEITRIM, Earl of, 44 Grosvenor St., London. Donegal, 54,352; Leitrim, 2,500. BARRETT-LENNARD, Sir Thomas, Bart. of Romford, Eng. Monaghan, 7,920; Fermanagh, 107; Eng. 6,385 LESLIE, Sir John, Bart. Sat for Monaghan, Monaghan, 13,674; Donegal, 28,827, Tyrone, 1,103; Fermanagh, 877 LEVINGE, Sir Richard, Knockdrin Castle, Mullingar. Sat for Westmeath. Westmeath, 5,017; Eng. 1. LIMERICK, Earl of, Dromore Castle, Limerick. Limerick, 4,083; Clare, 1,550; Cork, 56. LISGAR, The Lady, and TURVILLE, Sir Francis KCMB, Cavan, 8,924; England, 874


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” LISMORE, Viscount, Clogheen, Tipperary. Tipperary, 34,945; Cork, 6,067; Limerick, 1,194. LISTOWEL, Earl of, K.P. Mallow, Co. Cork. Kerry, 30, 000, Cork, 5,541 LONDONDERRY, Marquis of, K.P. Sunderland, Eng. Sat for N. Durham. Down, 12,823; Derry, 2,189; Donegal, 1,673; the rest, 22, 907, in England. LONGFIELD, Richard, of Mallow. Co. Cork. Sat for Cork. Cork, 11,239; Limerick, 1881. LONGFORD, Earl of, GCB. Pakenham Hall, Castlepollard, Co. Meath. Was UnderSec. of State for War, and is a General in the Army. (His relative, Gen. Pakenham, died in 1815 leading the British attack on New Orleans, C.F.) Dublin, 420; Westmeath. 15,014; Longford. 4,555 LOUTH, Lord, Louth Hall, Drogheda. Louth, 3,578; Meath, 161; Monaghan, 178; Galway, 4; England, 178 LUCAN, Earl of, GCB. Chertsey, Eng. Sat for Mayo. Mayo, 60,570; Dublin 32; England, 2,334 LURGAN, Lord, Lurgan, Brownlow House, Armagh. Armagh, 15,166; Down, 110 McCAUSLAND, Connolly, of Limavady. Was in Diplomatic Service. Derry, 12,886; Roscommon, 4,799 McMAHON, Sir Wm. Samuel; Bart. Attaché in Germany Turkey, etc. Tyrone, 16,326; Clare, 4,671; Dublin, 32 WORKMAN-MACNAGHTEN, Sir Francis, Bart. of Bushmills, Antrim, 7,134; Armagh, 920; Derry, 227. MAHON, Rev (C of I.) Sir Wm. Bart. Ahascragh, Galway. Galway, 8,619, Roscommon, 860 TALBOT de MALAHIDE, Lord, Malahide Castle. Was Lord in Waiting. Dublin, 1,893; Cavan, 1,133; Westm. 547 MANCHESTER, Duke of, was ADC to Cape Governor & Lord of Bedchamber, 27,312 of which 12,298 in Armagh MARTIN, Rt. Hon. Sir S. Derry, 2,166 MASSEREENE and FERRARD, Viscount, KP. Antrim, 11,777; Louth, 7,193; Meath, 2,045; Monaghan, 9 MASSY, Lady, Doonas Ho. Clonlara, Co. Clare. Clare, 4,623 MASSY, Lord, The Hermitage, Castle Connell, Co. Limerick. Limerick, 8,432; Leitrim, 24,571 MAYO, Earl of, Palmerstown Ho., Straffan, Co. Kildare, Kildare, 4,915; Meath, 2,360; Mayo, 559 MEATH, Earl of, Kilruddery Castle, Bray. Sat for Dublin. Wicklow, 14,717; Dublin, 36; England, 695 MEREDYTH, Sir Henry, Bart. of Thomastown, Kilkenny. Kilkenny, 3,217; Down, 3,071; Kildare, 128 MIDLETON, Viscount, Peper Harrow, Godalming, Eng. Sat for Mid Surrey. Eng., 3,105; Cork, 6,475. In 1834, Wm. Cobbett, M.P. revealed that Lord Midleton’s name is actually Broderick, and referred to Peper Harrow, and to the tenants on his Cork estate as barely alive. Cobbett in Ireland, pp. 123, 4 et al. MILES, Sir Philip, Bart. Sits for E. Somerset, Eng. Somerset, 4,929; Kerry, 555 MOLYNEUX, Rev. (Anglican) Sir John, Bart. Castle Dillon, Co. Armagh. Armagh, 6,009; Kildare, 2,226; Limerick, 1,378; Laois, 6,726; Dublin, 221


MONCK, Viscount, GCMG, Charleville, Bray. Was Gov. of Canada, Lord of the Treasury, and L.P. Seal to the Prince of Wales. Kilkenny, 5,544; Wicklow, 2,478; Wexford, 5,717; Dublin, 193; Westm., 212 MONTEAGLE, Lord, Mount Trenchard, Limerick. Limerick, 6,445; Kerry, 2,310; MONTGOMERY, Sir Robert, KCB, of Newpark. Derry & Donegal, 3,540; MOORE, Arthur, of Mooresfort, Co. Tipperary. Sits for Clonmel. Tipperary, 10,199 MORLEY, Dowager Countess, of Chudleigh, Eng. Cavan, 10,540; Devon, England, 1,924 MOUNTGARRET, Viscount, Ballyconra, Kilkenny. Kilkenny, 14,073; Wexford, 505; York, Eng., 120 MOUNT-TEMPLE, Lord, Romsey, Eng. Was Lord of the Treasury, and of the Admiralty, etc., etc. 8,145 of which 738 are in Ireland (Dublin), the rest in England. MULHOLLAND, John, Ballywalter Pk., Greyabbey. Sits for Downpatrick. Down, 13,506; Tyrone, 1,182 MUSGRAVE, Sir Richard, Bart, Tourin, Cappoquin. Waterford. Waterford, 8,282; Kilkenny, 124 MUSKERRY, Lord, Springfield Castle Drumcolloher. 15,495 in Ireland; mostly in Wexford & Limerick. NETTERVILLE, Viscount. Tipperary, Galway, Meath, 3,332 NORBURY, Earl of, Cabra Ho. Dublin, Tipperary, 7,798; Clare, 2,453; Mayo, 1,024; Sligo, 1006. (See Norbury in Exhibit E4; C. Fogarty.) NORMANTON, Earl of, Somerley, Eng. Tipperary, 7,625; Kilkenny, 5,567; Limerick, 1,003. Eng. 28,766 NUGENT, Lady, Ballinlough, Delvin Co. Meath. NUGENT, Sir Walter, Bart. of Donore, Walterstown. Westmeath, 7,218; Longford, 737 O’HARA, Charles, Cooper’s Hill, Ballymote, Sligo. Sat for Sligo. Sligo, 21,070 O’NEILL, Rev. (Anglican) Lord, Shane’s Castle, Co. Antrim. Antrim, 65,919 ORANMORE and BROWNE, Lord, Castle MacGarret, Claremorris Scotland, 2,720; Mayo, 4,243 ORKNEY, Earl of, KCMG. Glanmore, Templemore. Tipperary, 7,877; Laois, 1,438; Kerry, 1,642. Eng. 1 ORMATHWAITE, Lord, Radnor, Eng. Sat for Leominster, Eng. etc. Kerry, 8,907; Cork, 2,206; England, 15.148 ORMONDE, Marquis of, The Castle, Kilkenny. Tipperary, 15,765; Kilkenny, 11,960 PALMER, Sir Roger, Bart. of Keenagh, Crossmolina. Sat for Mayo. Mayo, 80,990, Sligo, 9,570, Dublin 3,991. England, 4,403. BROOKE-PECHELL, Sir, G.S., Bart, of Paglesham, Eng. 2,467 of which part is in Ireland (Dublin) PEMBROKE, Earl of, Wilton Ho. Salisbury. Wilts. (Eng.), 42,244; Westmoreland, 31; Dublin, 2,301; Wicklow 230 PLUNKET, Most Rev. Lord, (Anglican Bishop of Meath) Monaghan, 2,324; Cork, 1,057; Dublin, 186 PORTARLINGTON, Earl of, KP. Emo Park, Laois. Laois, 11,149; Tyrone, 4,756; Tipp. 2,897; Offaly, 1,126 PORTSMOUTH, Earl of, Hurstborne Park, Hants. Eng. All 46,984 in England except 12,464 in Wexford.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” POWER, Sir John, Bart. Edermine Ho. Enniscorthy. Sat for Wexford. Wexford, POWER, Sir Richard, Kilkenny, 2,811; Tipp., 5,357; Wicklow, 367; Waterford, 267; Beds. (Eng.) 1,445 POWERSCOURT, Viscount, KP. Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. Wicklow, 40,986; Wexford, 11,641; Dublin, 631 QUIN, Lord George, Quinsborough, Sixmilebridge, Co. Clare. Clare, 2,850; Tipp., 3,078; Limerick, 889 RANFURLY, Earl of, Dungannon Park Co. Tyrone. Tyrone, 9,647; Fermanagh, 506 RATHDONNELL Lord, Drumcar, Dunleer. Co. Louth. Carlow, 8,058; Louth, 3,000; Fermanagh, 2,600, Monaghan, 1,006; Tyrone, 2,886; Meath, 1,215; Dublin, 600, Kildare, 558 ROCHE, Sir David Vandeleur, Bart. of Carrass, Croom. Limerick, 3,951 ROBINSON, Sir J. Bart. of Rokeby. Louth, 2,941 RODEN, Earl of, Hyde Hall, Sawbridgeworth, Eng. Louth, 4,151; Down, 8,903; 1,542 in England ROSSE, Earl of, FRS, Birr Castle, Parsonstown, Offaly. Offaly, 22,513; Tipp. 2,633; York (Eng.), 1,340 ROSSMORE, Lord, Rossmore Park, Co. Monaghan. Monaghan, 14,839 RUSSELL, Earl, Ardsalla, Navan, Co. Meath. Meath, 3,167; Louth, 1,017 RUTHVEN, Lord, Harperstown Ho., Taghmon. Co. Wexford. Wexford, 2,200; 5,424 in Scotland ST. LEGER, Col. John, Rotherham, Eng. 5,179 of which 3,500 in Ireland (Limerick) SANDWICH, Earl of, Huntingdon, Eng. 11,377 of which 2,844 are in Ireland (Limerick) SHANNON, Earl of, Castle Martyr, Co. Cork. Was Attaché at Frankfort, etc. Cork, 12,232 SHEFFIELD, Earl of, Sheffield Park, Uckfield, Eng. Eng. 6,468; Meath, 1,085; Louth, 115. SHIRLEY, Evelyn, Str.-on-Avon, Sat for Monaghan & S. Warwick. England, 2,374; Monaghan, 26,386 SLIGO, Marquis of, Westport House, Co. Mayo. Mayo, 114,881 SOUTHWELL, Viscount, Castle Mattress, Limerick. Limerick, 4,032; Leitrim, 4,017; Cavan, 2,252; Kerry, 329; England (Monmouth) 4. STANHOPE, Earl, Sevenoaks, Kent. Was Lord of the Treasury. Sat for E. Suffolk, Laois, 2,129; Eng. 12,112 STAPLES, Sir, Nathaniel, Bart. of Lissane, Cookstown, Tyrone. Tyrone, 3,078; Dublin, 1,417; Derry, 990 STEWART, Sir Augustus Abraham, Bart., of Ft. Stewart, Ramelton Donegal, Donegal, 7,547 STEWART, Sir John, Bart. of Ballygawley, Tyrone. Tyrone, 27,905; Galway, 629. STRAFFORD, Earl of, FRS, of Wrotham Pk. Barnet. England, was Lord of the Treasury; Tr. of the H’hold. Sat for Milbourne Port, Chatham, and Poole. England. England, 7,347; Derry, 7,647 STRONGE, Sir James, Bart. of Tynan Abbey, Armagh, Sat for Armagh, Armagh, 4,404; Tyrone, 8,426; Derry, 124 VILLIERS-STUART, Henry of Dromana, Waterford. Sits for Waterford.


Waterford, 30,882; Kildare 47; Cork, 24 STYLE, Sir William, Bart. of Glenmore, Co. Donegal. Donegal, 39,564 TAYLOR, Rt. Hon. Ardgillan Castle, Balbriggan, Co. Dublin. Sits for Dublin. Was Lord of the Treasury, Sec. to the Treasurer, Meath, 9,000; Dublin, 805; Louth, 456 VANE-TEMPEST, Lord Henry Lionel; Antrim, 13,781 TEMPLEMORE, Lord, Preston Ho., Basingstoke, Hants. Eng. Eng., 2,543; Wexford, 11,327; Donegal, 10,856. Derry, 1,890; Down, 26 TEMPLETOWN, Viscount, KCB, Castle Upton, Templepatrick, Co Antrim. Sat for Co. Antrim. Antrim, 11,924, Monaghan, 12,845 TOTTENHAM, Arthur, Glenfarne, Enniskillen. Sits for Leitrim. Leitrim, 14,561; Clare, 257. TOTTENHAM, Charles, Ballycurry, Ashford, Co. Wicklow. Sat for New Ross. Wexford, 7,066; Wicklow, 2,540; Sligo, 1,631; Carlow, 280 TREVELYAN, Sir Charles, Bart. Northumberland, 22,058. (According to “Great Landowners…” It is “more than probable” that this estate is the property of the Trevelyan who oversaw Ireland’s starvation in 1845-1850. TREVOR, Lord, of Brynkinalt, N. Wales. Sits for Co. Down. England, 3,093; Down, 11,020; Antrim, 8,372; Armagh, 1,219 TRIMLESTON, Lord, Trimleston Castle, Co. Meath. Meath, 3,025; Offaly, 2,496; Dublin, 1,238 TWISS, G, of Birdhill, The same influential Twiss of 1845-1850? Tipperary & Cork, 3,518 VALENTIA, Viscount, Blechlingdon, Park, Oxford 7,050 of which 2,695 were in Ireland (Kildare) VENTRY, Lord, Burnham Ho. Dingle, Co. Kerry. Kerry, 93,629 VERNER, Sir Wm. Bart. of Church-hill, Moy, Co. Armagh. Tyrone, 16,042; Armagh, 5,436; Monaghan, 2,526; Wicklow, 140; Dublin, 113 VAUX of HARROWDEN, Lord, Westmeath, Kilkenny & Meath, 4,323 WALDEGRAVE, Countess, and CARLINGFORD, Lord, Dudbrooke Ho. Navestock, Essex. Was Lord of the Treasury; Under-Sec for the Colonies, Chief Sec. for Ireland, Pres. of the Board of Trade. Sat for Co. Louth. Louth, 1,452; Carlow, 686; England, 13,500 WALLACE, Sir Richard, Bart. KCB, of Sudbourn Hall, Wickham Market, Eng. Sits for Lisburn. Antrim, 11,224; Down, 2,693; England, 11,249 JOHNSON-WALSH, Sir J. Bart. of Ballykilcavan. Laois & Dublin, 2,131 WARREN, Sir, Augustus, Bart., of Warren’s Court, Lissarda, Co. Cork. Cork, 7,787 WATERFORD, Marquis of, KP, of Curraghmore, Waterford. Sat for Co. Waterford. Waterford, 39,883; Wicklow, 26,035; Kilkenny, 406; Cavan, 305; Kildare, 55 WATERPARK, Lord, Doveridge, Derby, Eng. Was in the Foreign Office. Tipp., 6,587; Eng. 1,704 WAVENEY, Lord, Bungay, Eng. Sat for Cambridge. England, 12,706, Antrim, 6,546 WELDON, Sir, Anthony Crossdill, Bart. of Rahinderry, Laois & Kildare, 2,739 WESTMEATH, Earl of, Pallas, Tynagh, Co. Galway. Galway, 14,604; Roscommon, 1,091 HAWKINS252-WHITSHED, Lady, of Killincarrick, Greystones, Co. Wicklow.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Meath, 2,470; Dublin, 1,420; Wicklow, 1,142; Louth, 906 WICKLOW, Earl of, Shelton Abbey, Arklow. Wicklow, 22,103; Donegal, 6,440; Westmeath, 170 WILLIAMS, Col. Owen, of Temple Ho., Great Marlow, Eng. Is Silverstick-inWaiting. Sits for Marlow. Roscommon, 3,062; England & Wales, 11,372 WOLSELEY, Sir Clement, Bart. of Mount Wolseley, Tullow, Carlow. Carlow, 2,547; Wexford, 2,643 END


EXHIBIT E5: LORD ASHBROOK, EVICTOR OF MY PATERNAL GREAT-GRANDPARENTS AND FAMILY This is the story of Ireland of that era. It differs only in that my family’s eviction occurred in 1836, prior to the decades of mass evictions. My family’s evictor was Henry Jeffrey Flower (“the 4th Viscount Ashbrook”) probably abetted by his son of the same names (“the 5th Viscount Ashbrook”) and by the local British army garrison. Whether “Viscount” and “Lord” are equivalents, titled landlords required to be addressed as “Lord.” Barons Castle Durrow (1733) William Flower, 1st Baron Castledurrow (1685–1746) Henry Flower, 2nd Baron Castle Durrow (d. 1752) (created Viscount Ashbrook in 1751)

• •

Viscounts Ashbrook (1751) • •

Henry Flower, 1st Viscount Ashbrook (d. 1752) William Flower, 2nd Viscount Ashbrook (1744–1780)

William Flower, 3rd Viscount Ashbrook (1767–1802)

Henry Jeffrey Flower, 4th Viscount Ashbrook (1776–1847)

Henry Jeffrey Flower, 5th Viscount Ashbrook (1806–1871)

Henry Jeffrey Flower, 6th Viscount Ashbrook (1829–1882)

William Spencer Flower, 7th Viscount Ashbrook (1830–1906)

Robert Thomas Flower, 8th Viscount Ashbrook (1836–1919)

Llowarch Robert Flower, 9th Viscount Ashbrook (1870–1936)

Desmond Llowarch Edward Flower, 10th Viscount Ashbrook (1905-1995)

Michael Llowarch Warburton Flower, 11th Viscount Ashbrook (b. 1935) The above data are from Wikipedia.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” The heir apparent is the present holder's son the Hon. Rowland Francis Warburton Flower (b. 1975). During Britain’s attempt to exterminate Catholicism in Ireland a Flower did his bit: “Report of Wm. Flower, High Sheriff of the Co. Kilkenny. Mr. Flower’s ‘reply to a query of the Lords Commission appointed to enquire into the present State of Popery in this Kingdom,’ is dated Nov., 1731, and is as follows:- ‘Pursuant to the above order I have made strict inquiry into the body of my county and don’t find that there are any Friarys or Nunnery therein;’ Wm. Flower.”253 Henry Jeffery Flower, Viscount Ashbrook (the Evictor) b. 16 Nov 1776, died 4 May 1847, in Beaumont Lodge, Old Windsor, Berkshire, England (where his son was christened in 1806). Thus he was 60, his son was 30 and his grandsons were 7 and 6 in 1836 when he evicted my family. The above makes clear that the Flower family, like so many landlords of Ireland, had another estate in England. They entered Ireland as mercenaries with genocidist Cromwell or later. As soldiers, even officers, they almost certainly didn’t own English estates. Thus the many landlords of Ireland who also acquired English estates, must have purchased them with the wealth extracted from the wealth-producers on “their” Irish estates. Though, as you have seen, the 4th Lord Ashbrook who evicted my g.grandparents and their children, died at his Berkshire, England estate where his successor was christened, that is not the address of the current Lord Ashbrook (M. L. Warburton Flower). His home, Arley Hall, Cheshire, was left to him by his uncle, a __ Warburton. It is likely that the price of Arley Hall estate was also squeezed out of Irish land and labor, as a Richard Warburton, a name as infamous as Flower, was another landlord of 12,126 acres in the same “Queen’s county,” Co. Laois and in “King’s County” (Co. Offaly) until 1881 at least. Arley Hall was being built


during the Holocaust while Richard Warburton’s tenants on “his” Irish estate, like Ashbrook’s tenants, were starving to death, being stripped of their agricultural output. The Irish estates of Ashbrook and Warburton, being vast and largely within Counties Laois and Offaly, may have adjoined each other. Despite the current Lord’s relatively recent acquisition of Arley Hall, his promotional literature for shooting holidays at that estate gives the unmistakable but false impression that he is the eleventh lord Ashbrook to live there. His lordly scamming of gullible American shooters is insignificant compared to his ancestors’ centuries of robbery and murder with impunity in Ireland. When I contacted the current Lord about forty years ago, he claimed to know very little about his grandfather’s Durrow Castle, or its lands, its earlier gallows, names of tenants, evictions; nothing. But he also told me his name is Robin Flower and that he is a civil engineer (as was I then). According to the Lord’s recent Internet postings neither “Robin” nor “civil engineer” is true. My ancestors that Lords Ashbrook evicted from their farm in Ballykealy, Durrow, Co. Laois, were my g.grandfather James Fogarty, wife Catherine “Kitty” née Campion and children Andrew (6), Mary (4), and Sara “Sally” (1). Their farm was part of the tens of thousands of acres robbed from their Irish inhabitants by Cromwell’s army and assigned as loot to Ashbrook’s ancestor. Eventually, essentially all of Ireland became “owned” by Englishmen. At the time, and for subsequent centuries, eviction was usually a death sentence as Ireland’s summer temperature averages 56 degrees Fahrenheit, in winter, 39, while the evictees were only partially clad in rags. During the British-created Holocaust of 1845-1850 anyone providing refuge to evictees faced eviction themselves. G.grandparents James and Catherine managed to build a scealp (shelter) in the shadow of the Lord’s gallows on Gallows Hill four miles from Ballykealy and immediately uphill of the village of Durrow. On 29June1837 my grandaunt Bridget was born in that scealp, as was my grandfather Kieran on 16July1839. The family’s tenuous existence was


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” ameliorated when they moved down the hill into the village and around the corner into a house on Chapel Street prior to the birth of the lastborn, Margaret, on 12January1844. In 1857, to provide for his parents and siblings, my grandfather walked to Abbeyleix where he “took the Queen’s shilling,” (joined the British army). He escorted gold from Australia’s Bendigo and Ballarat mines into the Gold Room in Melbourne, fought in the Maori wars in New Zealand, and served at Dum-Dum, India where he and his fellows learned to make their bullets more lethal by filing their points flat. On Jan. 1, 1877 he marched with his 40th Regiment of Foot in the Calcutta celebration/ inauguration of Victoria as Empress of India. His sister Sera had perished en route to or from the Durrow post office where his army pay was sent for the family. In 1881, the year that Britain abolished the cat-o’-nine-tails as a tool of discipline throughout its military, grand-da retired on a pension of £3 5/- (three pounds, five shillings) per quarter year. He married Bridget Colleton of Cloncourse, Mountrath, Co. Laois in 1887 or 1888 and made a living thenceforth on her small farm and another small land acquisition in nearby Cappagh on which he and his sons labored to reclaim for crops. On May 20, 1904, at 65, was born the last of his nine children, my father, Christopher sr., who lived until November 14, 2000.





Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT E7: SOME OTHER LANDLORDS BALFOUR, in addition to Blayney Townley Balfour’s 6,952 acres in Ireland, Lord Balfour is listed with 2,715 acres in Scotland. His Balfour cousin Arthur James, 87,196, mostly in Scotland. Likewise David Balfour, of Balfour Castle, Kirkwall, 30,000, John Balfour with 10,600 in Scotland, and Mrs. Balfour of Balgonie Castle, Markinch, Fife, with 3,564. The total Balfour acreage in 1882 was 141,027. Nevertheless, voters were led to expect that justice would be upheld by Balfour when he was elected Britain’s (and thus Ireland’s) Prime Minister.

BLAKENEY. Edward, born March 26, 1778 at Newcastle-upon-Tyne;

died August 2, 1868 in London. 1836 Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, 7th May 1836 Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. 1838 Lieutenant-General. 28th June 1849 Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. In Ireland he had command of the army at a time when there was great starvation and unrest. Field Marshal Sir Edward Blakeney GCB GCH.254 In other words, General Sir Edward Blakeney was the monster who led the sixty-seven regiments while they murdered some 5.2 million Irish; the genocide that some still conceal as “famine/great hunger/gorta mor.” His relatives’ estate was centered on Castleblakeney, near Mountbellew, Co. Galway. BOWEN. As shown in Appendix E2, the Bowen clan had a large extended family. In addition to Robert Cole Bowen, of Bowenscourt, Castletown Roche, Co. Cork with his 1,680 acres in Cork and 5,060 in Tipperary, there was cousin British army Capt. J.C. Bowen-Colthurst who went on a random killing spree of noncombatants during the 1916 Rising, and Author Elizabeth Bowen who spied on the Irish for MI6 in the 1940s and 1950s. BOYCOTT. The Boycotts had 2,367 acres in Salopshire and Staffordshire, England. It was Captain Charles Boycott who, as estate agent of the Earl of Erne’s thousands of Co. Mayo acres, earned the enmity of the local people. The word boycott entered the English language during the Irish Land War in 1880. In September of that year tenants demanded from Boycott a substantial reduction in their rents. He not only refused but evicted them from the land. Charles Stewart Parnell, in his Ennis speech proposed that, rather than resorting to violence, everyone in the locality should refuse to deal with him. Despite the short-term economic hardship to those undertaking this action, Boycott soon found himself isolated—his workers stopped work in the fields and stables, as well as the house. Local businessmen stopped trading with him, and the local postman refused to deliver mail. Unable to get locals to harvest his crops, eventually 50 Orangemen


from Cavan and Monaghan volunteered to do so. One thousand policemen and soldiers escorted the Orangemen to and from Claremorris despite the fact that Boycott's complete social ostracism meant that he was actually in no danger of being harmed. Moreover, this protection ended up costing far more than the harvest was worth. After the harvest, the "boycott" was successfully continued. Within weeks Boycott's name was everywhere. It was used by The Times in November 1880 as a term for organized isolation. According to an account in the book The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland by Michael Davitt, the term was coined by Fr. John O'Malley of County Mayo to "signify ostracism applied to a landlord or agent like Boycott." The Times first reported on November 20, 1880: “The people of New Pallas have resolved to 'boycott' them and refused to supply them with food or drink.” The Daily News wrote on December 13, 1880: “Already the stoutest-hearted are yielding on every side to the dread of being 'Boycotted'.” By January of the following year, the word was being used figuratively: "Dame Nature arose.... She 'Boycotted' London from Kew to Mile End" (The Spectator, January 22, 1881). On December 1, 1880 Captain Boycott left his post and returned to England with his family. CAsem*nT, T. of Ballee, in 1882 still owned 2,339 acres in Antrim and Derry. It was a member of this family, the immortal Roger Casem*nt, who “abandoned his class” by joining the Irish rebels of 1916 for which deed the British gov’t executed him. COLTHURST. In addition to the 31,260 acres of Sir George St. John Colthurst, Bart., of Blarney Castle (site of the Blarney Stone), Co. Cork, Colonel ColthurstVesey of Lucan Ho. Dublin had 4,301 acres in Kildare and Dublin. During the 1916 Rising in Dublin British army Capt. J.C. Bowen-Colthurst went on a killing spree summarily murdering people in the street. Upon returning to barracks he murdered three more; two journalists named Thomas Dickson and Patrick MacIntyre and the much-beloved pacifist, Francis Sheehy Skeffington. Colonel Vane was dishonorably discharged for exposing Colthurst’s murders but months later the British gov’t tried Colthurst in secret, declared him guilty but insane and sentenced him to Broadmoor Hospital for the Criminally Insane. The following year the gov’t released Colthurst and put him on permanent pension in Canada but never reinstated the truly honorable Col. Vane. NORBURY, Earl of, Cabra Ho., Dublin. Tipperary, 7,798; Clare, 2,453; Mayo, 1,024; Sligo, 1,006. Being highly unlikely that there were two unrelated Lord Norburys, this latifundist (born 1862) must be grandson of the infamous “Hanging Judge” Lord Norbury who, to enforce British law in Ireland, imposed the sentence of hanging and decapitation on Robert Emmet, the “Darling of Erin” after the failed rising of 1803. In 1882 Judge Lord Norbury’s relative, the Hon. Otway Fortesque Graham-Toler (res. Windsor House, Ryde, Eng.) still had 8,789 acres in Tipperary, 4,524 in Offaly, 3,076 in Laois, and 142 in Westmeath. PAKENHAM a landlord of Strokestown, Co. Roscommon and in Longford and Westmeath. Locals refer to Strokestown House and district as the Pakenham-Mahon estate. General Sir Edward Pakenham was killed on January 8, 1815 while leading the British attack on New Orleans. He was the son of the 2nd Lord Longford, brother-in-law of the Duke of Wellington, all landlords now called “Irish.”


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” PARNELL, the Hon. H., of Anneville still owned 2,900 acres in Co. Westmeath in 1882. It was a member of this family, Charles Stewart Parnell who, like Roger Casem*nt, “betrayed his class” by advocating the return of Ireland’s land to the Irish. He thus became the “uncrowned king of Ireland.” He spoke to a crowd, outdoors in heavy rain in Creggs, Co. Galway and soon thereafter died of pneumonia. PEEL, Right Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., G.C.R., of Drayton Manor, Tamworth, UK, in 1882 owned 9,923 acres in three English shires. Other Peel relatives owned a total of 21,783 acres in England. It was the above Robert Peel who founded the police in England and Ireland. To this day the police in England are referred to as the friendly and famously unarmed (until recently) “Bobbies.” In Ireland Peel was referred to as “Orange Peel” and his brutal, carbine-toting Irish Constabulary (later Royal Irish Constabulary, RIC), were called “Peelers.” The “Peelers” were disbanded in the newly-freed 26 Counties in 1922, but remain in Occupied Ireland officially as the Royal Ulster Constabulary/Police Service of Northern Ireland (RUC/PSNI). ROSS, British General Robert Ross whose regiment burned the White House and other public buildings of Washington, D.C., was born in Rostrevor, Co. Down of “the Rosses of Rostrevor, whose estate stretched around Newry from Rostrevor to Rathfriland.” On September 11, 1814, a few days after Ross’s attack on Washington he was killed by an American sniper near Baltimore, Maryland. In Baltimore his army’s failed attack inspired Francis Scott Key to write what is now our national anthem. General Ross was son of British army Major David Ross. His mother was half-sister of the British Earl of Charlemont, landlord of 26,620 acres in Ireland. The Rosses were of Scottish origin, part of Ireland’s planter class. Ross’s British admirers memorialized him with a 90 foot tall obelisk near his Rostrevor birthplace. The above exemplify Ireland’s English landlords that “famine” historiographers now refer to as “Irish”. In Occupied Ireland on August 24, 2014 the British conducted celebrations at General Ross’s Rostrevor birthplace to commemorate their victory against America on the two hundredth anniversary of their burning of the White House. Under pressure, the British government promptly apologized to the U.S. It apologized separately for its embassy in Washington, DC for having celebrated with a party and a cake depicting the White House with fiery sparklers which it then tweeted to others. The Huffington Post reported: “Hours later, in a Monday morning tweet, the British Embassy dialed down the snark and apologized.”


EXHIBIT E8: THE HAWKINS FAMILY CREST. Established by Sir John Hawkins who led the first English slave-raiding expedition in 1562. The royal family promptly participated in it.

“Irish Slave-Owners” was a recent headline in British and Irish newspapers as well as IrishCentral. It was a report of PostEmancipation compensation paid by Britain, not to the freed slaves, but to their “owners.” But why “Irish?” The report ignored the 2,200 English compensates, but made “news” of 99 “Irish” compensates. But these “Irish” slave-owners were actually Ireland’s landlords, essentially all English, for whom the British military were soon to murder approximately five million of their Irish tenants. Of the ninety-nine “Irish” ex-slave-owners only six possessed recognizably Irish names.


EXHIBIT F: COERCION ACTS FROM 1800 TO 1887 1800 to 1805; Habeas Corpus Suspension and Seven Coercion Acts. 1807 1st February, Coercion Act; Habeas Corpus Suspension; Aug. 2 Insurrection Act 1808-9 Habeas Corpus Suspension; 1814 to 1816, Habeas Corpus Suspension 1816 Insurrection Act; 1817 Habeas Corpus Suspension; One Coercion Act 1822 to 1830; Habeas Corpus Suspension; Two Coercion Acts in 1822, one Importation of Arms Act; 1831 Whiteboy Act, Stanley’s Arms Act. 1832 Arms and Gunpowder Act; 1833 Suppression of Disturbance Act; Change of Venue Act. 1834 Disturbances Amendment and Continuance; Arms and Gunpowder \ Act. 1835 Public Peace Act; 1836 Another Arms Act. 1838 Another Arms Act. 1839 Unlawful Oaths Act. 1840 Another Arms Act. 1841 Outrages Act. 1843 Another Arms Act. An Act Consolidating all Previous Coercion Acts. 1844 Unlawful Oaths Act. 1845 Additional Constables near Public Works Act. 1845 Unlawful Oaths Act. 1846 Constabulary Enlargement. 1847 Crime and Outrage Act. 1848 Treason Amendment Act. Removal of Arms Act. 1848 Suspension of Habeas Corpus. Another Oaths Act. 1849 Suspension of Habeas Corpus. 1850 Crime and Outrage Act. 1851 Unlawful Oaths Act. 1853 Crime and Outrage Act. 1854 Crime and Outrage Act. 1855 Crime and Outrage Act. 1856 Peace Preservation Act. 1858 Peace Preservation Act. 1860 Peace Preservation Act. 1862 Peace Preservation Act. Unlawful Oaths Act. 1865 Peace Preservation Act. 1866 Suspension of Habeas Corpus Act. 1866 Suspension of Habeas Corpus. 1867 Suspension of Habeas Corpus. 1868 Suspension of Habeas Corpus. 1870 Peace Preservation Act. 1871 Protection of Life and Property.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

1871 Peace Preservation Continuation Act. 1873 Peace Preservation Act. 1875 Peace Preservation Act. 1875 Unlawful Oaths Act. 1881 to 1882: Peace Preservation Acts (Suspending Habeas Corpus). Arms Act. 1882 to 1885: Crimes Act. 1886 to 1887: Arms Act. 1887 Criminal Law and Procedure Act.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT G: POPE LEO XIII ON BOYCOTTING June 24, 1888

To Our Venerable Brethren, the Bishops of Ireland. Venerable Brethren, Health and Apostolic Benediction. FROM THIS SUPREME DIGNITY of the Apostolic office, We have frequently directed Our solicitude and Our thoughts to your Catholic people; and Our feelings have been more than once recorded in published documents, from which all may clearly learn what are Our dispositions towards Ireland. They are sufficiently attested by the provisions which, under Our direction, the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda made in former years respecting Ireland, and also by the letters which on more than one occasion We addressed to Our Venerable Brother, Cardinal M'Cabe, Archbishop of Dublin. Once again, they have been attested by the address which We recently delivered to a not inconsiderable number of Catholics belonging to your nation, from whom we received, not only congratulations and heartfelt wishes for Our preservation, but also expressions of gratitude on account of Our benevolent dispositions, clearly discerned by them, towards the Irish people. Furthermore, within these past few months, when it was resolved to build a church in this city in honor of St. Patrick, the great Apostle of the Irish, We most warmly encouraged the undertaking, and We shall substantially aid it within the limits of Our resources. 2. Now this, Our paternal affection, remaining, as it does, unaltered, We cannot disguise that tidings which have recently come to Us from Ireland have deeply pained and grieved Us. We have learned that an untoward excitement has suddenly arisen because the Sacred Congregation, whose office it is to vindicate the authority of the Church against those who resist it, has decreed that those methods of warfare known as Boycotting and the Plan of Campaign, which had begun to be employed by many, may not lawfully be used. (Emphases


mine, C. Fogarty) And what is more to be deplored, there are not a few who have come forward and summoned the people to excited meetings, where inconsiderate and dangerous opinions are set in circulation, the authority of the Decree not being spared. For not only is the real scope of this Decree grievously perverted by means of forced interpretations, but, furthermore, it is even denied that obedience is due to the Decree, as if it were not the true and proper office of the Church to decide what is right and what is wrong in human actions. 3. Such a manner of acting is but little in harmony with the profession of the Christian religion, which assuredly brings in its train the virtues of moderation, respect, and obedience to legitimate authority. Besides, in a good cause, it is not fitting to seem in some sense to imitate those who in the pursuit of an unlawful end seek to attain it by disorderly effort. 4. Such line of action, too, is the more painful to Us inasmuch as We had carefully inquired into the case, so that We might obtain full and reliable knowledge of the state of your affairs, and of the causes of popular discontent. Our sources of information are trustworthy; We investigated the matter in personal interview with yourselves; further, last year We sent to you as legate a man of tried prudence and discretion, with the commission to use the greatest diligence in ascertaining the truth, and to make a faithful report to Us. For this very act of watchful care the thanks of the Irish people have been publicly given to Us. Can it therefore be asserted without rashness that We have given judgment in a case with which We were not sufficiently acquainted--the more so as We have condemned things which fair minded men, not mixed up in your struggle, and thus bringing a calmer judgment to the consideration of the case, unite in condemning?

5. There is also a suspicion not less unjust to Us, namely, that the cause of Ireland appeals but feebly to Us, and that the present condition of her people gives Us little care. Now, on the contrary, We yield to no one in the intensity of Our feeling for the condition of the 392

Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Irish people, and We have no more earnest desire than to see them at length in the enjoyment of that peace and prosperity which they have so well deserved. We have never opposed their struggling for a better state of things, but can it be regarded as admissible that in the carrying on of that struggle a way should be thrown open which might lead to evil deeds Rather, indeed, for the very reason that, under the influence of passion and political partisanship, things lawful and unlawful are to be found mingled in the same cause, it has been Our constant effort to mark off what was right from what was wrong, and to withhold Catholics from everything not sanctioned by the Christian rules of morals. 6. On this account We gave to the Irish people timely counsels, to be mindful of their obligations as Catholics, and to take part in nothing at variance with natural right or forbidden by the Divine law. Hence the recent Decree ought not to have come upon them unexpectedly; all the more as you yourselves, Venerable Brethren, assembled in Dublin in the year 1881 bade the clergy and people to beware of everything contrary to public order or to charity--such as refusing to discharge just obligations; preventing others from discharging theirs; inflicting injury on anyone either in person or property; violently resisting the law or those engaged in the discharge of public duties; joining in secret societies and the like. These injunctions, most just in themselves and given most seasonably, were praised and approved by Us. 7. Nevertheless, as the people were being carried away by everincreasing vehemence in the pursuit of the object of their desires, and as there were not wanting those who daily fanned the flame, We perceived that something more definite was needed than the general precepts of justice and charity which We had previously given. Our duty forbade us to suffer that so many Catholics, whose salvation must be Our first care, should pursue a hazardous and unsafe course leading rather to disorder than to the relief of distress.

8. Let matters, then, be viewed in their true light, and let Ireland read in this Decree Our love for herself and Our desire to promote the 393

prosperity she hopes for; since nothing is so harmful to a cause, however just, as recourse to violence and injustice in its defense. 9. These instructions which We address to you, Venerable Brethren, you will convey to the Irish people. We feel confident that, united in due conformity of views and of purpose, and sustained not only by your own, but also by Our authority, you will accomplish much--and chiefly this, that the true estimate of things shall not continue to be obscured by passion, and most especially that those who have urged on the people to excitement may come to regret the rashness with which they have acted. Since there are many who seem to seek out means of escaping from even the plainest obligations, take all necessary steps that no room be left for doubt as to the force of this Decree. Let it be understood by all that the entire method of action, whose employment We have forbidden, is forbidden as altogether unlawful. (Underline is mine, C.F.) 10. Let your people seek to advance their lawful interests by lawful means, and most especially, as is becoming in Christians, without prejudice to justice or to obedience to the Apostolic See, virtues in which Ireland has in all times found comfort and strength. 11. In the meantime, Venerable Brethren, as a pledge of heavenly favors, and in testimony of Our affection, We most lovingly in the Lord bestow on you, and on the clergy and people of Ireland, the Apostolic Benediction. Given at St. Peter's, Rome, the 24th day of June, in the year 1888, the eleventh year of Our Pontificate. END.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” EXHIBIT H: BRITISH RULE IN OCCUPIED IRELAND




EPILOGUE This book, especially its half that consists of Exhibits, proves genocide beyond the shadow of doubt. The following article in The Times, Britain’s newspaper of record at the time, is included here as yet another, pithily-expressed, official confirmation of genocide. It further refutes Kinealy, O Grada, and the entire cabal of cover-up artists. If dispositive Exhibits A through D are too voluminous for them, herebelow is a concise refutation of their core falsehood. The Great Irish Famine of 1845-1846: a collection of leading articles, letters, and parliamentary and other public statements, reprinted from the Times. THE (LONDON) TIMES’ “GREAT IRISH FAMINE OF 1845-1846” p. 94255 FOOD EXPORTS FROM IRELAND TO ENGLAND Leading Article, Friday, October 30, 1846 (Extract from page 45) The Irish question is equally treacherous to a superficial survey. When future economists strike the balance of favours and duties between England and Ireland, they will probably scrutinize the traffic of the Irish Channel more closely than we are wont to do. They will insist much on the fact that the food of millions will annually pass to the richer and happier shore. They will not reconcile this with the alleged improvidence of the Irishman quite so easily as we are wont to do. They will inquire very diligently what England gave in return. When their researches bring them to that crisis which we are now actually suffering, they certainly will be struck, perhaps even unduly, by the fact that while England was avowedly feeding Ireland—while both countries (England and official [Protestant] Ireland) agreed in that view of their position -- while all classes of Irishmen were flinging themselves more and more upon the bounties of the empire, whole fleets of provisions were continually arriving from the land of starvation (emphasis added) to the ports of wealth and the cities of abundance. Scarce a day passes without every great port of this country seeing this visible contradiction, or rather this painful anomaly. We are emphatically reminded that it is not to Ireland herself, but to her social state, that the famine is attributable. This is no exaggeration, no paradox. What, also, will the future historian feel when in the very columns which he is searching for the distracting and harrowing notices of Irish destitution, he lights on such a paragraph as that which appeared in our yesterday's impression, and which, in fact, is only one out of the many we could quote from the last few weeks :-"No less than 16 ships arrived in the river Thames on Monday from the Irish ports, laden almost exclusively with food and provisions of various kinds, the produce of that country, having collectively 14,960 packages of butter, 224 packages of pork, 1,047 hampers and bales of bacon, several of hams, 140 sacks, barrels, and 7,788 quarters of oats, 434 packages of lard, 75 of general provisions, 40 of oat-meal, 44 of porter, 259 boxes of eggs, and a variety of other articles of lesser importance, which it would be quite needless further to particularize.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Of these almost unprecedentedly numerous arrivals (to the Thames) in one day from the sister island, 5 were from Limerick, 1 from Belfast, 2 from Waterford, 1 from Galway, 1 from Kilrush, 2 from Dublin, 1 from Youghal, and 3 from Cork." In predicting that “future economists” would “…scrutinize the traffic of the Irish Channel more closely than we...” and thus expose the lie that more edibles entered Ireland than departed, those Times editors overestimated future integrity. Who then could have reasonably predicted that Britain’s concealment of its genocidal extraction of Ireland’s edibles would remain concealed 170 years later; and that the principle concealers would no longer be British but would be the ostensibly-free Irish government and its academia; and that their moral rot would have contaminated American universities; particularly Quinnipiac and Southern Illinois, and including Boston College, Fordham, Notre Dame, and Chicago’s De Paul and Loyola? PLEAS AGAINST A POOR LAW Leading Article, Friday, March 12, 1847 Extract from Page 86: “Poor Ireland” exports more food than any other nation in the whole world – not merely more in proportion to its people, or its area, but absolutely more. Its exports of food are greater than those of the United States, or of Russia, vast and inexhaustible as we are apt to think the resources of those countries. Such a fact as this is very compatible with a people being poor, but it at least shows that one ought to inquire what sort of poverty it is. Extract from Page 87. Ireland, then, is at the same time rich and poor. It produces a vast superabundance of food, but that food is drained from its shores. It is not, however drained by the State. (False! The military IS the State) It is drained, in a great measure, by the landlords and their creditors, who, the more they can get, the more they will drain. Now, what does mercy to Ireland require under these circ*mstances? Is it mercy to let the landlord go on, drain, drain, drain, for ever? Is it mercy to let him go on squeezing the hapless peasant down to the skin of his potato? Is it of any use -- has it been of any use, to remit rates and taxes, and lend money to the landlords? No. The only mercy is to keep in the island, and upon the spot, the gracious gifts of PROVIDENCE and rewards of human toil, and to compel the landowner to spend them in the employment of the labourer and the relief of the poor. (Note that The Times editors call for generosity from landlords, as if they are the rightful owners of all of the output of Irish physical and mental energy. They blame the landlords alone as if the heavily-armed military and police were not the direct robbers of the disarmed producers.) LETTER TO THE EDITOR. – signed “An Irish Peer” (a titled English-Protestant landlord in Ireland and member of England’s House of Lords.) November 5, 1847.


Extract from Page 147: …the systematic abuse of Irish landlords. They are to be annihilated, because the great majority of them are Protestants, attached to their religion and the British connexion. They are, in fact, the only bar to the supremacy, of the Popish religion in Ireland. These priests never will be at rest till they have established the Roman Catholic religion in the ascendant. The Protestant religion and the union of England and Ireland stand or fall with the fate of the Protestant landlords. People in England cannot comprehend these things, it requires a residence of years in Ireland to understand this vital subject in all its truth. A man must have dealings with these people to discover these facts, but not till he has trafficked with them for land can he possibly be made to credit that which is the actual and bond fide state of the case -- he is no judge till then. Of late years the collection of the tithes has been thrown on the landlord; he is now the tithe proctor and is obliged to get in the Protestant clergyman's rent-charge (as it is facetiously called) from a Roman Catholic population. Human art could not have devised a system better calculated to disunite landlord and tenant in Ireland. This landlord complains that, while having exempted himself from tithing to his own Anglican Church, that he as landlord must collect it – from his Catholic tenants, the producers of Ireland’s food crops. By 1920 essentially all English landlords had been bought out by the British gov’t and repatriated to England. LANDLORD MURDERS Leading Article, Saturday, November 6, 1847 Extract from Page 149, 150. Better people a desert, or conquer a savage tribe, than dwell in a society of conspirators who for years can gloat on their victim, and enjoy the sweet anticipation of his last mortal agony. Human nature was not made for this ordeal. Few, if any, will stand for it. The soil will continue in the management of those hard but courageous hirelings who are content to face death for money, and who will balance the score of occasional murder with continual oppression. Ireland will have it so. Those sons of Cain will still eschew the arts of peace, and cling to their privilege and destiny of blood. We cannot help it. We have written, and written in vain. The blunderbuss in more than a match for the pen. (Irony of ironies! So in 1847, the year in while British troops and police murder some 2.5 million innocents, editors at The Times hurl the epithet of “Cain” at the Irish! The homicides continued until the killers repatriated to England. There is a vital link between King Leopold II's genocide in Belgian Congo and Queen Victoria's Holocaust in Ireland. King Leopold I mentored both genocidists. He was the father of one and uncle of the other.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” A book in my possession; "Queen Victoria's Early Letters" shows the degree to which she was mentored by Prince, later King Leopold I, her uncle, and father of the infamous Leopold II. In 1828, Victoria (1819-1901), as a 9-year-old princess, was already in regular twoway correspondence with then-Prince Leopold of Belgium . In 1832 Prince Leopold became King Leopold ("King of the Belgians") who continues correspondence with Princess Victoria. Starting on 20 June 1837, 8:30 a.m. Princess Victoria becomes Queen Victoria in correspondence with the "King of the Belgians." A print of a painting captioned "Queen Victoria's First Council, 20th June, 1837" shows her surrounded by four lords; of whom one, Lord John Russell, would become Prime Minister and at least two, Marquess Lansdowne and Lord Palmerston, were already infamous landlords in Ireland. King Leopold's 26 Dec. 1837 letter to Victoria shows that he has already selected Albert to be her husband. Leopold's 13 April 1838 letter to Victoria shows that he is successful in making his Baron Stockmar her "Commissary-General." Lord Brougham's 19 June 1841 letter obsequiously ingratiates himself with Victoria. (The great William Cobbett, M.P., in his "Cobbett in Ireland, a Warning to England," expresses his horror of Brougham's genocidal policies.) The King Leopold/Queen Victoria correspondence continues throughout the Holocaust. On 15 April 1848 Lord John Russell at Chesham Place writes to Victoria about a letter he has received from British Viceroy Lord Clarendon in Ireland (where some three million are already dead), of "...somewhat fearing an outbreak in Dublin tonight. He speaks confidently of the disposition of the troops." (A reconfirmation that Britain's policy of mass death was a non-event, but a popular uprising would constitute the ultimate wrongdoing. On 4 December 1848 Pope Pius IX writes to Victoria (from Gaeta, having fled Rome). Not a word about Britain's nearly completed genocide of Ireland's Catholics (but the Pope was in mortal danger himself). 6 August 1849 Victoria writes from "Lodge, Phoenix Park" to Leopold, describing the triumph of her visit to Cork and Dublin. 24 Dec. 1861 is the date of the book's penultimate letter. It is from Victoria to "My Beloved Uncle" who will visit her soon. She had written to him on 20 Dec to inform him of her husband Albert's death.


1865: King Leopold was succeeded by his son King Leopold II. 1866 Leopold II tries to buy the Philippine Islands. Failing to do so; he began his Congo operations the atrocities of which peaked in 1885-1908. It is not known today whether his murder toll was twice the probable 5.2 million of his cousin Victoria; but it is undeniable fact that the genocides of Ireland and Belgian Congo are linked to King Leopold I.

The “take-away” from this book; its key facts, are unique to it. They have never been published elsewhere. They are: A map locating some of the mass graves; Exhibit A1. Photos of mass grave monuments that name the perpetrating regiments; Exhibits A4, E7, E9, E10. The names of all of the perpetrating regiments; Exh. C1. The dates that each regiment entered and exited each garrison town in Ireland; Exh. C2 1845 through C2 1850. Evidence of Ireland’s non-potato food production; Exh.D Name and details of the Holocaust’s Commander-in-Chief; Chapter 3 & Exh. E7, etc. Queen Victoria’s “honoring” of that C. in C. See May 7, 1849. The Holocaust-concealing 1851 Census, and Victoria’s knighting of Wilde for “his census work;” pages 198-202. How Ireland’s Holocaust connects to King Leopold II’s genocide of then-Belgian Congo; pages 371-2.

• • • • • • • • •

Research Pending: A large map of each county on which is plotted each estate of 1,000 acres or more in 1845, naming each owner.



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Acre: an Irish acre is 1.6 Statute acres. The Irish acre came into being when the English were dividing up the land of Ireland for themselves, “generously.” During my youth in Ireland farmers referred to Irish acres though the Ordnance Survey Map of Ireland used Statute measurement. Irish land sales today are advertised in Statute measurement. In land measurement one acre = 4 roods, one rood = 40 perches, one Irish perch = 7 yds. One Statute perch = 5.5 yds. Thus a statute acre (5.5’ x3)² x40x4 = 43,560 sq. ft.; an Irish acre (7’x3)2 x40x4 = 70,560 sq. ft. Acushla; term of endearment, my heartthrob; Acushla mo chroi; pulse of my heart. American Wake: a “wake” held for emigrants on the eve of their departure when, in earlier years, they would never be seen again by family or friends. An t-Ár Mór, pronounced “un thawr more” (Holocaust in Irish; 1845-1850 Ireland) Bag, or Sack of grain: usually 10 stone (140 lb.) in burlap. Barrel: if of grain, 14 stone (196 lbs.), of potatoes, 32 stone (448 lbs.). If liquid measure, usually 60 gal. In Arthur Young’s “Tour of Ireland” he reports the following weights; In Lord Altamont’s Westport, a barrel of potatoes was 12 cwt. (16 pecks of three quarters each); on the Aran Islands a barrel of potatoes = 42 stone, in County Clare a barrel of potatoes = 48 stone, and the “Bristol barrel” = 22 stone. Bart. : Baronet Benefice: a State-endowed church office-hold, as in the Church of England; providing a living for a vicar, rector, etc. Many paid more than the primeministership. Blight (of potato crop): phytophthora infestans dark fungus-like tiny globules that grow on the stalks and the leaves (mostly their undersides) of potato plants in late June/early July, killing them in a few days unless the blight is killed by a spray mixture. Like my neighbors, I used a copper sulfate/sodium carbonate/water solution, sky blue. (See Potato Spray below.) Blighted potato plants do not emit a stench. Rotting potatoes do, but they do not yet exist when blight attacks the plant. Only in July do the potatoes begin to form as nodules on the roots of potato plants. Only some early varieties of potatoes might exceed marble-size by Garland Sunday (the last Sunday in July). Bonnav; piglet, bonham. Boycott: to shun, the shunning of, as of Agent Boycott in Co. Mayo. Bullock: a castrated bull, a steer. Car; a cart, usually horse- or ass-drawn.


Cess: a tax or excise. In Ireland earlier, an exaction of provisions at a fixed price for the supply of the Lord Deputy’s household & soldiers; hence, loosely, any military exaction or imposition. Also, in Ireland, formerly, to impose (soldiers) upon inhabitants for support at a fixed rate; also to subject to military exactions or requisitions256. Conacre: land rented on which to grow a crop (typically of hay-meadow, grain, or root crops). Corn: any grain (wheat, oats, barley, or rye) exclusively. What Americans call “corn” is “maize” in Ireland and England; when ground, maize is “Indian meal.” During the Holocaust some called Indian meal “Peel’s brimstone.” Clan: extended family. Cleeve: A shallow, hand-held wicker basket. Creel: A wicker panier to transport turf, potatoes; often borne by asses; one creel on each side. Cwt. (Hundredweight): 112 lbs. (or 8 stone). Dike: an open field drain; usually alongside (both sides of) a ditch. Dissident: A Protestant who is not a member of the “Church of Ireland.” Ditch: a sod fence. Dragoon: a cavalryman, a mounted soldier. Twelve regiments of dragoons participated in the 1845-50 food removal and evictions. Such regiments earned their place in Webster: “’Dragoon’; 1) to persecute or harass by dragoons; 2) to compel to submit by violent measures; to force (into doing something); ‘The colonies may be influenced to anything, but they can be dragooned to nothing’ – Price)” Driver, or Drover: person, usually accompanied by military or police, who collected a tithe, a “cess” (tax), a rent, a judgment, or a fine, by seizing livestock and driving them to a pound. They also seized harvested crops, poultry, tools, furniture, even clothing, to be liquidated by the claimant, usually the landlord or the local Anglican reverend. Farthing: a copper coin, one-quarter penny (two farthings = one halfpenny). Firkin (typically of butter or lard): 90 lbs.257 Nine gallons258 Flail: an articulated set of wooden rods for threshing grain by hand, made obsolete by threshing machines. Glebe: land belonging to the Church of Ireland (English State Church).


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Goon (from dragoon; called so by mostly-Irish-speakers). Holocaust survivors applied it to corporate thugs during labor organizing efforts in U.S. mines, factories, railroads, etc. whence it entered the American vernacular. In Webster, goon is defined as: “1: A man hired to terrorize or eliminate opponents. Guinea; £1 1s (one pound and one shilling; 21 shillings; the aristocrats’ pound, used in racing prizes and prices of clothing and luxury items until adoption of the decimal system in the 1960s or 1970s.) Originally a British coin made of gold from Guinea. Issuance ceased in 1831. Hanging Gale: overdue land rent payment or portion thereof. Herd: A minder of cattle; (as a minder of sheep is a shepherd). A herd is also a group of grazing cattle; if underway, a “drove.” Hogget: a yearling sheep; also a castrated ram. Hogs-head: large cask or barrel, esp. one containing 100 to 140 gals. (OED) Holocaust (“An t-Ár Mór” in Irish): The 1845-48 genocide of Ireland and similar historic crimes. In 1847, events in Ireland were referred to as “holocaust” in the then-Cork Examiner newspaper on 4May and 7Aug, 1846, 22Jan, 17Sept, and 1Oct, 1847, 3Jan, 1848, and 19Nov, 1855. Ditto in 1903 by Michael Davitt in his The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland: or the Story of the Land League Revolution. Also in 1911 by James Fitzgerald in his The Causes that Led to Irish Emigration, Journal of the American Irish Historical Society; Vol. X. Also, on 15Aug1909 by Rev. Fr. Maguire, P.P. of Sillers, at the inauguration of the AOH monument on Grosse Ile, Quebec.259 Also see Mike Davis’ Late Victorian Holocausts (2010), etc. Holocaust’s Greek root (wholly burnt, or burnt sacrifice) sense is also fulfilled by the many hundreds or thousands of families who, found dead of hunger or malnutrition-induced illness, were cremated by their neighbors who torched the dead family’s roof thatch rather than risk contagion.

In the 1960s, according to Prof. Norman Finkelstein, some Jews began promoting “holocaust” to replace “Shoah,” as the preferred label for the Jewish component of the WWII Nazi mass murders. “Genocide” was coined post WW2 by Raphael Lemkin regarding Nazi treatment of Jews. In Irish: "Cinedhíothú” pronounced "kin eh yee huu." Hundredweight (cwt.): 8 stone or 112 lbs. Keg: 60 lb. (typically of butter or lard)260. Latitat: A writ of summons to a person seemingly in hiding. Loy: An earlier (1600s-to mid-1900s), heavy spade with step on one side.


£ s d: pounds, shillings and pence, respectively. £1 = 20s; 1s = 12d. Mule: progeny of a stallion horse and a Bess ass. (A jennet is of a Jack ass and a mare.) Mules and jennets are sterile. “Peeler:” a constable, so-named for Robert Peel, the founder of Britain’s constabulary in Ireland. Google “The Peeler and the Goat.” Infamously armed with carbines in Ireland; famously unarmed in England, “Bobbies.’ Peer: a member of one of the five ranks, in descending order, duke, marquis, earl, and viscount or baron, of the British peerage.261 Planter: a person “planted” by an evicting landlord in the holding of an evicted tenant. Called “Land-Grabbers” by locals who despised them. Potato Pit: above-ground, field-storages of harvested potatoes, straw-and-earthflanked against frost. Potato Spray (“Bordeaux mixture”) A sky-blue solution of, if memory serves, 8 lb. each of “bluestone” (copper sulfate) and ”washing soda” (sodium carbonate) per 100 gallons of water. Provisions: barreled beef or pork262. Also designates any edibles in transit. Pollard: wheat bran; we used it mixed with boiled potatoes or turnips as feed for pigs and poultry. Pound: A small field reserved by landlord or authorities to impound livestock seized for tithes, cesses, or other taxes; also for strays. Protestant: Like today, to the Irish Catholics of that era, any non-Catholic Christian is a Protestant. However, the Ascendancy-dominated literature of the day in Ireland reserved “Protestant” for non-Church of Ireland members (Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, etc.). They were Protestant (sometimes “dissident”) to the State-imposed Anglican Church founded by King Henry VIII. Puncheon: a firkin. Quarter: quarter ton (560 lbs.). Rates: a tax; usually a county tax. Reaping Hook: a sickle. Largely displaced by the faster, but slightly-more-wasteful (as to shedding of grain) scythe in the 1920s for harvesting grain. Repealer: opponent of the 1800 Act of Union that subsumed Ireland into Britain. Rescript: an order or command from the Pope.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect” Ridge: four-sods-wide (3-potato-plants wide) earths for potato cultivation, separated by furrows. Though extremely labor-intensive, Holocaust deniers call them “Lazy beds for a lazy crop by a lazy people.” Ridges remained the standard tuberculture method in the West of Ireland until the 1960s when they were abandoned there also, in favor of the far less labor-intensive potato “drills.” Rules of Estate: Prohibitions against sheltering evictees.263 Sack: 2 cwt. (or 224 lb.) per sack if flour.264 Sack of potatoes = 20 stone (per Arthur Young’s “Tour of Ireland” p. 421). Scealp: (Irish) an emergency shelter made by evictees, usually of sod. Shanty: a minimal house, especially those erected by Irish builders of America’s railways along the route. Irish; Shan = old; teach = house. Skib: the smallest size of flat, wicker basket; always home-made of sally (willow) rods. Slit: a potato seed. Potatoes are slit into a few pieces; each with an eye. “Souper:” a starving Catholic who became Protestant by accepting soup from a proselytizer. Despite some organized efforts across the country, especially on Achill Island, the few who “took the soup” usually didn’t remain Protestant very long. An exception is the Bandon area where some “Souper” families remained Church of Ireland. Stone (weight): 14 lbs. Tithe (one tenth): in this context a tax to maintain Britain’s State Church in Ireland, the “Church of Ireland” whose “Pope” has been the British monarch since its founding by Henry VIII. There was also a special tax (church rates) to maintain the same church. Ireland’s Catholics were forced to pay both of these taxes. Eventually tithes were imposed on tilled acreage only. An exemption was enacted for grazing lands (the increasingly preferred agriculture of the landlords). In 1837 the Tithe Commutation Act reduced the amount due for tithe under the valuation then in progress by 25% and converted the remainder into a rent-charge payable directly by the landlord, but recoverable by him by adding it to the land rent he charged tenants. (Per T.A. Jackson Ireland Her Own; p. 209). This regimen continued until the 1869 disestablishment of the Church of Ireland (to take effect January 1, 1871. Thus Catholic Ireland was forced to tithe to the C of I until 1871. It was increasingly resisted. Tithe Proctor: A collector of tithes for the local Anglican Reverend; typically for a percentage of the sums collected. He was usually accompanied by constables. Ton: 20 cwt. (2,240 lb.)


Townland: the smallest political division of Ireland. Its size is typically a few hundred acres. Larger, if bog or mountain. Transportation (penal sentence of): Once meant “galley slave;” during the Holocaust it meant exile in chains to a forced labor camp in the colonies, typically for 7, 14, 21 years, or life. After the U.S. Revolution, usually to Australia or Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania). Turf: peat cut from the local bog, dried, and burned in open hearth as a househeating-and-cooking fuel. Wether: castrated ram. Whiteboy: Ribbonman, Rockite, etc., a defender of the people; the sole restraining force on landlords. Workhouse. A place for paupers; 163 in Ireland of which a few were built later. Families were kept strictly segregated into: able-bodied working males; able-bodied working females; the aged and infirm; boys and girls above nine and under fifteen years of age; children above five and under nine; children above two and under five; infants under two. The segregation continued in death as, system-wide, custodians were ordered to bury the dead in twelve-foot-deep pits outside their habitations. My ex-schoolmate, the excavation contractor of the housing development built atop the Castlerea workhouse mass graves recounted having, with his backhoe, excavating in one section piles of intertwined remains of toddlers. The scandal forced the developer to leave two large areas undesecrated. Yeoman: A small farmer, usually Protestant, member of his landlord’s militia.

END NOTES For full identification of works cited in End Notes see the Bibliography (all six parts of it).


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

When the Fall, 1946 threshing was done my Aunt Bridget’s husband “Prince” Burke set his son Tom and me to work raking his oats around on the second storey metal floor of Egan’s kiln in the a townland of Templetogher. The previous day Prince had brought the asscart-load of turf that was fueling the kiln fire on the level below us. When the oats was toasty dry “Prince“ shoveled it into flour sacks which he then hauled on his back down the kiln’s stone steps and across the road to Egan’s mill. The oatmeal became breakfast stirabout and oaten bread lunches for his family for the next twelve months. O’Brien’s mill was less than a mile away in Kilsallagh; McLoughlin’s mill in Clogh about two miles away off the Williamstown-Castlerea road, and the mill in Ballymoe was perhaps three miles away, etc. These mills all pre-existed Ireland’s Holocaust. The locations of all of Ireland’s numerous Holocaust-era grain-kilns and –mills are shown in Exhibits D and D2. 1

Fortnight magazine, April, 1990 edition, p. 24.


Kieran’s military records kept in Britain’s National Archives (whence I purchased photocopies). 3


Blake, L.J.: Gold Escort., p. 15.


James Joyce’s Ulysses; Chap. 2


Blake, L.J. Gold Escort. Appendices E and F.

From Australia in the mid-1800s Britain extracted more than 21 million oz. of gold (L.J. Blake’s Gold Escort) while reducing its population. In Tasmania its genocide was total; no indigenous person survived. Many Irish were sentenced to its death camps when it was still known as Van Diemen’s Land. Belize (then British Honduras) was made a slave colony by Britain, as was nearby Jamaica when Cromwell brought a few shiploads of Irish slaves to it about 1654. British extractions of food from India caused a series of “famines” there. Cecil Rhodes and his cohorts looted Africa’s natural resources, etc. 7

“The law does not suppose any such person to exist as an Irish Roman Catholic.” -1770s. Lord Chancellor Bowes 8


Robert Hughes’ The Fatal Shore.

Ireland’s phone directories, to this day, show that the frequency of Norman names increases toward Ireland’s southeast where they entered in 1169 and 1170. 10


Laudabiliter’s authenticity is disputed by some.

These O’Connells were exempted from non-personhood and were thus allowed to educate their children by being liege to George Granville “Lord Shelburne,” later “Lord Lansdowne” whose heir, as late as 1881, still owned 94,983 acres in Kerry, 26,000 acres in other Irish counties, and some 22,000 in England where he lived. 12


Dolby & O’Halloran: History of Ireland, New York; Virtue and Company 1845, 2nd Division, page 460. 13


Ireland: as She Is, pp, 18 to 27 and citations.


Davies’ Hist. Tracts, p. 78, et. seq.; Ireland as She Is, p. 20; Dolby’s Hist., p. 58.


Dolby & O’Halloran: History of Ireland, 2nd Division, p. 58


Ibid. pp. 65, 66.


Ireland: as She Is…, p. 21.


Ibid, p 20.

Maguire, James, G.: Ireland and The Pope, a Brief History of Papal Intrigues Against Irish Liberty, from Adrian IV to Leo XIII; p. 35 20


Haverty’s Hist., pp. 255-6


James, G.: Ireland and The Pope, p. 36,7. Also: King John of England was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III, in the year 1208, while the former was engaged in murdering the Irish and devastating part of their country; but the excommunication had nothing to do with his persecution of the Irish. It grew out of the Pope’s refusal to appoint the King’s nominee as Archbishop of Canterbury, and the King’s refusal to allow Stephen Langdon, whom the Pope had appointed, to act in that capacity. The Pope having frightened him by inviting the Catholic powers of Europe to invade England, this trouble was compromised. The King agreeing to accept Langdon as Archbishop and to lay his crown at the feet of Cardinal Pandulf, the Pope’s Legate, who, after kicking it contemptuously, replaced it on the King’s head. Henry VIII, and Queen Elizabeth I, both cruel enemies of Ireland, were also excommunicated: the first by Pope Paul III, in 1535, and the latter by Pope Pius V, in 1570; but it is needless to say that these excommunications grew out of troubles connected with the Protestant Reformation, and had nothing to do with the persecution of Ireland. – J.G.Maguire. 23

Catholic Dictionary, Addis and Arnold, Tit. “Tiara.”


Ireland and The Pope, p. 37


Google “penal laws.”

Thomas Addis Emmet: Thomas Addis Emmet; ‘Robert Emmet’, Vol. 1, Frontispiece. 26


Gustave de Beaumont’s Ireland; p. 28.


W.E.B. Dubois, Black Folk; Then and Now p. 98


Ben Kiernan: Blood and Soil. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 2007 p.197


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


Ibid. p.213


By letter dated 17April1599 to the Earl of Essex, Lord Governor of Ireland &c. Acts of the Privy Council of England, 1598-1599; Vol. XXIX; p. 739.


Chichester’s letter of 22Nov1601 to Lord Burghly, chief advisor to Elizabeth I.


Jordan & White’s White Cargo. (Note: I have not verified this book’s data.)


Eugene Conwell’s Ollamh Fodhla, (1873) p. ix.


Ibid, p. viii.


“Peregrine” is rooted in “traveler,” “pilgrim,” “peregrino,” e.g., peregrine falcon.


A History of Central Banking, p. 36 (with lengthy footnote that ends; “It is written in German, and contains extracts of letters sent and received by the authorities of the Mulheim Synagogue.”). The strange modernity of the CromwellPratt letters is explained by the fact that they are a German-to-English translation performed in relatively recent (1921) times. Ellen Irene Diggs’ Black Chronology From 4000 B.C. to Abolition of the Slave Trade. 38



Magalotti’s Travels of Cosmo the Third, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Through England, During the Reign of King Charles the Second (1669). London: J. Mawman 1821, p. 101, 102. 40


Ibid. ps. 105,106.


John Locke’s The Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)


Goodson’s A History of Central Banking, p. 40.

John Mitchel from Von Ranke’s History of the Popes and Murray’s Irish Revolutionary History. 44


Lecky’s History of Ireland in the 18th century, Vol. 1, p. 355.


W.E.B. Dubois’ Black Folk; Then and Now. p. 99, 101.

Thomas Prior’s A LIST of the ABSENTEES of IRELAND and the YEARLY VALUE of their ESTATES and INCOMES Spent Abroad. (1745), Elsewhere is written that Jonathan Swift helped to compile these names. 47



M. O’Riordan’s Catholicity and Progress in Ireland p. 159, 160.


Ibid. ps. 32, 33.


Per John Colgan, Chicago, Ex-Westmeath.


Journals of the Continental Congress. Googleable.

Friar Morrison’s Threnodia, The Book of Erin, or Ireland’s Story Told to the New Democracy; Prologue (Googleable) 52

From The Interment of the Dead: Captain Dring continues his narrative by describing the manner in which the dead were interred in the sand of the Wallabout. Every morning, he says, the dead bodies were carried to the upper deck and there laid upon the gratings. Any person who could procure, and chose to furnish, a blanket, was allowed to sew it around the remains of his departed companion. "The signal being made, a boat was soon seen approaching from the Hunter, and if there were any dead on board the other ships, the boat received them, on her way to the Jersey. “The corpse was laid upon a board, to which some ropes were attached as straps; as it was often the case that bodies were sent on shore for interment before they had become sufficiently stiff to be lowered into the boat by a single strap. Thus prepared a tackle was attached to the board, and the remains * * * were hoisted over the side of the ship into the boat, without further ceremony. “AmericanPrisoners-of-the-Revolution, by Dandridge, Danske, Chapter xxxvi. (Googleable). 53


The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution; Vol. 1, p. 281


Benjamin Franklin: Inventing America. ps. 139,140.

Rev. Wm. Carrigan’s The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory, Vol. 1, p. 185. 56

The Annual Register, or a view of the History, Politics and Literature for the Year 1786. London: J. Dodsley 1788. 57


Ibid; (Carrigan’s work) p. 186.


Gustave de Beaumont’s Ireland… p. 87


Robert Hughes’ The Fatal Shore, frontispiece.

61 62

Ibid; p. 148, 149 Ibid, p. 150


Kelly, Rose S. Ireland’s Bloodless Revolution; p. 151


James G. Maguire’s Ireland and the Pope…”


That loyalty oath was abolished in or about 1923.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


Clancy’s Ireland: as She Is… p. 254.


From the 1798 ballad, Boolavogue.

From the 1798 ballad, The Croppy Boy. Note the last line’s reference to Lord Cornwallis whom Gen. George Washington (and his many Irish troops) defeated at Yorktown in 1781, thus ending the American Revolution. 68


Speeches From the Dock, pp.25


Bartlett, Dawson, & Keogh’s The 1798 Rebellion. (1998)


Jordan & White’s White Cargo.


Thomas Addis Emmet Thomas Addis Emmet and ‘Robert Emmet’ page 531




Hugh Oram’s The Newspaper Book, p. 346


Ibid., p. 43, 77, and 340.


Robert Hughes’ The Fatal Shore, p. 190

Robert Emmet “The Darling of Erin,” his immortal Speech from the Dock. (googleable). 77


Lytton Strachey’s Queen Victoria, ps. 24, 36, 46, 82, etc.


George Cruikshank’s Tales of Irish Life; p. 59.


Ibid; pp. 65

M. O’Riordan’s Catholicity and Progress in Ireland, p. 322; citing J. Godkin’s “Ireland and her Churches” pp. 96, 97, and 14, and “The History of Tithes” by John D’Alton, B.L, M.R.I.A, p. 50. 81


Queen Victoria’s Early Letters. New York: The Macmillan Company 1907/1963.

Leopold I (1790-1865) King of Belgium 1831-1865; Leopold II (1835-1909) King of Belgium 1865-1909. In his Congo colony Leopold II probably surpassed his cousin Victoria’s Irish population reduction – ten million (?) vs. 5.2 million. 83


Cobbett in Ireland:… pp. 265-273


Page 57. Thackeray’s Works, e.g. pp. 321 through 363, et al.




Cobbett in Ireland:…p.6 Ibid. p. 69.

88 89

Ibid. p. 73. Ibid. p. 94.

90 91

Gustave de Beaumont’s Ireland; page 140


Ibid. p. 179


Ibid. p. 80

A plaque in Rome’s Hotel Bristol on the Via Veneto, explains why that chain of luxurious European hotels is named for Britain’s Reverend Lord Bristol. The plaque commemorates Bristol as the ideal guest whose lavish style and huge entourage once enriched hoteliers across the Continent. Lord Bristol was the Anglican Bishop of Derry whose great wealth was amassed via the tithe laws. Derry’s Catholics, being legally forced to tithe to Bishop Lord Bristol, were kept at the edge of death from starvation and exposure. 94


Tocqueville’s Journeys to England and Ireland. p. 13


Ibid. p 104


Ibid. p. 121


Ibid. p. 122


Ibid. p. 124


Ibid. p. 130


Tocqueville’s Journeys to England and Ireland. P.144.


Ibid. p. 132, 133.


Ibid. p. 136


Ibid. p. 137,138.


Ibid. ps. 149-152


Lytton’s Queen Victoria, p 72


Ibid, ps. 36, 46, 82


Mooney’s Hist., Vol. II., p. 1530.


Ibid; pp.1530-1


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


Ireland and the Pope, pp. 50-1


Life and Letters of the 4th Earl Clarendon. V. 1, p.252.

MacCarthy, R.B. Trinity College Estates 1800-1923 Corporate Management in an Age of Reform. 112


Gold Escort, by L.J. Blake (1971)


See Liz Curtis’s Nothing But the Same Old Story.


Parliamentary Paper published in The Times of February 17, 1844.


The Times, October 3, 1844, p. 7.


Hussars, like lancers, are categories of dragoons (mounted troops).

Fr. James Browne, P.P., Ballintubber, in his letter to the Archbishop of Dublin in 1847 acknowledging receipt of money requested earlier. 118

Interim Catalogue of the papers of Geo.W.F.Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, 1820-1870, etc. A.4.2.b. Letter-boxes, out letters. 1847-1852. 5July1847 – 30Nov. 1847.Shelfmark Ms. Clar.dep.Irish vol. 1. Bodleian Library, Oxford Univ. General Sir Edward Blakeney was commander of Britain’s military forces in Ireland from 1833 through 1852, thus was in charge of the sixty-seven regiments’ perpetration of the 1845-1850 Holocaust. In removing Ireland’s livestock and food crops he was executing orders from his fellow-landlord-heavy Houses of Lords and Commons. Blakeney had led British troops against America at the January 1815 Battle of New Orleans where his superior officer General Packenham was killed. Like many scions of Ireland’s English landords, Blakeney was born in England, while Castleblakeney, Co. Galway is named for his family. His uncle John Blakeney was England’s High Sheriff of Co. Galway. General Packenham was son of English Lord Longford of Tullynally Castle, Co. Westmeath and related to the Pakenhams of the Pakenham-Mahon estate of Strokestown, Co. Roscommon. Another son of an English landlord in Ireland was General Ross who led the attack on the White House, burning it. Days later Ross was killed during his attack against Baltimore, Maryland. That attack was observed by Francis Scott Key who rendered his observation into the words of America’s National Anthem. 119

Disposition of the Army records, Britain’s National Archives (Public Record Office earlier), Kew, Surrey, U.K.(Copies in my possession.) 121


In his History of Ireland, John Mitchel wrote: “Thus any man who had a house, no matter how wretched, was to pay the new tax, and every man was bound to have a house, for if found out of doors after sunset, and convicted of that offence, he was to be transported for fifteen years, or imprisoned for three – the court to have the discretion of adding hard labor or solitary confinement. This law would drive the survivors of ejected people (those who did not die of hunger) into the poor houses or to America; because, being bound to be at home after sunset, and having neither house nor home, they would all be in absolute power of the police, and in continual peril of transportation to the colonies (Australian slave labor camps). By another Act of Parliament the police force was increased, and taken more immediately into the service of the Crown, the Irish counties were in part relieved from their pay, and they became, in all senses, a portion of the regular army. They amounted to 12,000 chosen men, well armed and drilled. The police were always at the command of the sheriffs for executing ejectments, and if they were not in sufficient force, troops of the line could be had from the nearest garrison. No wonder that the London Times, within less than three years after, was enabled to say; ‘Law has ridden roughshod through Ireland – it has been taught with bayonet and interpreted with ruin. Townships leveled with the ground, straggling columns of exiles, workhouses multiplied, and still crowded, express the determination of the legislature to remove Ireland from its slovenly old barbarism, and to plant the institutions of this more civilized land’- meaning England.” Also Mitchel: “Steadily, but surely, the ‘government’ was working out its calculation, and the produce anticipated by ‘political circles’ was likely to come out about September (of 1847), in round numbers – two millions of Irish corpses.” One could call Mitchel a Holocaust survivor, as he did live through it; but being of Protestant stock (thus considered British) he was not targeted for death. 122

O’Donovan Rossa: Rossas Recollections 1838-1898. Shannon: Irish University Press 1972 p.35. 123

124 125

Ibid; p. 109 Queen Victoria’s Early Letters. New York. Macmillan Co 1907/1963, p. 126


Current Archaeology (4/4/13) an excerpt.


By ight Rev. Dr. Hughes in The Nation of May 1, 1847.


Swinford Hist. Soc. An Gorta Mor in Swinford Union. p. 37.

O’Connor, John: The Workhouses of Ireland, The Fate of Ireland’s Poor. Minneapolis: Irish Books and Media 1997. pp. 148,149. 129


Interim Catalogue of the papers of Geo. W.F. Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, 1820-1870, etc. A.4.2.b. Letter-boxes, out letters, 1847-1852; 5July1847 – 30Nov1847. Shelfmark MS. Clar.dep.Irish vol. 1. Bodleian Library, Oxford Univ. Woodham-Smith, Cecil: The Great Hunger, pp. 373, (16th pp. of cap XVII).



Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


Ibid, p. 369.

Concern’s Siobhan Walsh informed my wife and me that Concern has acquiesced to gov’t-created genocides in Africa lest they lose their jobs by speaking up. We had questioned her at Tom McCauley’s house at his hosting of an “Irish famine” fundraiser for Concern after she had acquiesced to Irish Consul Sheridan’s denial of British troops’ involvement in starving Ireland. When she admitted knowing that British troops had removed Ireland’s food at gunpoint I had asked her how Concern responds to similar genocides in Africa; thus her above reply, to which I responded; “Do you think those people are dying only to provide a job for you and a stage for Concern? 133

134 135

Nicholson’s Annals of the Famine in Ireland; P. 73 Manuel Sarkisyanz: Hitler’s English Inspirers. Belfast: Athol Books 2003 Blakeney, and its List of Knights Companions of the Bath. 136 Howe. Ditto above. Also Scheer & Rankin’s Rebels and Redcoats. Page 172. 137


Queen Victoria’s Early Letters. p. 158.


Wm. S. Balch’s Ireland As I Saw It. New York. Henry Lyon 1852 (reprint)


The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland, by Michael Davitt, pp.166,7


John Lyons: Louisburgh: A History, pp.62-63

One’s first reaction to Mitchel’s mention of “Jews,” in the context of Ireland’s English landlords, is suspicion that he might be anti-semitic. The landlords, having only robbers’ titles to their estates, and ever fearing a reconquest of the land by its Irish cultivators, kept it mortgaged to the hilt and lived like rajas while “milking” the property. 142

Bankers’ control of the English in Ireland is suggested by accounts of Amsterdam bankers’ loans to Oliver Cromwell’s ventures, including for the planned killing of King Charles. Two-way correspondence in 1647 between Cromwell and Ebenezer Pratt, if valid, are clear on this.


“Beginning in 1655, Cromwell, through his alliance with Jewish bankers of Amsterdam and specifically with Manasseh Ben Israel and his brother-in-law, David Abravanel Dormido, initiated the resettlement of the Jews in England.” (Sources cited: Isaac Disraeli, Life of Charles I, 1851; Hugh Ross Williamson, Charles and Cromwell; AHM Ramsey, The Nameless War; Lord Alfred Douglas, Plain English, 1921; Geoffrey H. Smith, The Settlement Of Jews In England.) Some writers of the time refer to Jewish mortgage holders as among the lethal gougers of Ireland’s producers. Political Register, 27 September, 1834; Cobbett in Ireland, a Warning to England, p. 52. 143


Ibid, 4 October, 1834, My Proceedings in Dublin. p.67.


Ibid, p. 68, 69.


Ibid, p. 69


Ibid, p. 70


Ibid. A letter to his laborer Charles Marshall. p.93.


Ibid, A letter to Lord Radnor. p. 103.


Ibid; p. 109


Ibid; A letter to Charles Marshall; p. 123,124.


Ibid; p. 124,125.


Ibid, Burning of the Parliament House; p. 142-144.


Ibid, Letter to Lord Althorp. p.178.


Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland. p.149.


Mo Sceal Féin, by an t-Athair Peadar O Laoghaire, p. 49

James G. Maguire’s Ireland and the Pope. A Brief History of Papal Intrigue Against Irish Liberty, from Adrian IV to Leo XIII. 157


J.C. Beckett’s The Making of Modern Ireland, p. 329


Life and Letters of Fourth Earl of Clarendon; Vol. 1, p. 259.


Fr. Joseph McVeigh’s A Wounded Church


Hugh Oram’s The Newspaper Book. p. 45.


Contributed with Jack Lane’s OK by James O’Hara, Santa Fe, NM, exKillarney.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”


National Ballads, Songs & Poems p. 51-2 by Thomas Davis


Ireland and the Pope. P. 68-71


Life and Letters of Clarendon; Vol.1, p 300


Ibid. p. 307.


O’Donovan Rossa: Rossas Recollections 1838-1898. p.141


Ibid. p. 144, 145.


Ireland and the Pope. p. 72-3.


Ibid. p. 73 citing Parnell Movement, p. 227.


Sherlock, P.T. The Case of Ireland Stated. frontispiece


“Ireland and Her Churches.”


Life and Letters of Clarendon. Vol. 2; Pref. page No. x.


T.A. Jackson’s Ireland Her Own, p. 189


Ibid. p. 75-6.


Clancy’s Ireland As She Is. p. 41. citing John Bright in February, 1876.


“From witnessing a similar state of things around him in the beginning of the last century, Swift was prompted to publish his ‘Modest Proposal’ – a cutting satire, in which he argued that Irish babies should be fattened and slaughtered for landlord food. ‘As they (the landlords) have already devoured most of the parents,’ wrote he, ‘they have the best title to the children.’” 178

Scully descendants own thousands of acres in Tazewell County, Illinois to this day. The land is (at least, was when I recently visited it) leased to share-croppers. 179

Ibid, p. 40 – 44.

“Over six million acres of Irish land are owned by fewer than three hundred individuals, twelve of whom are in possession of one million two hundred and ninety-seven thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight acres, while five millions of the Irish people own not a solitary acre. For the protection of the proprietorial rights of a few thousand landlords in the country, a standing army of semi-military police is maintained, which the landless millions have to support.” 180


Dooley, Terence A.M. Estate ownership and management in nineteenthand early twentieth-century Ireland. Chap. V



Per Tom Egan, Ballyglass, Ballymoe, Co. Galway


Throughout Cobbett in Ireland; a Warning to England.

House of Commons, Feb. 10, 1852. Reported in The Telegraph (Castlebar), Feb. 18. Clipping in NI. MS. 897. Cf. “The Indian Question – Irish Tenant Right,” in Ireland and the Irish Question. (Elizabeth Harris in Eire-Ireland) 184

185 186

The Laurel and the Ivy, by Robert Kee, p. 383 Ibid. p. 376,

Sullivan, Margaret F. Ireland of Today: The Causes and Aims of Irish Agitation. Chicago 1881 187


Ireland and the Pope, p. 81.

O’Riordan’s “Catholicity and Progress in Ireland,” p. 193. Op. Cit. M.G. Mulhall’s Fifty Years’ National Progress. 189


“So declared by Bishop McQuade of Rochester, N.Y.”


“So declared by Archbishop Corrigan, N.Y.”


Maguire’s Ireland and the Pope. p. 97-99.


Cosgrove’s The Wyndham Land Act, NUIMaynooth 2008. P.105

Laurence Ginnell, Land and Liberty Dublin, 1908. p. 108-112 (Per Cosgrove’s The Wyndham Land Act, NUIMaynooth 2008.) 194

Peerage, Body of peers or titled nobility in Britain. The five ranks, in descending order, are duke, marquis, earl (see count), viscount, and baron. Until 1999, peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords and exempted from jury duty. Titles may be hereditary or granted for life. (Encyclopedia Britannica). In Ireland the common title for British peers was “Lord.” 195


Roche’s John Boyle O’Reilly, His Life, Poems, and Speeches. P. 263

The King, the Kaiser, and Irish Freedom, ps. 65, 66, by James K. McGuire, Mayor of Syracuse, NY. 197


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Michael Davitt (Mar 26, 1846-May 30, 1906) was born in Straide, Co. Mayo, second of five children to Martin and Catherine Davitt. Evicted in 1850. Father went to England while mother and children entered Swinford workhouse, but when Catherine learned that children three years and older had to be separated from parents, she took her children and left. She walked to Dublin with them, crossed somehow to Liverpool whence they walked the forty-eight miles to where her husband had gone in Haslinden, Lancashire. At nine, Michael was working in a textile mill. On May 8, 1857 his arm was mangled in spinning machines and was amputated at the elbow. He joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1865 and was arrested in May, 1870. The brutality of his prison experience became infamous and he was released after serving 7.5 years of his 15 year sentence. While he was imprisoned his mother and three sisters emigrated to Philadelphia in 1873. In 1878 Michael made a speaking tour of the United States to promote his “land for the people” campaign. In 1879, during a bad (wet) harvest in Ireland, he returned to Mayo and directed action in the Land War. He and Charles Stewart Parnell soon joined forces. Both were imprisoned. Davitt was imprisoned in 1881, released in 1882, and re-imprisoned in 1883. Later, after the Boycott incident and the increasing British violence required to wrest food crops from the people, the British government started to legislate to remove its landlords from Ireland. This was well on its way by 1905 and the land of Ireland was essentially landlord-free and in the possession of its cultivators by 1910. 198

Davitt’s The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland was published in 1904. "At the Audubon, December 13, 1964." In Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, ed. George Breitman, 96-114. New York: Ballantine Books, 1964, 101 199

Liz Curtis’ classic reproduction of ancient-to-modern hate-crime cartoons in Nothing But The Same Old Story, also her Ireland: the Propaganda War. 200


Ibid, p. 14, 15.

Tony McCarthy’s The Shaws of Terenure (2010)* A hagiographic account of a 19th century loan-shark, published under the aegis of Maynooth Studies in Local History. Inadvertently revelatory about today’s Ireland. 202

Though the pamphlet named all of the food removal reg’ts and correctly placed them on the map according to my Public Record Office (PRO) sources, part of the sources was a two volume set recommended to me by PRO curators. It proved slightly erroneous. I also placed three reg’ts in two of their assigned locations, thus mistakenly counting them twice; in all resulting in 75 perpetrating regiments instead of the now-precise 67. Since then I acquired clearer photocopies of the original handwritten Disposition of the Army, one for each of those years. This, the official source, shows that the precise number of perpetrating British regular army regiments was sixty-seven. 203


That same “Irish” government abetted Britain’s wrongful imprisonment of the Birmingham Six, Guildford Four, et. al. Later, its Consul General in Chicago dissuaded people including me from seeking justice for them by muttering; “Oh, terrorism, terrorism.” That Consul General and his successors actively opposed the MacBride Principles, opposed freedom for Joe Doherty, and have been the main promoters of the “famine” lie. That government continues to wink at the British murders of 33 Irish citizens in the Dublin/Monaghan bombings, and the British murders of many hundreds of others as it covers for the MI5/RUC/Chicago FBI gang that murdered twenty-nine innocents in Omagh. By framing Michael McKevitt and others for Omagh it covers up its own involvement via its reported agent, Paddy Dixon, the owner of the bomb-car. The long involvement of MI5/FBI Agent Patrick “Ed” Buckley and David Rupert in arranging the Omagh massacre almost certainly involved satellite tracking of the bomb-car. It is beyond the scope of this book, but readers would do well to learn of Agent Buckley’s earlier involvement in the Langert family murders (the murder weapon was FBI Agent Lewis’ 357 Magnum), how Buckley got the news media to falsely report IRA involvement in it while he prohibited the local police from pursuing their sole suspect, the actual murderer David Biro while he framed me for it (ask me for evidence), his 1996 flight from Ireland to the Atlanta Olympics bombing where he and his FBI colleagues framed yet another innocent, Security Guard Richard Jewell, for that atrocity. More recent evidence makes it difficult to deny that the Omagh massacre was arranged at the highest levels of the US/UK governments. (See the words of the US State Dept’s “Britain Desk” on page 450 of Voices from the Grave.) That Omagh massacre comprised one of a series of crimes to end the British army’s deployment in Occupied Ireland so as to be used in Neo-Cons’ then-planned U.S. wars of aggression in the Middle East, especially oil-rich ones (now faits accompli.). By bombing Omagh and getting the news media to blame it on the IRA (as Buckley did re the Langert murders) the perpetrators accomplished the following: 1) completed their demonization of the IRA, thus driving home the sign-over to Britain of the contested Six Counties, the greatest surrender of national territory in history absent catastrophic military defeat. Having cleared the way for massive crimes in the Middle East and elsewhere, these smaller crimes re-imposed on the Occupied Irish the old, discredited, British regime of torture, frame-ups, and imprisonment without charge; all while perpetuating impunity for its mass murderers and incidentally, handing Britain exclusive sovereignty over many hundreds of square miles of undersea hydrocarbon riches. 204

As further indication that FBI Agent Buckley framed Michael McKevitt it is appropriate to mention here that the same Agent Buckley had earlier framed me for the murder of the Langert family, and separately my wife Mary, Frank O’Neill, Tony McCormick, and me on a completely different set of equally bogus charges. He incarcerated us in Chicago’s Federal Correctional Center at Clark and VanBuren streets and tried to imprison us for the rest of our lives. Mary went on immediate hunger strike in protest against FBI’s crimes; (the last Irish hunger-strike of our era). 205

Hugh Oram: The Newspaper Book; ps. 340-347. (See in Bibliography.)


Ibid; p. 77.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

RTE Radio One attacked me for installing the Smarmore mass grave monument; the Midland/Westmeath Topic newspaper did likewise for installing the Mullingar mass grave monument, and the Connaught Champion abetted Bishop’s attempt to conceal the Holocaust mass grave outside Kilbegnet cemetery. 207


R.F. Foster: Modern Ireland: 1600-1972. London: Penguin Press 1988 p. 325

In the winter of 1847 some of Louisburg’s hungry were sent to seek food vouchers from Lord Sligo at his hunting lodge in Doolough some eleven miles away. It is said that he had guests at dinner and sent the starvelings away, and that some died in the snow on their way home. 209

Kinealy abandons “famine” falsehoods only when forced to do so. She later admitted that in 1847 alone, 4000 shiploads of Irish grain alone, sailed into Liverpool, alone; but she continues to cover up for the 67 Food Removal reg’ts. See for my reviews of her books. In one, among more serious falsehoods and omissions, she refers to Dublin’s Mendicity Institute as “Mendacity” Institute! 210

Boyle once told me he couldn’t do anything about his brother Jerome who, with the FBI, repeatedly sabotaged and attacked our MacBride campaigns in Illinois, Chicago City Council, and the U.S. Congress, also our Joe Doherty campaign and others. After honest Alderman Murphy agreed to spearhead the MacBride Principles through the Chicago City Council, and we had the votes lined up for a draft ordinance that I had tailored for Chicago from a strong Schenectady, NY one, I took it to Prof. Boyle to strengthen. When I picked it up from Boyle a day or two later I was stunned to read not a strengthened proposed ordinance, but a weakened one. But Boyle “explained,” and his academic credentials were so strong that I acquiesced. The full extent of Boyle’s treachery was inadvertently revealed by himself years later in the book he wrote. 211

Galway Archeological/Historical Society. Granlahan Monastery & Primary School Reunion record, p. 11, 212

The Census of Ireland, 1851, Part V: Tables of Deaths, Vol. 1. Dublin. Alexander Thom. 1856. p. 232 213

P. Froggatt: Sir William Wilde and the 1851 Census of Ireland. Cambridge Journal of Medical History. Another land agent, in adjacent County Mayo, was the eponymous Boycott. 214

Michael Davitt: The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland. London & NY: Harper & Bros. 1904. p. 30 215

24,410 acres as of 1878 (Bateman’s “Great Landowners…”) At least 6,000 acres had been sold prior to 1845. 216

Samuel Lewis: A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, Vol. 1. London: S. Lewis & Co. 1838 p. 306 217


218 A 6,024

acre portion of the Wills-Sandford estate that was sold to Landlord Balfe shortly before the Holocaust. 219

10,864 acres (in 1878).

13 Charles II, second session, c.1 (1661), and 25 Charles II, c. 2 (1672), repealed by 9 George IV, c. 17 (1828). Also “The law does not suppose any such person to exist as an Irish Roman Catholic, nor could such a person draw breath without the Crown's permission;" (London-born, Ascendancy Lord Chancellor of Ireland John Bowes, 1st Baron Bowes; 1691 – 22 July 1767). 220


10 George IV. C.7 (1829)


Enacted in 32 and 33 Victoria, c.42 (1869)

In 1948 local old men recounted to me how they had to work on a WillsSandford project for ten pence per day (the approximate cost of a day’s food sustenance for one person at the time, though the rate was sixpence during the Holocaust). 223


Library Ireland; A Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878.



Horace Wyndham: SPERANZA: A Biography of Lady Wilde. London: Boardman & Co. 1951 ps. 197-204 226


Ibid; ps. 205-239.


See>Sir William Wilde.

Regularly reported in The (London) Times; e.g. Nov. 5, 1846, July 24, 1847, and Limerick Intelligencer of July 28, 1848. 229


Tables of Deaths, Vol. I, 1851 p.243


Liz Curtis: Ireland: the Propaganda War. London. Pluto Press 1984 p.224

Horace Wyndham: SPERANZA; a Biography of Lady Wilde. London & NY. Boardman & Co. 1951. p. 81 232


On line: Cambridge Journals Medical History, p. 308


Kinealy; A Death-Dealing Famine, p. 119

Elizabeth Harris: George Moore: “The Little Catholic Boy of that Name. EireIreland (Spring, 1980) p.64 235


Cormac O Grada’s “famine” book quoted by Kinealy in her review of it in

Fortnight magazine, April, 1990.


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

Fox, J.A. A Key to the Irish Question; (1890) Speeches/Writings of British Statesmen. Available in its entirety on the Internet. Fin 237


Current Archaeology (4/4/13) an excerpt.


The Workhouses of Ireland, by John O’Connor.


Told to me by Johnny Croghan, schoolmate, friend, and excavation contractor of that residential development. Interim Catalogue of the papers of Geo.W.F.Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, 1820-1870, etc. A.4.2.b. Letter-boxes, out letters. 1847-1852. 5July1847 – 30Nov. 1847.Shelfmark Ms. Clar.dep.Irish vol. 1. Bodleian Library, Oxford Univ. 241

A Comprehensive Guide to Locating British Regiments and Their Records 1640WWI; Vol. II, John M. Kitzmiller II. (1988) which was highly recommended by Britain’s Public Record Office staff and purchased there. 242



The Connaught Rangers (88th of Foot) was disbanded after its 1920 mutiny in India in response to Britain’s Black and Tan reign of terror in Ireland. When its commander in India, addressing the regiment, cited battle honors won by the regiment and called for loyalty, Pvt. James Daly had stepped forward and said, “All those battle-honors were won for England. There is none for Ireland; but there is going to be one today, and it’s going to be the greatest honor of them all.” Soon thereafter, on November 2, 1920, Daly, 22, raised near Ballymoe, Co. Galway, was executed by firing squad in Dagsai, India; more than sixty of his Irish colleagues were given long prison sentences, and the 127-year-old regiment was disbanded. THE CONNAUGHT RANGERS, by T.P. Kilfeather (1969). 244

See Exhibit E3. As in all British-occupied countries there were few jobs for the indigenous population other than as soldiers, spies, police, prison guards and servants of all kinds. After serving in Australia where he escorted gold from the Bendigo and Ballarat mines into the Gold Room in Melbourne, and fighting in the 1860-1863 Maori wars in New Zealand, he was sent to the Calcutta suburb of DumDum (where he and his fellows learned to file their bullet points flat). He retired in 1881 the year that Britain abandoned the cat-o’-nine-tails as a means of military discipline. A few years later he met and married Bridget Culleton who had a bit of land on which they raised eight children with the help of his army pension of £3 5/(three pounds, five shillings) per quarter. 245



Parliamentary Papers (though Thom’s Directory of Ireland, page 177, claims 12,212 on 31Dec1848). Googleable.Approximately corroborated by History Ireland’s “The Irish Constabulary in the Great Famine.” 247


History Ireland op. cit.


Google the hilarious (and informative) The Peeler and the Goat.

The IRA killed 418 RIC in 1920-21 alone, including my 1st cousin once removed, Luke Finnegan R.I.P. in Thurles on January 20, 1920. His brothers resigned. As in all occupied countries, livelihoods for indigenous people were essentially limited to serving the occupiers. Thus, in Ireland the main paid occupations were as police, soldiers, jailers, herds, spies, rent collectors, tithe proctors, gardeners, propagandists, grooms, kennel keepers, gate-keepers, stablemen, and the women as cooks, cleaners, spinsters, nannies and nurses. 250

Due to their hurried deployments they were issued mismatched jackets and trousers; one army-khaki, the other police-black, thus were named for a Tipperary pack of hounds. When news of their barbarity in Ireland in 1920 reached Britain’s Irish-formed 88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers) in India, its 1st battalion in Jullundur and Solan mutinied. They attacked their Solan base armory for more weapons and ammunition. Two, Patrick Smith and Peter Sears, were killed during the attack. Sixty were imprisoned of whom fourteen were sentenced to death; but only Pvt. James Daly from Ballymoe, Co. Galway and Tyrellspass, Co. Westmeath, was executed (by firing squad in Dagsai prison). The others, after serving prison sentences, were released and the regiment was permanently disbanded. (The Connaught Rangers by T.P. Kilfeather). 251


The Hawkins family crest is Exhibit E7.

Carrigan, Rev. Wm’s. The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Ossory, Vol. 1, p. 146. 253




Publisher: London: Printed and published at the Times Office, by F. Goodlake, 1880. Reprinted by the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. The Brittle Books Project, 2012. 256

Webster’s New International Dictionary, 2nd Edition.


H.D. Inglis’s Ireland in 1834; A Journey Throughout Ireland…page 72


Mott Souders: The Engineer’s Companion. New York: John Wiley 1966 p. 405


J.A Jordan, The Grosse Ile Tragedy, p. 74.


H.D. Inglis, p. 72.


Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary


Ireland 1845-1850: The Perfect Holocaust and Who Kept it “Perfect”

T.A. Jackson’s Ireland Her Own, page 87, and throughout the official reports of the Food Removal. clxxvi


Ireland and the Pope. P. 91.

H.D. Inglis’ op. cit. page 72. In the 1940s and 1950s a sack of flour locally (western Ireland) was always 10 stone (140 lb.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY Authors of highly recommended works are underlined. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are in my personal library and available to students. C. Fogarty

Pre-Holocaust Ireland Adams, John Quincy (6th U.S Pres.) Dermot Mac Morrogh, or the Conquest of Ireland (1832)* Also Googleable. Amory, Thomas Coffin: Transfer of Erin; or the Acquisition of Ireland by England. US General Books 1877/2009.* “An Emigrant Milesian:” The Irish Abroad and at Home. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1856. The profligacy of the landlords.* Annual Register or a View of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year London: J. Dodsley 1786.* Barnard, Toby: A New Anatomy of Ireland; the Irish Protestants, 1649-1770 2003. Protestant Supremacist. Admirer of genocide.* Bartlett, Dawson, Keogh: The 1798 Rebellion. Boulder, CO; Roberts Rinehart 1998. Pre-Pre-Holocaust conditions.* Blum, Jerome: The European Peasantry from the 15th to the 19th Century. The American Historical Association; Service Center for Teachers of History 1960. On page 26 Blum falsely writes; “From the end of the 1780s to the early 1860s, the old agrarian structure had vanished everywhere in Europe.” Perhaps, by “Europe,” Blum means continental Europe. In 1880 British forces were still evicting en masse in Ireland.* Bradshaw, Brendan The Dissolution of the Religious Orders in Ireland Under Henry VIII. (1973) (portion of)* Burke, Edmund: On Taste, On the Sublime and Beautiful; Reflections on the French Revolution; A letter to a Noble Lord. New York: P.F.Collier & Son Corporation 1937. Despite Burke’s famous description of the Penal Laws, his philosophy was construed as supportive of landlordism in Ireland and monarchy in general. Meanwhile, the writings of Burke’s historic opponent, Thomas Paine, had fueled the American Revolution, and many believe that his The Rights of Man refuted Burke’s “Reflections…”* “ , “ : The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, Vol. VII. Boston: Little, Brown 1889.* Burke, Very Rev. Thomas: English Misrule in Ireland. New York: Lynch, Cole & Meehan 1873. Refutes British Historian James A. Froude.*


Mary Fogarty

Lisnabinnia Map

Ireland-1845-1850_-The-Perfect-Holocaust-and-Who-Kept-it-Perfect Flipbook PDF - PDF Free Download (2024)


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